RECORD: Sharpe, Richard Bowdler. 1906. 3. Birds, pp. 79-515. In [Lankester, E.R., ed.]. The history of the collections contained in the natural history departments of the British Museum. 2. Separate historical accounts of the several collections included in the Department of Zoology. [i-iii], [1]-782. London.

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed (single key) by AEL Data 2012. RN1


[title page]

THE HISTORY

OF THE

COLLECTIONS

CONTAINED IN THE

NATURAL HISTORY DEPARTMENTS

OF THE

BRITISH MUSEUM

BIRDS

BY

R. BOWDLER SHARPE, LL.D.,

ASSISTANT KEEPER, DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY, BRITISH MUSEUM.

1906.

[page break]

[page 79]

3. BIRDS.

BY R. BOWDLER SHARPE.

I. GENERAL SKETCH.

SIR HANS SLOANE'S Museum undoubtedly formed the groundwork on which the great Zoological Collection of the British Museum was founded. In 1753 the number of ornithological specimens was stated to be 1,172; these, however, were not all mounted birds, but contained many fragmentary specimens, such as Hornbill's heads, and odd bones. His collection of zoological objects could never have been of the same importance as his Herbarium (cf. Hist. Coll., vol. i., Botany, p. 81), or even of his collection of minerals (cf. Hist. Coll., Minerals, pp. 355, 356), and, as far as I know, not a single specimen of a bird from the Sloane Collection now exists in the Museum. All have perished.

Many specimens procured during Captain Cook's voyages were either in the Banksian Collection or in the British Museum, or were supposed to be there. These specimens have also perished, the reason probably being that they were inadequately prepared, were always mounted, and, from a lack of appreciation of their priceless value, were allowed to decay, through a want of proper curatorial knowledge. In Latham's "General Synopsis of Birds" (1781–1785) are mentioned a great number of species described from specimens in the British Museum, not one of which now survives.

There is apparently but one relic of the birds obtained by Captain Cook, viz. a Tree Starling, Aplonis ulietensis, which has persisted in a kind of mummified state to the present day, after having been mounted and exposed to the dust and light of the old British Museum for nearly a century.

The Montagu Collection of British birds was purchased by the nation in 1816. Colonel Montagu, who had corresponded with Gilbert White, was a first-rate ornithologist in his day. Not one of his specimens was properly prepared—apparently no preservative worthy of the name having been used—and I have felt the greatest anxiety as to the preserving of the relics of this ancient British collection. The bones of the neck and other bones of the body were left in the specimens, which were set up by no means

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badly. During the thirty years that they have been under my care, many have been attacked by small mites (in spite of the camphor-laden atmosphere of the cases) and have fallen to pieces. Notwithstanding all the efforts of the Museum taxidermists, it has seldom been possible to dismount any specimens from the Montagu Collection, and they have mostly been transferred bodily to the cabinets of skins. Owing to the specimens having no preservative, many of them, especially the fat and heavy ones, fell to pieces from their own weight in course of time. This was regrettably the case with the British-killed Great Bustard (Otis tarda) which collapsed a few years ago.

The method of preserving specimens in Montagu's time can best be imagined by reading the "short directions" given by Johann Reinhold Forster, "for collecting, preserving, and transporting all kinds of Natural History Curiosities." These directions are appended to Forster's "Catalogue of the Animals of North America, containing an Enumeration of the known Quadrupeds, Birds, Reptiles, Fish, Insects, Crustaceous and Testaceous Animals; many of which are new and never described before." This scarce little pamphlet was published in 1771 by Benjamin White, Gilbert White's eldest brother, at "Horace's Head, in Fleet Street." A reproduction of this pamphlet, from a copy in Professor Newton's possession, was published by the Willughby Society in 1882.

It may be interesting to give Forster's "short directions" for preserving a bird, as it explains the method in vogue in his time, and it is not to be wondered at that specimens, so treated, decayed in the course of a century:—"Birds must be opened at the vent, their entrails, lungs, and craws taken out, washed with the preparing liquor, strewed with the preparing powder, stuffed with the prepared oakhum or tow; their plumage kept clean during the operation, sewed up with thread steeped in the preparing liquor; the eyes taken out, with the tongue, and both places washed with the same liquor; the mouth must be filled with prepared tow in great birds, the eyes filled up with putty, and, when dry, painted with oil-colour after the natural colour of live birds, of the same species, and then dried in an oven; however, as there is all the meat on the bird left, care must be taken not to take too plump or too fat birds, and dry them slowly under the same precaution as mentioned No. 1 [Quadrupeds]. The operation must be repeated till the bird be perfectly dry. The attitude may be given to the bird before he be put in the oven,

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by wires that are sharp on one end and thrusted through the bird's legs, body, breast, and neck, and others going through the wings and body. Small birds are likewise well preserved in brandy, rack, or rum; and when arrived at their place of destination they must be washed and sweetened in fresh water for several times, and lastly dipped in the preparing liquor, the plumage laid in order, the attitude given to the bird by wires, and then dried. Care must be taken to kill the birds with shot proportioned to their size, and at a reasonable distance, that the specimen may not be mangled and torn. Young birds which have not yet moulted must not be taken; but old birds in full feather, and, if possible, a specimen of each sex; for the sexes often vary very much in size, feather, and colour. The nests of birds and their eggs would likewise contribute towards perfecting the history of this branch in zoology."

The "liquor" was thus composed: "An ounce of Sal Ammoniac, dissolved in a quart of water, in which afterwards two ounces of corrosive sublimate Mercury must be put, or four ounces of Arsenic may be boiled in two quarts or two quarts and a half of water, till all or the greater part of it be dissolved, and the liquor may serve for the same purpose to wash the inside of the skin: then the whole cavity must be stuffed with oakhum or tow, likewise imbibed with the same liquor, afterwards dried and mixed with a powder of four parts of Tobacco-sand, four parts of pounded black Pepper, one part of burnt Alum, and one part of corrosive Sublimate or Arsenic." No wonder that specimens thus treated fell to pieces in course of time, and it is doubtful whether the birds of Colonel Montagu's Collection had even this amount of preservative bestowed upon them.

Professor Newton can remember old Montague House, as it stood before the present British Museum took its place. Two of our attendants, Mr. Edward Gerrard and Mr. John Saunders, actually served in the time of the old building; and in the old brew-house of the estate, which stood on the west of the present Museum boundary, in Great Russell Street, the coppers were used by them for boiling the skeletons of seals and other large mammals from the Parry, Ross, and Franklin Expeditions. Mr. Saunders tells me that the painted ceilings and wall decorations mentioned below were bought, on the demolition of the original house, by the lodge-keeper, a shrewd old man named Sivier, who had been butler to the celebrated Lord Lyndhurst. He re-sold them, and made a good bit of money by the trans-

VOL. II. G

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action. Montague House, where the collections were first installed, was a large mansion, standing in its own grounds, with a high brick wall surrounding it. The oil-paintings which hung in the old Bird-Gallery at Bloomsbury had been on the walls in Montague House, within Mr. Gerrard's recollection. The specimens were all mounted in cases round the sides of the rooms, as well as in pier-cases and table-cases down the centre of the latter.

In 1845 the present British Museum at Bloomsbury was completed, and a large series of birds, forming undoubtedly the best public gallery of the age, was placed on view. These specimens suffered to some extent from light, but more from soot and dust, which penetrated the wall-cases from behind, the wood-work being split from too close proximity to the coils of the heating apparatus.

The Zoological Department was only slowly expanded from the days of Sir Joseph Banks. Solander, who accompanied Banks during Cook's first voyage (1768–71) had been made successively an Assistant, Assistant-Keeper, and Keeper, of the Natural History Departments. Shaw, König, Leach, and Children had succeeded him as Assistant-Keepers and Keepers, and most of them were efficient and zealous men. In 1824 John Edward Gray became an Assistant, and in 1840 he was made Keeper of the Zoological Department, a post which he held for 34 years. The Assistant in charge of the birds was George Robert Gray, his brother, who entered the Museum in 1831, and was Assistant-Keeper from 1869 to 1872, when he died in harness.

During the 34 years that Dr. J. E. Gray reigned over the Zoological Department, immense progress in the development of the collections took place, not merely as the results of surveying voyages, such as those of the Rattlesnake, Erebus and Terror, and many others; but the increase was mostly due to the extra-ordinary energy of Dr. Gray, who set himself the task of making his department the foremost in the world. He has never received full credit for his exertions, for he had to fight against much prejudice within the Museum walls, and when the grants for purchases had been expended, he would freely spend his own money in buying specimens which he deemed to be of importance to the collection. It must be remembered that in the early days of the nineteenth century, England occupied but a poor position from a zoological standpoint, and France was at the zenith of her fame as regards exploration and the encouragement of science. Paris, Berlin, Leyden, were all increasing their zoological collections,

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and England was put to the test to keep pace with the progress of the Continental museums. That this country held its own so well is undoubtedly due to the enthusiasm of John Edward Gray.

His brother, George Robert Gray, was a man of a totally different stamp, of much quieter temperament, and not moved to strenuous exertion; he had, moreover, no acquaintance with the habits of birds, and Professor Newton (Dict. Birds, Intr., p. 30) describes him correctly as a "thoroughly conscientious clerk." This he certainly was, as he worked assiduously in a clerk-like manner, with a clear comprehension of the compilation of synonymy, but he had no knowledge of birds in life. A story is told of him that, as he was being continually twitted about his ignorance of birds in the field, he one day hired a gun, and went into Hertfordshire to shoot birds. He was promptly arrested by a keeper for trespassing.

Whether the story be true or merely ben trovato, it is certain that George Gray had a working knowledge of birds from their skins, and during his long connection with the Zoological Department, he became acquainted with all the best Ornithologists of his time, so that, as the result of his own and their studies, the British Museum possessed a well-named, if a small, collection of birds. His greatest work was the "Genera of Birds," published in three folio volumes, long ago out of print and now much enhanced in price. The work was arranged on the old Cuvierian classification, with its rostral system, Tenuirostres, Fissirostres, etc., but the characters of families and genera were detailed, with a list of the species known up to the time of publication. Illustrations were given of the generic characters of birds, most of these being drawn by D. W. Mitchell, who was subsequently Secretary of the Zoological Society. Mitchell also executed most of the coloured plates for Gray's work, but a few were done by Josef Wolf, who had not long before come to England, but who was already taking his place as the greatest natural-history artist the world has ever seen.

As a Museum curator it is possible that Gray did the collections some harm, but for this the system of management then in vogue was chiefly responsible, even if he cannot be entirely acquitted of a want of judgment. It was the custom, not only in the British Museum, but in every other museum in Europe, to mount every specimen of value in the public galleries: the more valuable the specimen, the more was it exposed in the gallery, there to perish. The idea of the officers in charge of the

G 2

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Mammals and Birds was that the public demanded to see all the rare and unique specimens, and it is equally certain that some donors made a great fuss if their specimens were not all exhibited. The consequences were absurd. When I began to unmount the historical specimens in the Bird-gallery, I found in one case eleven specimens of an Eagle, all young birds in the same plumage, and from the same country, mounted in a row, and where one of the birds had lost a leg, the want was supplied by a wire substitute. Not one of the eleven specimens gave a proper idea of the bird in life. In those days there were no explanatory labels, and the public wandered about the galleries, fatigued with the sameness of the exhibitions provided, from which they could learn nothing, nor was any attempt made to teach them. My own experience, as a boy, was that, in the bird-section at least, a student was an unwelcome visitor, and his appearance on the scene resented. This was certainly my own case, for I had always but a short time to spare, as it was seldom that I could get leave of absence from the Zoological Society, even for an hour. I therefore always took the precaution to write to Mr. G. R. Gray two or three days beforehand, to ask him to have the specimens ready for me to compare when I arrived, so that the time of both of us might be saved. These precautions were often useless; the visitor was informed on arrival that there was a Trustees' meeting to be prepared for, or some other function intervening, to prevent the Curator from attending to the visitor, who was then told to see what he could through the glass in the gallery, the Curator arriving with the keys of the cases about half an hour later. When one wanted to examine any unmounted specimens, these were to be found in wooden boxes, a hundred or more skins huddled together, so that it was often necessary to turn out the whole contents of the box on the table to search for a particular specimen. In this way the plumage of the birds was ruffled, the legs and wings torn off, and great injury to the skins resulted.

It was undoubtedly this want of management on the part of the Museum Curators that led to the formation of the great private collections in the nineteenth century. It was on these that all the sound ornithological work of this country was based, and no one cared to visit the British Museum, unless he were forced to do so for the purpose of examining some special type or historical specimen.

After the publication of his very useful "Handlist of

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Birds," in which Gray focussed all his knowledge acquired since the "Genera of Birds" had been published, he conceived the idea of labelling the collection of birds'-skins according to the nomenclature of the "Handlist." He commenced by having some labels printed with a "Handlist No." attached, and he then proceded to tranfer the localities, etc., of the specimens (or what he imagined to be these particulars) from the original labels on to the "Handlist" labels, snipping off the collectors' tickets, which were at the same time destroyed. Only one box of birds had been thus treated by Gray, viz., the genus Pratincola, when his death took place, and the collection was saved! These remarks are not made in any spirit of unkindness, for Gray was no worse than any other curator of his time. At the same period Schlegel was mounting every specimen as it came into the great collection at Leyden, and the same system is pursued to this day in some Museums, so that every specimen, however rare or of historical value, is doomed to destruction: it is only a question of time. A mounted specimen may last six months or fifty years—according to the precautions which are taken by the officers in charge of the museum to exclude the light—but the result is inevitable, and the specimen sooner or later becomes bleached and deteriorated.

When I entered the service of the Museum in 1872, Dr. John Edward Gray was still Keeper of the Zoological Department, and Dr. Günther was Assistant-Keeper. A new era in the administration was about to commence. The "Catalogue of Birds" was undertaken in a similar form to Dr. Günther's celebrated "Catalogue of Fish," and it is certain that the completion of the Bird Catalogue is due to his excellent management and administration. The work took 24 years to complete, and ran to 27 volumes, which were written by eleven different authors, as has been amusingly recorded by Dr. Sclater in the introduction to the "Avium Generum Index Alphabeticus," forming vol. ix. of the "Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club."

"De Catalogi Avium Magni Scriptoribus undecim."

"Sharpius incepit scripsitque volumina multa;
Seebohmus sequitur, promptus ad auxilium.
Teutonicus, zelo plenus, venit inde Gadovus,
Salvinusque bonam præbet amicus opem.
Jam Sclaterus adest, tria longa volumina complens
Americanarum notus amans avium.

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Expers Hargittus nunc Picos ordinat omnes,
Hartertusque sagax Cypselidas numerat.
Multum etiam pensæ Shelleyi profuit ardor,
Multum Saundersi mens operosa dedit.
Clarus ab Italia jam Salvadorius adstat,
Et tandem Grantus fine coronat opus."

When I first came to London, in 1863, I was full of enthusiasm for ornithology, and by the time that I was appointed the first Librarian of the Zoological Society in 1867, I was already writing my "Monograph of the Alcedinidæ," and had occasionally to visit the British Museum to examine types and specimens of rare Kingfishers. No one of the present generation, who visits the Zoological Department at the present time, can have any conception of the difficulties under which we worked in the days of the old British Museum. At the end of the Egyptian Gallery there was a series of rooms, to which one descended by some downward steps in a dark corner. The rooms in which the members of the Zoological Department worked, had been originally intended for cellars or store-rooms—windows had to be knocked in the walls—and in the gloom of this underground dungeon many of the Catalogues of the collections were compiled. In this "Insect room," as it was called, the assistants were crowded together, and there was no space for spreading out any series of birds for study.

It was under such circumstances that the "Catalogue of Birds" was begun. Dr. Sclater, in reviewing one of my early volumes of this work, commenced his article as follows (Nature, vol. 16, 1877, pp. 541–542): "If the visitor to the British Museum will pause at the foot of the staircase leading up to the Paleontological gallery and look carefully into the obscurity in the right hand corner he will perceive a door with a brass plate on one side of it. On entering this door and descending (with care) a flight of darkened steps, he will find himself in the cellar, which has for many years constituted the workshop of our national zoologists. Two small studies partitioned off to the left are assigned to the keeper of the department and his first assistant. The remaining naturalists are herded together in one apartment commonly called the 'Insect-room,' along with artists, messengers, and servants. Into this room is shewn everybody who has business in the Zoological Department of the British Museum, whether he comes as student to examine

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the collections, or as a tradesman to settle an account. Amid the perpetual interruptions thus caused, our national zoologist has to pursue his work.

"Some of the specimens are here, some in the galleries overhead, and some are stored away in cellars at a still lower depth than that in which he sits at work. The library attached to the department contains merely some of the most obvious books of reference; all others have to be obtained on loan from the great national depository of books in the centre of the building. No lights are allowed, and when the fogs of winter set in, the obscurity is such that it is difficult to see any object requiring minute examination.

Under these circumstances, which we trust to see materially altered when the zoological collections are moved to their new home in South Kensington, it is more than creditable to our zoologists that they should have turned out the large amount of scientific work that has issued from their department of the British Museum during the past thirty years."

The collections of Bird-skins were packed in boxes, which were arranged in book-cases, some round the wall of the Assistant-Keeper's study, others in the dark passage by which the Insect-room was approached. As the collection of big birds increased, larger wooden boxes were provided, which were placed in racks in the same outside passage, and in the recesses behind the Bird-gallery upstairs, each box requiring two men to carry it; but these larger boxes were constructed after Gray's death, with a view to the transference of the collection from Bloomsbury to South Kensington. Some idea of the increase in the collection of Bird-skins between the years 1872 and 1883 may be gained from the fact that, in the former year, the specimens of Birds of Prey, or Accipitres, occupied only a few wooden boxes, and were all contained within a single book-case in the Insect-room passage. Eleven years later, when they were removed to South Kensington, these birds occupied 108 boxes, measuring 3 × 1 ¾ × 1 ft., each requiring two men to lift it. They now fill thirty great cabinets, extending down one entire side of the Bird-room in the Natural History Museum.

I have no exact record of the number of specimens of birds and their eggs which existed in 1872, when I took over the charge of the collections, but I should reckon the mounted birds at about 10,000, the skins and eggs at the most 20,000 more, so that an estimate of the total number of specimens at 35,000 is

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probably excessive. The number at the present day cannot be less than 400,000, including 100,000 eggs.

By the time of Dr. Günther's accession to the Keepership of the Department, a great improvement in the tone of the latter had taken place. The accounts were more regularly kept, and the expenditure of the following financial year was not mortgaged in advance, as had been so often the case in previous years. The new Keeper showed great vigour in ameliorating the condition of the public galleries, replacing the bleached and faded specimens by well mounted examples. A particular feature of his administration was the introduction of a series of British birds and their nests, mounted so as to represent the actual surroundings of the latter. This was a scheme which I had always had much at heart, and the first of these natural groups was that of the Coots, which I procured at Avington Park in Hampshire—parent birds, nest, and eggs—the whole group being presented to the Museum by my old friend, Sir Edward Shelley. A few groups were presented by Mr. Theodore Walker, of Leicester, but the bulk of the birds and nests were obtained for the Museum by Lord Walsingham, to whom the public owes a deep debt of gratitude. One feature of these exhibitions of "British birds in their haunts" is not generally known. In each case the scene is as nearly a reproduction of the actual facts as could be attained. The birds that actually built the nest and laid the eggs are there, and the bush or tree, the herbage and the flowers, are also reproduced, as they were on the day when the nest was taken. Although America has claimed the services of one of the ladies who did the reproduction of the leaves and flowers, we can still command the services of other clever ladies who are adepts at modelling foliage, so that the counterfeit leaves and flowers can scarcely be distinguished from the actual living plants. Dr. Günther determined from the first to reproduce nothing but the actual facts, so as to give, as far as possible, a true life-picture of the birds as they were in life. Thus specimens in their worn nesting plumage have not been replaced by handsomer birds which did not belong to the actual nest. This much, therefore, can be claimed for the Museum series of British birds and their nests, that the cases represent faithfully the actual conditions as they existed on the day when the nests were discovered.

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In the earlier days of the British Museum there does not seem to have been any attempt to issue an authentic Guide-book as to its contents. An anonymous author published a little work in 1761, entitled "The General Contents of the British Museum: with Remarks. Serving as a Directory in viewing that Noble Cabinet." Two editions of this book (1761, 1762) were printed for R. and J. Dodsley, in Pall Mall. The remarks on the bird collections are of no importance.

We are, therefore, only able to gain some idea of the extent of these early collections from the "General Synopsis of Birds," compiled by the celebrated ornithologist, Dr. John Latham, of Dartford. In this great work, consisting of three volumes (each in two parts, making six volumes in all), with two Supplements, he describes all the birds known to him, and bestows an English name on each, many of these names being still accepted in popular parlance at the present day. The great value of Latham's book, as a history, consists in the fact that he indicated the species existing in the British Museum at the end of the 18th century, so that we are able to compile a tolerably complete record of the contents of the Bird-room in the first days of the British Museum.

Latham separates Birds into two Divisions, viz. LAND BIRDS (Vols. i.–ii., 1781–1783), and WATER BIRDS (Vol. iii., 1785); each volume being in two parts.

His object was to give a complete list of known birds, with descriptions and synonymy. He included all the species mentioned by Buffon in his "Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux," and followed Ray in his primary division of the class into "Land" and "Water" Birds. He also determined to adhere to Linnean Genera, except in a few cases, and proclaimed his scheme in his "Preface" (p. iv) as follows:—

"In these sheets will be found near four times the number of birds mentioned in the "Systema Naturæ"; the additions to which will be drawn from the authors which have appeared since that publication, added to a great number of species not mentioned before by anyone. This we shall be enabled to do from the numerous collections in Natural History which have been formed of late years in England, and in which, in course, a multitude of new subjects have been introduced from various parts of the world, but more especially within these few years from the indefatigable researches of those who have made so great discoveries in the Southern Ocean."

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Speaking of the museums of his day, he adds this note:— "Among these, the magnificent one at Leicester House, formed by Sir Ashton Lever, ought to be particularly mentioned, as likewise the favours received from the inspection of numerous subjects, the produce of the last and the former voyages to the South Seas, in the possession of Jos. Banks, Esq., P.R.S., Soho Square."

"It will be necessary, however, to remark that, on account of the uncertainty of the return of the last circumnavigating ships, the Accipitrine order, here first published, was printed off before their arrival in England, by which means a few new species of the Falcon genus have been excluded from their place. This has of necessity obliged us to introduce them by means of duplicate pages, marked with an asterisk."

The preface is signed by Latham as from Dartford, on the 1st of January, 1781. The book was published by Benjamin White, the elder brother of Gilbert White. The latter, however, does not seem to have ever met Latham personally, though Latham was acquainted with Pennant, by correspondence at least.

It will be seen from the above preface that Latham was specially indebted for some of his descriptions to the Leverian Museum and the Banksian Collections. Some of the species are stated to be in the "Tower Menagerie" and in the "Royal Society's Museum," as well as in his own collection. Some field-notes were given to him by Dr. Solander and Dr. Johann Reinhold Forster, on their return from Capt. Cook's voyages.

The following species are recorded by Latham as being in the British Museum:—

DIVISION I. LAND BIRDS.

King Vulture. Vol. i., p. 7 (= Gyparchus papa [L.]).
Carrion Vulture, p. 9 (= Cathartes aura [L.]).
Sea-Eagle, p. 30 (= Haliaëtus albicilla [L.]).

"This species was also met with in Botany Island by Captain Cook." The bird observed by the latter must have been an immature Haliaëtus leucogaster.

Spotted Eagle, p. 38 (= Aquila maculata, Gm.).
Osprey, p. 45 (= Pandion haliaëtus [L.]).
New Zealand Falcon, p. 57 (= Harpa noræ zealandiæ [Gm.]).
Goshawk, p. 58 (= Astur palumbarius [L.]).

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Kite, p. 64 (= Milvus milvus [L.]).
Surinam Falcon, p. 84 (= Falco sufflator, L.).
Kestril, p. 94 (= Cerchneis tinnunculus [L.]).
Sparrow Hawk, p. 99 (= Accipiter nisus [L.]).
Hobby p. 103 (= Falco subbuteo, L.).
Orange-breasted Hobby, n. sp., p. 105 (= Falco aurantius, Gm.).
Merlin, p. 107 (= Falco æsalon, Tunst.).

The species of Owls mentioned by Latham as being in the British Museum were the following:—

*Eared Owls. Vol. i., p. 116.

Great-Eared Owl, p. 116 (= Bubo bubo [L.]).
Red-Eared Owl, p. 123 (= Pisorhina asio [L.]).
Short-Eared Owl, p. 124 (= Asio accipitrinus [Pall.]).

**With smooth heads. Vol. i., p. 132.

Snowy Owl, p. 132 (= Nyctea nyctea [L.]).
Cinereous Owl, n. sp., p. 134 (= Scotiaptex cinerea [Gm.])
White Owl, p. 138 (= Strix flammea, L.).
Tawny Owl, p. 139 (= Syrnium aluco [L.]).
Brown Owl, p. 140 (= Syrnium aluco [L.]).
Little Owl, p. 150 (= Athene noctua [Scop.]).

In ORDER II., the Pies (Vol. i., part i., p. 153), are mentioned the following Shrikes as being in the British Museum:—

Great Cinereous Shrike, p. 160 (= Lanius excubitor, L.).
Red-backed Shrike, p. 167 (= Lanius collurio, L.).
Tyrant Shrike, p. 184 (= Tyrannus pipiri, Vieill.).
Pied Shrike, p. 190 (= Thamuophilus doliatus [L.]).
Spotted Shrike, p. 190 (= Thamnophilus nævius [Gm.]).
†Dusty Shrike, p. 191 (= Lanius obscurus, Gm.).
†Brown Shrike, p. 191 (= Lanius fuscus, Gm.).

Genus v. PARROT. Vol. i., p. 199.

With uneven tails.

Blue-bellied Parrot, p. 213 (= Trichoglossus novæ hollandiæ [Gm.]).
Rose-ringed Parrakeet, p. 235 (= Palæornis torquata [Bodd.]).

† These two appear to be species of Formicariidæ, but they have not as yet been identified.

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With tails even at the end. Vol. i., p. 256.

Ash-coloured Parrot, p. 261 (= Psittacus erithacus, L.).
White-breasted Parrot, p. 305 (= Caica mclanocephala [L.]).
Red-headed Guinea Parrakeet, p. 309 (= Agapornis pullaria [L.]).
Sapphire-crowned Parrakeet, p. 312 (= Loriculus galgulus [L.]).
Chestnut-crowned Parrakeet, p. 314 (= Pyrrhura picta [P. L. S. Müll.]).
Purple-tailed Parrakeet, p. 315 (= Urochroma purpurata [Gm.]).
Grey-headed Parrakeet, p. 315 (= Agapornis cana [Gm.]).
Black-winged Parrakeet, p. 316 (= Urochroma cingulata [Scop.]).

Genus vi. TOUCAN. Vol. i., pt. i., p. 323.

Yellow-breasted Toucan, p. 326 (= Rhamphastos tucanus [Gm.]).

Latham's description agrees well (with the exception of the upper tail-coverts) with Rhamphastos ariel of Vigors (Zool. Journ., ii., p. 466, pl. xv.). Although Latham says that he saw the species in the British Museum, one could almost imagine that he had based his description on Daubenton's plate, no. 307, "Toucan à gorge jaune du Brésil," a reference to which does not appear in the "Catalogue of Birds." Still nearer, however, do the plate and description agree with Rhamphastus osculans, Gould, which must probably be superseded by R. tucanus (Gm.).

Green Toucan, p. 331 (= Pteroglossus viridis [L.]).

"Toucan verd, de Cayenne," Daubenton, pl. 727, and "Femelle du Toucan verd, de Cayenne," Daubenton, pl. 728. Latham himself quotes these plates of Daubenton.

Genus vii. MOTMOT. Vol. i., pt. i., p. 337.

Brasilian Motmot, p. 338 (= Momotus momota [L.]). Cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xvii., p. 319 (1892).

Genus viii. HORNBILL. Vol. i., pt. i., p. 341.

Philippine Hornbill, p. 345 (= Dichoceros bicornis [L.]). Cf. Ogilvie Grant, Cat. B., xvii., p. 355.

Genus ix. BEEF-EATER. Vol. i., pt. i., p. 359.

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Genus x. ANI. Vol. i., pt. i., p. 360.

Lesser Ani, p. 360 (= Crotophaga ani [L.]). Cf. Shelley, Cat. B., xix., p. 429 (1891).

Genus xi. WATTLE-BIRD. Vol. i., pt. i., p. 364.

Genus xii. CROW. Vol. i., pt. i., p. 366.

Raven, p. 367 (= Corvus corax, L.).
Carrion Crow, p. 370 (= Corone corone [L.]).
Rook, p. 372 (= Trypanocorax frugilegus [L.]).
Hooded Crow, p. 374 (= Corone cornix [L.]).
Jackdaw, p. 378 (= Colœus monedula [L.]).
Jay, p. 384 (= Garrulus glandarius [L.]).
Blue Jay, p. 386 (= Cyanocitta cristata [L.]).
Magpie, p. 392 (= Pica pica [L.]).
Nutcracker, p. 400 (= Nucifraga caryocatactcs [L.]).
Red-legged Crow, p. 401 (= Graculus graculus [L.]).

Genus xiii. ROLLER. Vol. i., pt. i., p. 405.

Garrulus Roller, p. 406 (= Coracias garrulus, L.).
*Blue Roller, p. 412 (= Coracias cærulea, Gm.).
*Ultramarine Roller, p. 413 (= Coracias cyanea, Gm.).

Genus xiv. ORIOLE. Vol. i., pt. ii., p. 417 (1782).

Red-winged Oriole, p. 428 (= Agelæus phœniceus [L.]).
Baltimore Oriole, p. 432 (= Icterus baltimore [L.]).
White-winged Oriole, p. 440 (= Tachyphonus melaleucus [Sparrm.], Oriolus leucopterus, Gm., pt.).
Black Oriole, p. 445 (= Quisculus niger [Bodd.]).
Golden Oriole, p. 449 (= Oriolus galbula, L.).

Genus xv. GRAKLE. Vol. i., pt. ii., p. 455.

Minor Grakle, p. 455 (= Eulabes religiosus [L.]).
Boat-tailed Grakle, p. 460 (= Quiscalus crassirostris [Sw.]).
Purple Grakle, p. 462 (= Quiscalus versicolor, Vieill.).

Genus xvi. PARADISE BIRD. Vol. i., pt. ii., p. 469.

Greater Paradise Bird, p. 471 (= Paradisca apoda [L.]).
King Paradise Bird, p. 475 (= Cicinnurus regius [L.]).

* These two species are apparently not true Rollers. I have not been able to determine the species with certainty, as the specimens have perished.

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Genus xvii. CURUCUI. Vol. i., pt. ii., p. 484.

Genus xviii. BARBET. Vol. i., pt. ii., p. 493.

Black-spotted Barbet, p. 496 (= Capito niger [P. L. S. Müll.]).
Black-throated Barbet, p. 501 (= Tricholæma leucomelan [Bodd.]).
Buff-faced Barbet, p. 504 (= Xantholæma hæmatocephala [Mull.]).

Genus xix. CUCKOW. Vol. i., pt. ii., p. 508.

Common Cuckow, p. 509 (= Cuculus canorus, L.).
Caroline Cuckow, p. 537 (= Coccyzus americanus [L.]).

Genus xx. WRYNECK. Vol. i., pt. ii., p. 547.

Wryneck, p. 548 (= Iynx torquilla, L.).

Genus xxi. WOODPECKER. Vol. i., pt. ii., p. 550.

With three toes.

Striped-bellied Woodpecker, p. 563 (? = Ceophlæus erythrops).
Greater-spotted Woodpecker, p. 564 (= Dendrocopus major [L.]).
Lesser-spotted Woodpecker, p. 566 (= Dendrocopus minor [L.]).
Yellow-bellied Woodpecker, p. 574 (= Sphyropicus varius [L.]).
Green Woodpecker, p. 577 (= Gecinus viridis [L.]).
Rufous Woodpecker, p. 594 (= Celeus rufus [Gm.]).
Gold-winged Woodpecker, p. 597 (= Colaptes auratus [L.]).
Northern Three-toed Woodpecker, p. 60 (= Picoides tridactylus [L.]).

Genus xxii. JACAMAR. Vol. 1., pt. ii., p. 603.

Green Jacamar, p. 603 (= Galbula viridis, Lath.).

Genus xxiii. KINGSFISHER. Vol. i., pt. ii., p. 550.

Common Kingsfisher, p. 626 (= Alcedo ispida, L.).

Genus xxiv. NUTHATCH. Vol. i., pt. ii., p. 647.

European Nuthatch, p. 648 (= Sitta europæa, L.).

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Genus xxv. TODY. Vol. i., pt. ii., p. 656.

Green Tody, p. 637 (= Todus viridis, L.).
Cinereus Tody, p. 658 (= Todirostrum cinereum [L.]).
Dusky Tody, p. 661 (= Contopus virens [L.]).

Genus xxvi. BEE-EATER. Vol. i., pt. ii., p. 666.

Common Bee-eater, p. 667 (= Merops apiaster, L.).

Genus xxvii. HOOPOE. Vol. i., pt. ii., p. 686.

Common Hoopoe, p. 687 (= Upupa epops, L.).

Genus xxviii. CREEPER. Vol. i., pt. ii., p. 698.

Common Creeper, p. 701 (= Certhia familiaris, L.).
Sickle-billed Creeper, p. 705 (= Cinnyris lotenia [L.]).
Black and Blue Creeper, p. 724 (= Cæreba cyanea [L.]).
Cinnamon Creeper, p. 740 (= Synallaxis cinnamomea [Gm.]).

Genus xxix. HUMMING-BIRD. Vol. i., pt. ii., p. 744.

With curved bills.

Supercilious Humming-bird, p. 744 (= Phaethornis superciliosus [L.]).
Black-capped Humming-bird, p. 748 (= Aithurus polytmus [L.]).
Mango Humming-bird, var. A, p. 759 (= Lampornis mango [L.]).
Harlequin Humming-bird, p. 760 (= Trochilus multicolor [Gm.]).

With straight bills.

Violet-eared Humming-bird, p. 767 (= Heliothrix auritus [Gm.]).
Violet-eared Humming-bird, var. A.
Red-throated Humming-bird, p. 769 (= Trochilus colubris, L.).
Dusky-crowned Humming-bird, p. 776 (= Clytolæma rubinea [Gm.]).
Grey-bellied Humming-bird, p. 778 (= Chrysolampis moschitus [L.]).
Crested Humming-bird, p. 783 (= Bellona cristata [L.]).
Crested Brown Humming-bird, p. 784 (= Trochiluspuniceus, Gm.).*

* Not referred to in "Catalogue of Birds."

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ORDER III. PASSERINE. Vol. ii., pt. i., p. 1 (1783).

Genus xxx. STARE. Vol. ii., pt. i., p. 1.

Common Stare, p. 2 (= Sturnus vulgaris, L.).
Crescent Stare, p. 6 (= Sturnella magna [L.]).

Genus xxxi. THRUSH. Vol. ii., pt. i., p. 13.

Missel Thrush, p. 16 (= Turdus viscivorus, L.).
Throstle Thrush, p. 18 (= Turdus musicus, L.).
Jamaica Thrush, p. 20 (= Turdus jamaicensis, Gm.).
Little Thrush, p. 20 (= Turdus fuscescens, Stephens).
Golden-crowned Thrush, p. 21 (= Siurus auricapillus [L.]).
Redwing Thrush, p. 22 (= Turdus iliacus, L.).
Red-breasted Thrush, p. 26 (= Turdus migratorius, L.).
Ferruginous Thrush, p. 39 (= Harporhynchus rufus [L.]).
Mimic Thrush, p. 40 (= Mimus polyglottus [L.]).
St. Domingo Thrush, p. 42 (= Mimus dominicus [L.]).
Yellow-bellied Thrush, p. 42 (= Donacobius atricapillus [L.]).
Blackbird, p. 43 (= Merula merula [L.]).
White-chinned Thrush, p. 45 (= Merula aurantia [Gm.]).
Ring-Ouzel, p. 46 (= Merula torquata [L.]).
Water-Ouzel, p. 48 (= Cinclus aquaticus, Bechst.).
Shining Thrush, var. A, p. 56 (= Lamprocolius splendidus, Vieill.).
Ceylon Thrush, p. 62 (= Laniarius gutturalis [Müll.]).
Indian Thrush, p. 66 (= Turdus indicus, Gm.).

Genus xxxii. CHATTERER. Vol. ii., pt. i., p. 91.

Carolina Chatterer, p. 93 (= Ampclis cedrorum, Vieill.).
Red Chatterer, p. 97 (= Phœnicocercus carnifex [L.]).

Genus xxxiii. COLY. Vol. ii., pt. i., p. 100.

Genus xxxiv. GROSBEAK. Vol. ii., pt. i., p. 104.

With four toes.

Common Crossbill, p. 106 (= Loxia curvirostra, L.).
Hawfinch, p. 109 (= Coccothraustes coccothraustcs [L.]).
Pine Grosbeak, p. 111 (= Pinicola enucleator [L.]).
Cape Grosbeak, p. 113 (= Pyromelana capensis [L.]).
White-throated Grosbeak, p. 115 (= Pitylus grossus [L.]).

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Purple Grosbeak, p. 117 (= Loxigilla violacea [L.]).
Cardinal Grosbeak, p. 118 (= Cardinalis cardinalis [L.]).
Grenadier Grosbeak, p. 120 (= Pyromelana oryx [L.]).
Dominican Grosbeak, p. 123 (= Paroaria larvata [Bodd.]).
Red-breasted Grosbeak, p. 126 (= Hedymeles ludovicianus [L.]).
Canada Grosbeak, p. 127 (= Pitylus viridis [Vieill.]).
Java Grosbeak, p. 129 (= Munia oryzivora [L.]).
Green Grosbeak, p. 134 (= Ligurinus chloris [L.]).
Malacca Grosbeak, p. 140 (= Munia malacca [L.]).
Cowry Grosbeak, p. 142 (= Munia punctulata [L.]).
Bullfinch, p. 143 (= Pyrrhula europæa, Vieill.).
Black-breasted Grosbeak, p. 148 (= Spermophila cucullata [Bodd.]).
Wax-bill Grosbeak, p. 152 (= Estrilda astrilda [L.]).
Minute Grosbeak, p. 158 (= Spermophila minuta [L.]).

Genus xxxv. BUNTING. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 160.

Snow Bunting, p. 161 (= Plectrophenax nivalis [L].).
Black Bunting, p. 166 (= Junco hyemalis [L.]).
Yellow Bunting, p. 170 (= Emberiza citrinella, L.).
Common Bunting, p. 171 (= Emberiza miliaria, L.).
Red Bunting, p. 173 (= Emberiza schœniclus, L.).
Shaft-tailed Bunting, p. 183 (= Tetrænura regia [L.]).
Orange-shouldered Bunting, p. 184 (= Chera procne [Bodd.]).
Rice Bunting, p. 188 (= Dolichonyx oryzivorus [L.]).
Towhe Bunting, p. 199 (= Pipilo erythrophthalmus [L.]).
Cinereus Bunting, p. 204 (= Emberiza cinereus [Gm.]).
Painted Bunting, p. 206 (= Cyanopiza ciris [L.]).

Genus xxxvi. TANAGER. Vol. ii., pt. i., p. 213.

Red-breasted Tanager, p. 214 (= Rhamphocœlus jacapa [L.]).
Red Tanager, var. A, p. 217 (= Pyranga rubra [L.]).
Mississipi Tanager, p. 218 (= Pyranga æstiva [Gm.]).
Variegated Tanager, p. 219 (= Pyranga æstiva [Gm.]).
Bishop Tanager, p. 226 (= Tanagra episcopus [L.]).
Spotted Tanager, p. 228 (= Calliste punctata [L.]).
Rufous-headed Tanager, p. 231 (= Calliste cayana [L.]).
Red-headed Tanager, p. 233 (= Calliste gyrola [L.]).

VOL. II. 11

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Variable Tanager, p. 234 (= Tanagra variabilis [Gm.]).
Paradise Tanager, p. 236 (= Calliste tatao [L.]).
Golden Tanager, var. A, p. 240 (= Euphonia chlorotica [L.]).
Negro Tanager, p. 240 (= Euphonia cayana [L.]).
Rufous-throated Tanager, p. 241 (= Glossiptila ruficollis [Gm.]).

Genus xxxvii. FINCH. Vol. ii., pt. i., p. 246.

House Sparrow, p. 248 (= Passer domesticus, L.).
White Sparrow, p. 250
Black Sparrow, p. 251.
Tree Sparrow, p. 252 (= Passer montanus, L.).
Chaffinch, p. 257 (= Fringilla cœlebs, L.).
Crimson-crowned Finch, p. 259—I believe this to be Coryphospingus cristatus.
Brambling, p. 261 (= Fringilla montifringilla, L.).
Beautiful Finch, p. 266 (= Zonogastris melba [L.]).
Orange Finch, p. 276 (= Spindalis zena [L.]).
Goldfinch, p. 281 (= Carduelis carduelis [L.]).
American Goldfinch, p. 288 (= Chrysomitris tristis [L.]).
Siskin, p. 289 (= Chrysomitris spinus [L.]).
Canary Finch, p. 293 (= Serinus canarius [L.]).
Bahama Finch, p. 300 (= Phonipara bicolor [L.]).
Linnet, p. 302 (= Acanthis cannabina [L.]).
Greater Redpoll, p. 304 (= Acanthis cannabina [L.]).
Lesser Redpoll, p. 305 (= Acanthis rufescens [Vieill.]).
Amaduvade Finch, p. 311 (= Sporæginthus amandava [L.]).
Brasilian Finch, p. 318 (= Granatina granatina [L.]).

Genus xxxviii. FLYCATCHER. Vol. ii., pt. i., p. 321.

The Pied Flycatcher, p. 324 (= Muscicapa atricapilla, L.).
Paradise Flycatcher, p. 345 (= Terpsiphone paradisi [L.]).
Paradise Flycatcher, var. B, p. 347.
Cincreus Flycatcher, p. 350 (= Contopus virens [L.]).
Red-eyed Flycatcher, p. 351 (= Vireo olivaceus [L.]).
Cat Flycatcher, p. 353 (= Galeoscoptes carolinensis [L.]).
Cayenne Flycatcher, p. 355 (= Myiozetetes cayennensis [L.]).
Crested Flycatcher, p. 357 (= Myiarchus crinitus [L.]).
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, p. 359 (= Myiozetetes cayennensis [L.]).

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Genus xxxix. LARK. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 367 (1783).

Sky-Lark, p. 368 (= Alauda arvensis, L.).
Var. B, Dusky Lark, p. 370 (= Alauda arvensis, L.).
Wood Lark, p. 371 (= Lullula arborea [L.]).
Tit-Lark, p. 374 (= Anthus pratensis [L.]).
Shore Lark, p. 385 (= Otocoris alpestris [L.]).
Crested Lark, p. 389 (= Galerita cristata [L.]).

Genus xl. WAGTAIL. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 394.

White Wagtail, p. 395 (= Motacilla alba, L.).
Grey Wagtail, p. 398 (= Motacilla melanope, Pall.).
Yellow Wagtail, p. 400 (= Motacilla campestris, Pall.).

Genus xli. WARBLER. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 404.

Nightingale, p. 405 (= Aedon luscinia [L.]).
Blackcap, p. 415 (= Sylvia atricapilla [L.]).
Babbling Warbler, p. 417 (= Sylvia curruca [L.]).
Hedge Warbler, p. 419 (= Accentor modularis [L.]).
Black Warbler, p. 427 (= Setophaga ruticilla [L.]).
Whitethroat, p. 428 (= Sylvia cinerea [L.]).
Yellow-breasted Warbler, p. 438 (= Geothlypis trichas [L.]).
Redbreast, p. 442 (= Erithacus rubecula [L.]).
Blue Warbler, p. 446 (= Sialia sialis [L.]).
Whinchat, p. 454 (= Pratincola rubetra [L.]).
Wheatear, p. 465 (= Saxicola œnanthe [L.]).
Green Indian Warbler, p. 474 (= Ægithina tiphia [L.]).
White-poll Warbler, p. 488 (= Mniotilta varia [L.]).
Cayenne Warbler, var. A, p. 503 (= Dacnis cayana [L.]).
Cayenne Warbler, var. B, p. 503 (= Dacnis cayana [L.]).
Wren, p. 506 (= Anorthura troglodytes [L.]).
Wren, var. B, p. 507 (= Thryothorus ludovicianus [Lath.]).
Gold-crested Warbler, p. 508 (= Regulus cristatus [L.]).
Ruby-crowned Warbler, p. 511 (= Regulus calendula [L.]).
Yellow Warbler, p. 512 (= Phylloscopus trochilus [L.]).
Yellow Warbler, var. A, p. 513 (= Phylloscopus tristis, Blyth).
Yellow-poll Warbler, p. 515 (= Dendrœca æstiva [Gm.]).

Genus xlii. MANAKIN. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 517.

Rock Manakin, p. 518 (= Rupicola crocea, Vieill.).
Blue-backed Manakin, p. 520 (= Chiroxiphia pareola [L.]).

H 2

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Black-capped Manakin, p. 521 (= Chiromachæris manacus [L.]).
White-capped Manakin, p. 523 (= Pipra leucocilla [L.]).
White-throated Manakin, p. 524 (= Pipra gutturalis [L.]).
Red and Black Manakin, var. A, p. 525 (= Pipra aureola [L.]).
Cinereus Manakin, p. 533 (= Pachyrhamphus cinereus [Bodd.]).

Genus xliii. TITMOUSE. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 535.

Great Titmouse, p. 536 (= Parus major, L.).
Colemouse, p. 540 (= Parus ater, L.).
Marsh Titmouse, p. 541 (= Parus palustris, L.).
Blue Titmouse, p. 543 (= Parus cæruleus, L.).
Crested Titmouse, p. 545 (= Parus cristatus, L.).
Long-tailed Titmouse, p. 550 (= Ægithalus caudatus [L.]).
Bearded Titmouse, p. 552 (= Panurus biarmicus [L.]).

Genus xliv. SWALLOW. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 560.

Chimney Swallow, p. 561 (= Hirundo rustica, L.).
White Swallow, var. A, p. 563 (= Hirundo rustica, L.).
Martin, p. 564 (= Chelidonaria urbica [L.]).
Sand Martin, p. 568 (= Cliricola riparia [L.]).
Aoonalashka Swallow, p. 571 (= Hirundo unalashkensis Gm.).
Aculeated Swallow, p. 583 (= Collocalia fuciphaga, Thunb.).
Swift, p. 584 (= Cypselus apus [L.]).

Genus xlv. GOATSUCKER. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 589.

European Goatsucker, p. 593 (= Caprimulgus europæus, L.).
Virginia Goatsucker, p. 595 (= Chordeiles virginianus [Gm.]).

ORDER IV. COLUMBINE.

Genus xlvi. PIGEON. Vol. ii., pt. ii.

With moderate tails.

Shaker Pigeon, p. 611.
Carrier Pigeon, p. 613.
Great Crowned Pigeon, p. 620 (= Goura coronata [L.]).
Ring Pigeon, p. 635 (= Columba palumbus, L.).
Triangular-spotted Pigeon, p. 639 (= Columba guinea, L.)

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Common Turtle, p. 644 (= Turtur turtur [L.]).
Barred Turtle, p. 650 (= Geopelia striata [L.]).
Canada Turtle, p. 658 (= Ectopistes migratorius [Catesb.]).
Ground Turtle, p. 659 (= Chamæpelia passerina [L.]).

With long tails.

Passenger Pigeon, p. 661 (= Ectopistes migratorius [Catesb.]).

ORDER V. GALLINACEOUS. Vol. ii., pt. ii.

Genus xlvii. PEACOCK. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 668.

Crested Peacock, p. 668 (= Pavo cristatus, L.).
Variegated Peacock, p. 671 (= Pavo cristatus, L.).

Genus xlviii. TURKEY. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 676.

Domestic Turkey, p. 679 (= Meleagris gallopavo [L.]).

Genus xlix. PINTADO. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 685.

Guinea Pintado, p. 685 (= Numida meleagris [L.]).

Genus l. CURASSOW. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 690.

Crested Curassow, p. 690 (= Crax globicera, L.).
Do. the female, p. 693 (= Crax alector ♀).

Genus li. PHEASANT. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 697.

Domestic Cock, p. 700 (= Gallus gallus [L.]).
Frizzled Cock, p. 704 (= Gallus gallus [L.]).
Argus Pheasant, p. 710 (= Argusianus argus [L.]).
Common Pheasant, p. 712 (= Phasianus colchicus, L.).
Painted Pheasant, p. 717 (= Chrysolophus pictus [L.]).
Pencilled Pheasant, p. 719 (= Gennæus nycthemerus [L.]).

Genus lii. TINAMOU. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 724.

Genus liii. GROUS. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 728.

With four toes.

Black Grouse, p. 733 (= Lyrurus tetrix [L.]).
Shoulder-Knot Grouse, p. 737 (= Bonasa umbellus [L.]).
Ruffed Grouse, p. 738 (= Bonasa umbellus [L.]).
Ptarmigan Grouse, p. 741 (= Lagopus lagopus [L.]).

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Genus liv. PARTRIDGE. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 755.

With four toes.

Cape Partridge, p. 757 (= Francolinus capensis [Gm.]).
Francolin Partridge, p. 759 (= Francolinus francolinus [L.]).
Common Partridge, p. 762 (= Perdix perdix [L.]).
Guernsey Partridge, p. 768 (= Caccabis rufa [L.].)
Green Partridge, p. 777 (= Rollulus roulroul [Scop.]).
Maryland Partridge, p. 778 (= Ortyx virginianus [L.]).
Common Quail, p. 779 (= Coturnix coturnix [L.]).
Chinese Quail, p. 783 (= Excalfactoria chinensis [L.]).

Genus lv. TRUMPETER. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 793.

Genus lvi. BUSTARD. Vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 796.

Great Bustard, p. 796 (= Otis tarda [L.]).
Thick-kneed Bustard, p. 806 (= œdicnemus œdicnemus [L.]).

ORDER VI. STRUTHIOUS.

Genus lvii. DODO. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 1 (1785).

Genus lviii. OSTRICH. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 6.

Genus lix. CASSOWARY. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 10.

DIVISION II. WATER BIRDS.

ORDER VII. With cloven feet.

Genus lx. SPOONBILL. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 13.

White Spoonbill, p. 13 (= Platalia leucorodia [L.]).

Genus lxi. SCREAMER. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 18.

Genus lxii. JABIRU. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 22.

Genus lxiii. BOAT-BILL. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 25.

Genus lxiv. UMBRE. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 30

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Genus lxv. HERON. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 32.

Crowned Heron, p. 34 (= Balearica pavouina [L.]).
Demoiselle Heron, p. 35 (= Anthropoides virgo [L.]).
Indian Crane, var. A, p. 39 (= Grus antigone [L.]).
White Stork, p. 47 (= Ciconia ciconia [L.]).
Bittern, p. 56 (= Botaurns stellaris [L.]).
Green Heron, p. 68 (= Butorides virescens [L.]).
Cinnamon Heron, p. 77 (= Ardctta cinnamomea [Gm.]).
Common Heron, male, p. 83 (= Ardea cinerea, L.).
Little Egret, p. 90 (= Garzetta garzetta [L.]).
Great White Heron, p. 91 (= Herodias alba [L.]).
Little White Heron, p. 93 (? = Dichromanassa rufa [Bodd.]).

Genus lxvi. IBIS. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 104.

Scarlet Ibis, p. 106 (= Eudocimus ruber [L.]).
Bald Ibis, p. 116 (= Geronticus calvus [Bodd.]).

Genus lxvii. CURLEW. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 119.

Common Curlew, p. 119 (Numenius arquatus [L.]).
Esquimaux Curlew, p. 125 (= Numenius borealis [Forst.]).

Genus lxviii. SNIPE. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 128.

Woodcock, p. 129 (= Scolopax rusticula [L.]).
Common Snipe, p. 134 (= Gallinago gallinago [L.]).
Jack Snipe, p. 136 (= Limnocryptes gallinula [L.]).
Red Godwit, p. 142 (= Limosa lapponica [L.]).
Common Godwit, p. 144 (= Limosa lapponica [L.]).
Green-Shank, p. 147 (= Glottis nebularius [Gunner.]).
Redshank, p. 150 (= Totanus calidris [L.]).

Genus lxix. SANDPIPER. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 158.

Ruff, p. 159 (= Pavoncella pugnax [L.]).
Swiss Sandpiper, p. 167 (= Squatarola helvetica [L.]).
Common Sandpiper, p. 178 (= Tringoides hypoleucus [L.]).
Dunlin, p. 185 (= Pelidna alpina [L.]).

Genus lxx. PLOVER. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 192.

Golden Plover, p. 193 (= Charadrius pluvialis [L.]).
Long-legged Plover, p. 195 (= Himantopus himantopus [L.]).

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Noisy Plover, p. 199 (= Oxyechus vociferus [L.]).
Ringed Plover, p. 201 (= Ægialitis hiaticola [L.]).
Spur-winged Plover, p. 213 (= Hoplopterus spinosus [L.]).

Genus lxxi. OYSTER-CATCHER. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 219.

Pied Oyster-catcher, p. 219 (= Hæmatopus ostralegus [L.]).

Genus lxxii. PRATINCOLE. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 222.

Genus lxxiii. RAIL. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 226.

Water Rail, p. 227 (= Rallus aquaticus [L.]).
Black Rail, p. 236 (= Limnocorax niger [Gm.]).

Genus lxxiv. JACANA. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 241.

Chestnut Jacana, p. 241 (= Jacana jacana [L.]).
Variable Jacana, p. 244 (= Asarcia variabilis [L.]).

Genus lxxv. GALLINULE. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 249.

Crake Gallinule, p. 250 (= Crex crex [L.]).
Purple Gallinule, p. 254 (= Porphyrio porphyrio [L.]).
Common Gallinule, p. 258 (= Gallinula chloropus [L.]).
Crested Gallinule, p. 267 (= Fulica cristata [Gm.]).

Genus lxxvi. SHEATHBILL. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 268.

ORDER VII. With pinnated feet.

Genus lxxvii. PHALAROPE. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 270.

Genus lxxviii. COOT. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 275.

Common Coot, p. 275 (= Fulica cristata [Gm.]).

Genus lxxix. GREBE. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 280.

Crested Grebe, p. 281 (= Podicipcs cristatus [L.]).
Eared Grebe, p. 285 (= Podicipes nigricollis, Brehm.).
Little Grebe, p. 289 (= Podicipes fluviatilis, Tunst.).

ORDER IX. Web-footcd.

With long legs.

Genus lxxx. AVOCET. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 293.

Scooping Avocet, p. 293 (= Recurvirostra avocetta, L.).

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Genus lxxxi. COURIER. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 298.

Genus lxxxii. FLAMINGO. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 299.

Red Flamingo, p. 299 (= Phœnicopterus roseus, Pall.).

With short legs.

Genus lxxxiii. ALBATROSS. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 304.

Wandering Albatross, p. 304 (= Diomedea exulans, L.).
Yellow-nosed Albatross, p. 309 (= Thalassogeron chlororhynchus [Gm.]).

Genus lxxxiv. AUK. Vol. iii., pt. i., p. 311.

Puffin Auk, p. 314 (= Fratercula arctica [L.]).
Labrador Auk, p. 318 (= Fratercula arctica [L.]).
Razor-bill, p. 319 (= Alca torda, L.).
Black-billed Auk, p. 320 (= Alca torda, L.).

Genus lxxxv. GUILLEMOT. Vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 329 (1785).

Foolish Guillemot, p. 329 (= Uria troile [L.]).
Black Guillemot, p. 332 (= Uria grylle [L.]).

Genus lxxxvi. DIVER. Vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 337.

Northern Diver, p. 337 (= Colymbus glacialis, L.).
Imber Diver, p. 343 (= Colymbus glacialis, L.).
Speckled Diver, p. 341 (= Colymbus septentrionalis, L.).
Red-throated Diver, p. 244 (= Colymbus septentrionalis, L.).

Genus lxxxvii. SKIMMER. Vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 347.

Black Skimmer, p. 347 (= Rhynchops nigra, L.).

Genus lxxxviii. TERN. Vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 349.

Caspian Tern, var. A, p. 351 (= Hydroprogne caspia [Pall.]).
Caspian Tern, var. B, p. 351 (= Hydroprogne caspia [Pall.]).
African Tern, p. 354 (= Sterna cantiaca, Gm.).
Common Tern, p. 361 (= Sterna fluviatilis, Naum.).
Lesser Tern, p. 364 (= Sterna minuta, L.).
Chinese Tern, p. 365 (= Sterna sinensis, Gm.).
Black Tern, p. 366 (= Hydrochelidon nigra [L.]).

Genus lxxxix. GULL. Vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 369.

Wagel Gull, p. 375 (= Larus marinus, L.).

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Genus xc. PETREL. Vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 395.

Giant Petrel, p. 396 (= Ossifraga gigantea [Gm.]).
Pintado Petrel, p. 401 (= Daption capensis [L.]).
Cinereus Fulmer, p. 405 (= Priofinus cinereus [Gm.]).
Shearwater Petrel, p. 375 (= Puffinus kuhli [Boie]).
Snowy Petrel, p. 408 (= Pagodroma nivea [Gm.]).
Stormy Petrel, p. 411 (= Procellaria pelagica, L.).
Blue Petrel, p. 415 (= Halobæna cærulea [Gm.]).
Pacific Petrel, p. 416.
Dusky Petrel, p. 416 (= Puffinus obscurus [Gm.]).

Genus xci. MERGANSER. Vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 418.

Goosander, p. 418 (= Merganser castor [L.]).
Dun-Diver, p. 420 (= Merganser castor [L.]).
Red-breasted Merganser, p. 423 (= Merganser serrator [L.]).
Hooded Merganser, p. 426 (= Lophodytes cucullatus [L.]).
Smew, male, p. 428 (= Mergus albellus, L.).
Minute Merganser, p. 429 (= Mergus albellus, L.).

Genus xcii. DUCK. Vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 431.

Mute Swan, p. 436 (= Cygnus olor Gm.).
Bustard Goose, p. 440 (= Cloephaga magellanica [Gm.]).
Chinese Goose, p. 447 (= Cygnopsis cygnoides [L.]).
Canada Goose, p. 450 (= Brauta canadensis [L.]).
Black Duck, p. 479 (= œdemia perspicillata [L.]).
Harlequin Duck, p. 484 (= Cosmonetta histrionica [L.]).
Mallard, p. 489 (= Anas boscas [L.]).
Tame Duck, p. 494 (= Anas boscas [L.]).
Black-billed Whistling Duck, p. 499 (= Dendrocygna arborea [L.]).
Shieldrake, p. 504 (= Tadorna cornuta [L.]).
Shoveler, p. 509 (= Spatula clypeata [L.]).
Common Wigeon, p. 518 (= Mareca penelope [L.]).
Pintail Duck, p. 526 (= Dafila acuta [L.]).
Buffel-headed Duck, p. 533 (= Clangula albeola [L.]).
Golden-eye Duck, p. 535 (= Clangula glaucion [L.]).
Tufted Duck, p. 540 (= Fuligula fuligula [L.]).
Summer Duck, p. 546 (= Æx sponsa [L.]).
Garganey, p. 550 (= Querquedula circia [L.]).
Common Teal, p. 551 (= Nettion crecca [L.]).

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Genus xciii. PINGUIN. Vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 559.

Crested Pinguin, p. 561 (= Catarrhactes chrysocome [Forst.]).
Patagonian Pinguin, p. 563 (= Aptenodytes patagonica [Forst.]).
Cape Pinguin, p. 566 (= Spheniscus demersus [L.]).

Genus xciv. PELICAN. Vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 574.

Great White Pelican, p. 575 (= Pelecanus onocrotalus, L.).
Brown Pelican, p. 580 (= Pelecanus fuscus, Gm.).
Rough-billed Pelican, p. 586 (= Pelecanus erythrorhynchus, Gm.).
African Shag, p. 606 (= Phalacrocorax africanus, Gm.).
Gannet, p. 608 (= Sula bassana [L.]).

Genus xcv. TROPIC BIRD. Vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 615.

Common Tropic Bird, p. 615 (= Phaethon æthereus, L.).

Genus xcvi. DARTER. Vol. iii., pt. ii., p. 622.

Black-bellied Darter, var. A, p. 624 (= Plotus anhinga, L.).
Surinam Darter, p. 626 (= Plotus surinamensis, Gm.).

In the first "Supplement" to the "General Synopsis" (1787) a few species are added, the following being in the British Museum.

Plaintive Vulture, p. 4 (= Polyborus tharus, Molina).
Dubious Parrot, p. 62 (= Psittacus dubius, Lath.). Cf. Salvadori, Cat. B., xx., p. 612.
South-Sea Raven, p. 75 (= Corvultur albicollis, Lath.).
Black Roller, p. 85 (= Cryptorhina afra, L.).
African Roller, p. 86 (= Eurystomus afer, Lath.).
Doubtful Barbet, p. 96 (= Lybius dubius, Gm.).
African Creeper, var. C, p. 127 (= Cinnyris afra. L.).
Ash-bellied Creeper, p. 130 (= Nectarinia famosa, L.).
Red-winged Chatterer, p. 146 (= Campophaga phœnicea, Lath.).
Flammeous Flycatcher, p. 171 (= Pericrocotus flammeus, Forst.).
African Pheasant, p. 210 (= Schizorhis africana, Lath.).

Of additional interest to Latham's published works, which give us an idea of the contents of the bird-cases in the British Museum in the latter half of the eighteenth century, is the naming of certain Australian birds in the "Supplements" to the "Synopsis" and to the "Index Ornithologicus." Up to the present

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time, it has never been known where Latham obtained the material for describing so many Australian, or, as they were then called, "New Holland," birds.

In 1902 the Museum acquired from Mr. James Lee, a grandson of the famous horticulturist of Hammersmith, a large volume of paintings executed for the latter by one of his collectors, Thomas Watling, between 1788 and 1792. These drawings had evidently been shown to Latham, who named most of the birds, and seems to have referred to these pictures as "Mr. Lambert's Drawings." They do not seem, however, to have been Lambert's property at any time.

The types of Latham's species are, in fact, founded on these drawings of Watling's.

The collector was sent to New South Wales by Mr. Lee, and some of the illustrations in White's "Journal of a Voyage to N.S. Wales in 1790" were drawn by Watling, who refers to White in his volume of paintings. Cf. Hist. Coll. Brit. Mus. (N. H.), i., p. 52 (Libraries).

Mr. James Britten, who has examined the series of drawings, has published the following interesting note (Journ. Botany, xl., p. 302 (1902)): "The British Museum has lately acquired a very interesting volume containing drawings in colour of the animals and plants of Australia, made by Thomas Watling in 1788–1792. Watling was sent out by James Lee of Hammersmith (from whose great-grandson, bearing the same names, the collection was purchased), with a view to obtaining material for a book on the natural history of the country.

"Apart from its contents, the volume is interesting on account of the light which it throws upon an entry on p. 253, vol. i., of Dryander's 'Catalogue of the Banksian Library': this runs, 'Volumen foliorum 70, continens figuras animalium et plantarum pictas quas in Nova Cambria prope Port Jackson delineavit Edgar Thomas Dell.'

In Banks' copy the last four words are struck out, and a comparison of the volume with the one acquired from Mr. Lee shows that it is the work of the same artist. Watling was acquainted with John White ('Surgeon-General to the Settlement'), who sent plants to Smith, and published in 1790 his 'Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales'; one or two of Watling's drawings were executed for White.

The newly acquired volume contains several views of Sydney which are of great interest."

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Attached to the drawings of birds is a list of the species, with the following announcement, probably in the handwriting of Mr. James Lee himself: "This Catalogue was wrote by Dr. Latham, author of the 'General Synopsis of Birds.'"

The following is a list of the Drawings as determined by Latham himself, and bearing his handwriting:—

1. Bold Vulture, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 10, no. 10 (1802).

Vultur audax, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. ii. (1801).

Latham copies Watling's original note about the native name being "Boora-morang" (Watling writes it "Boo-ro-ma-rang"), and also about the bird sometimes attacking natives, but he says not one word about Watling or James Lee in the text of his book, nor can I so far find any evidence of his giving credit to either of them as the source of his information.

The bird is drawn holding a fish under its foot, and might be mistaken for a young Haliaëtus leucogaster, but on comparing the sketch with specimens, it is evidently intended for a Wedge-tailed Eagle, as is also shewn by its feathered legs. Latham says that "the size of this bird is uncertain." Watling generally gives the size of his birds, but on this picture he gives a scale, which shows that the specimen was about three feet long.

2. Pondicherry Eagle. Qu. new species. Latham, Gen. Syn., ii., p. 32.

Latham refers to Watling's two drawings of the White-breasted Brahminy Kite, and as before appropriates his notes without stating his authority. Thus: "A bird seemingly of this last kind [Pondicherry Eagle] is found in New Holland, in which the head, neck, and belly are pure white, without any streaks." On Watling's plate Latham has written: "Probably this should be made a distinct species." Watling's note is as follows: "The stomach of the bird when taken was full of egg-shells."

3. Ditto. This second picture of the Brahminy Kite has the following note by Watling: "The Natives call this Bird Girrenera. This hawk lives a good deal on Fish, which most of that genus do that inhabit New South Wales, where there are several varieties, the likeness of this kind is strongly imitated "[i.e. that he has made a good portrait of the bird]. Latham had evidently seen the pictures and notes of Watling when he wrote the "Supplement" to the "General Synopsis."

4. Painting of an Elanus, with the following note by the artist: "Natural size. The head of this drawing is rather too

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large and long, the bill should be smaller and more rounded in towards the breast. I had the bird alive three months, and fed it on small birds and fish, &c."

Nos. 5, 6. Two more paintings of an Elanus, one-half and one-third natural size. "Native name Geo-ga-rack." Latham founds on this description his Axillary Falcon (Suppl. to Gen. Synopsis, ii., p. 42). He says that it "inhabits New Holland, but is not very common. The specimen from which the above description was taken, was caught alive, and kept for ten months, being fed with small birds, fish, &c." This note is taken from Watling's MSS., but is not acknowledged. This picture becomes the type of Latham's Axillary Falcon (= Falco axillaris, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. ix.).

7. Represents an Elanus, which Latham, in his MS. list, places as a variety of his Axillary Falcon, which is probably the case.

8. Is also considered by Latham to be a variety of his Falco axillaris, but in reality it is a small figure of Haliaëtus leucogaster (Gm.). This latter name is founded on the White-bellied Eagle, n. sp., of Latham (Gen. Syn., i., pt. i., p. 33*), where we read: "This bird was brought to England in one of the last circumnavigating ships, and is now in the Leverian Museum. Its native place is unknown."

9. An Owl. This picture of Watling's formed the subject of Latham's description of his—
Winking Falcon, Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 53.
Falco connivens, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xii.
Ninox connivens (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., ii., p. 175.

Latham does not acknowledge the origin of his description, merely adding: "Inhabits New Holland, but no history annexed, further than that it has wonderful faculty of contracting and dilating the iris; and that the native name is 'Goora-a-Gang.'"

These notes he has copied from Watling's MS., which, however, gives the native name as "Goo-ree-a-gang." He also writes: "This Bird has a wonderfull power of contracting and dilating the iris and pupil." The picture is, therefore, the type of Ninox connivens.

10. "New Falcon." On this picture is founded the description of Latham's Radiated Falcon, and the figure given by him is adapted from Watling's picture. Thus the latter becomes the type of

* Cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., i., p. 117.

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Radiated Falcon, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 53, pl. cxxi.
Falco radiatus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xii.
Urospizias radiatus, Sharpe, Cat. B., i., p. 159.
Erythrotriorchis radiatus, Sharpe, Handl. B., i., p. 254.

Watling has given the following MS. note:—"This bird measures from the top of the head to the end of the tail 22 in., and from the tip of one wing to the other 4 feet. Iris doubtful. A new Falcon."

11. Another painting of the Radiated Falcon, to which is attached the following note by Watling:—"The skin of this bird I found nailed up to a settler's hut. It is the only one of the kind ever seen. The drawing is a faithful copy. The settler who shot it says the iris was brown, and remarked that he never saw any bird fly with such swiftness. Its claws, which were long, small, and sharp when he took it up, it drove quite through the end of his fingers. A new Falcon. This bird measures from the bill to the extremity of the tail twenty-four inches." It will be seen that Latham copied the notes, but did not say who had written them.

12. A picture of a young Hobby and the type of Latham's Lunated Falcon, as follows:—
Lunated Falcon, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 54.
Falco lunatus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xiii.

"Inhabits New Holland, and was taken in March. Native name Goo-roo-wang." This native name is copied from Watling's MS., but I cannot find any record of the time of year when the bird was shot.

13. Pacific Falcon, Lath., Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 54.
Falco pacificus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xiii.

I am unable to identify the bird here figured. It has a white head and neck. Upper surface dark brown, "blotched on the back with dark spots, and marked on the belly (which is paler than above and inclining to yellow) with black streaks. The tail is long, even at the end, crossed with seven or eight black bars, the quills also barred as the tail, with the ends black." This is a good description of the painting, but I cannot find any Australian bird of prey which corresponds with it. Watling's original note is as follows:—"This bird is not common in New South Wales. The only one shot, though others have been seen of the same kind." The only species which it could possibly resemble might be a young Falco hypoleucus, but our specimens in the Museum do not favour the idea.

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Nos. 14, 15. Fair Falcon, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 54.
Falco clarus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xiii.

These two figures seem to be undoubtedly intended for Astur cinereus,* though in the "Catalogue" I referred Latham's "Fair Falcon" to A. novæ hollandiæ. This must be a mistake, but the figures are by no means a good representation of A. cinereus, over which Latham's name will take precedence, and the species must be called Astur clarus (Lath.).

Nos. 16 and 17. Dark Falcon, Lath. MS.; id., Gen. Hist. B., i., p. 231 (1821).

There are now no pictures in the book corresponding to these numbers, which are given in Latham's MS. list.

No. 18. Ash-headed Falcon, Lath. MS.; id., Gen. Hist. B., i., p. 219 (1821).

This is a good figure of Astur approximans, but does not seem to have received a Latin name from Latham.

No. 19. Hooded Falcon, Latham MS.

This is Falco melanogenys, Gould. Latham does not seem to have given a Latin name to the drawing. Watling's MSS. note is: "Half the natural size. It lives on small birds and fish, &c."

No. 20. Lacteous Eagle, Lath. [MS.]; Gen. Hist. B., i., p. 216 (1821).

This is evidently Astur novæ hollandiæ (Gm.), founded on the New Holland White Eagle of Latham's Gen. Synopsis, i., p. 40 (1781). The latter seems to have procured the description of the bird from Dr. J. R. Forster. No specimen was in the British Museum at the time. "Name Goo-loo-bee" (Watling.)

No. 21. New Holland Sparrow Hawk, Latham [MS.]; Gen. Hist. B., i., p. 223 (1821).

"Same as No. 22. Small Hawk. Two-thirds the natural size." This is a representation of an adult Accipiter cirrhocephalus (Vieill.).

No. 22. New Holland Sparrow Hawk, Latham MS. "One-third natural size. Native name Goo-roo-ing. It is not a very common Hawk in New South Wales. A dark variety of the New Holland Sparrow Hawk, No. 21." The bird is really Astur approximans.

No. 23. Barn Owl in Latham's MS. list, but no figure now in the book.

No. 24. Owl.
Boobook Owl, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 64.
Strix boobook, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xv.
Ninox boobook (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., ii., p. 168 (1875).

* Cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., i., p. 117.

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Watling's note is: "This bird is about the size of the common English owl. Native name Boo-book." The figure is the type of the species, Latham's name having been founded upon it.

No. 25. White-faced Owl, Latham [MS.]; id., Gen. Hist. B., i., p. 334 (1821).

This is Strix delicatula, Gould. Watling's note: "One-third natural size. Native name Boo-book."

No. 26. Hook-billed Shrike, var. A, of Latham, Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 70.
Lanius eurrirostris, Lath., Ind. Orn., i., p. 72.

This is a Cracticus, and seems to be C. leucopterus, Gould. It has, of course, nothing to do with Lanius curvirostris of Linnæus, which is a Vanga from Madagascar. Watling's note is: "Two-thirds natural size. Native name Karro-bee-rang."

No. 27. Clouded Shrike, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 73.
Lanius torquatus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xviii.

This figure is the type of Lanius torquatus, Lath., which has generally been referred to Cracticus destructor.

Dr. Gadow considered the description of the Clouded Shrike to be insufficient for recognition. There can, however, be no doubt that the identification is correct, and L. torquatus becomes a synonym of C. destructor, as was determined by Gray, Cabanis, and other good ornithologists. Watling's note: "This drawing is about the natural size."

No. 28. Robust Shrike, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 74.
Lanius robustus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xviii.

This seems to me to be intended for Graucalus melanops (Lath.), founded on the Black-faced Crow of Latham, Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 116. One of "Lambert's drawings" is described by him, and in his Supplement to the "Index Ornithologicus" he gives it the name of Corvus melauops, having apparently forgotten that he had described it previously from Watling's Drawings as Lanius robustus. The name should therefore be Graucalus robustus, though, as the two birds are described in the same work, it may not be deemed expedient to enforce a priority of only a few pages. Watling's note is merely "natural size."

No. 29. Erect Shrike, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 74.
Lanius erectus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xviii.

This looks like a black-headed Pachycephala, but it has a pale yellowish bill, a white throat, greenish back, and pale yellow under-surface. I have not been able to identify the species.

VOL. II. I

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No. 30. Yellow-bellied Shrike, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 75.
Lanius flavigaster, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xix.

"Natural size. Native name Wee-bung. It is not a common bird, and it drives all smaller birds from its neighbourhood" (Watling MS.). This looks like a yellow-bellied Pachycephala, but it has no black pectoral collar, and I cannot identify the figure with any known Australian species.

No. 31. Frontal Shrike, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 75.
Lanius frontatus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xviii.
Falcunculus frontatus, Gadow, Cat. B., viii., p. 173.

Watling's note: "One half the natural size. Not a common bird. The tongue is a little bifid."

No. 32. Frontal Shrike, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 75, pl. 122.

Watling's note: "Natural size. Supposed to be the male of No. 2. It is a rare bird, never seen but in the cold or winter months. It is found near water, and often feeding on the seed of reeds in marsh or wet grounds."

No. 33. White-eared Shrike, Lath. [MS.]; Gen. Hist. B., ii., p. 76 (1822).

This drawing and the next are apparently meant for Falcunculus frontatus, but they are given a large white patch on the ear-coverts instead of a double band of white above and below the latter. The double band is correct, and no such bird as the "White-eared Shrike" has been found by me.

Watling's note: "Two-thirds the natural size. Native name Tattanan."

No. 34. White-eared Shrike, Lath. MS. [= No. 33].

Watling's note says only: "Natural size."

No. 35. Red-breasted or Blue-bellied Parrot, Lath., Gen. Syn., i., pp. 212 and 213.
Psittacus hæmatodus, Lath., Ind. Orn., i., p. 87 (nec Linn.).
Trichoglossus novæ hollandiæ (Gm.), Salvad., Cat. B., xx., p. 57.

Watling's note: "Native name Goevil. This Parrot has a fine white tongue like the drawing No. 300 [= 36 of the volume], Psittacus hæmatodus var.; called the Blue-bellied Parrot, see Latham, Syn."

Nos. 36 and 37. Two-thirds the natural size. Red-breasted Parrot, Lath. Watling's note: "Native name is Goo-veel."

These three drawings are evidently intended for the same species.

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No. 38. Nonpareil Parrot, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 85.
Psittacus eximius, Shaw, Nat. Misc., pl. 93 (1792); Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxi.
Platycercus eximius (Shaw), Salvad., Cat. B., xx., p. 551.

No. 39, which, according to the list of plates, is another figure of the Nonpareil Parrot, is missing, as is also No. 40, which is said to be the same as No. 41.

No. 41. Small Parrakeet, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 88.
Psittacus pusillus, Shaw, in "White's Voyage to New South Wales," p. 262, pl. 48 (1790).
Glossopsittacus pusillus, Salvad., Cat. B., xx., p. 71.

No. 42, given in the list as the Ground Parrot of Latham (Pezoporus formosus, Lath.), is missing.

No. 43. Crimson-fronted Parrot, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 87.
Psittacus concinnus, Shaw, Nat. Misc., iii., pl. 87 (1791).
Glossopsittacus concinnus, Salvad., Cat. B., xx., p. 69.

No. 44. Red-shouldered Parrakeet, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 90.
Psittacus discolor, Shaw, in White's Voy. N.S.W., p. 263, pl. 49 (1790).
Nanodes discolor, Salvad., Cat. B., xx., p. 592.

The bird, according to Watling's note, is of the "natural size."

Nos. 45 and 46. These plates are missing, but are given in Latham's MS. list as figures of the Pennantian Parrot of Latham, Gen. Syn., Suppl. i., p. 61 (1787).
Psittacus elegans, Gm., Syst. Nat., i., p. 318 (1788).
Platycercus elegans, Salvad., Cat. B., xx., p. 541.

No. 47. Turcoisine Parrot, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 89.
Psittacus pulchellus, Shaw, Nat. Misc., pl. 96 (1792).
Neophema pulchella, Salvad., Cat. B., xx., p. 575.

Although Latham says that he described this Parraquet from the drawings of Mr. Lambert, and apparently from a specimen in the collection of General Davies, he makes use of Watling's note, which is as follows: "The two centre tail feathers are entirely green, the two next have a little yellow on the tips or points, which increases in all the tail feathers, until the two outer ones on each side are perfectly yellow; from the centre or two green feathers, the five others on each side regularly decrease in length. This is a rare bird in N.S. Wales, is of short flight,

I 2

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never seen in more than pairs, and oftener seen on the ground than perched on trees. The feathers of the head and shoulder of the wing are of the most brilliant lightest azure. The strongest quill feathers are equal as to clearness of colour, but of a middling deep mazarine blue, tipped with black. The whole of the bird's colours are delightful, but these most especially the best artist must ever despair of equalling. About a third the natural size."

No. 48. Scarlet and Green Parrot, a young female.
Aprosmictus cyanopygius (Vieill.), Salvad., Cat. B., xx., p. 486.

No. 49. Scarlet and Green Parrot. Male.

In the "General History of Birds," vol. ii., p. 116, Latham refers to the native name "Wellat" of Watling's MS. note, which reads:—"Half the natural size. Native name Wellat."

No. 50. Scarlet and Green Parrot, var. or young male.

No. 51. Scarlet and Green Parrot. Latham's MS.

Watling's note: "Female of No. 2. Half the natural size. Native name Wellat."

No. 52. Banksian Cockatoo, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 91–first.
Psittacus banksii, Lath., Ind. Orn., i., p. 107 (1790).
Calyptorhynchus banksii, Salvad., Cat. B., xx., p. 109.

Latham's description of this figure is as follows: "The first is black, except a large yellow patch under each eye, the base of all but the two middle tail-feathers buff, dotted with black; bill and legs pale; not common." He makes allusion to the drawings from New Holland, and had evidently Watling's pictures in his mind. He appears to have founded his "varieties" of the Banksian Cockatoo on the same figures and notes of Watling, who gives the following note: "From the tip of the beak to the tip of the tail 2 feet 8 inches. Native name Karratt. All the varieties of the black Cockatoos are so called; this is the most uncommon bird."

No. 53. Banksian Cockatoo, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 92, no. 3.

Watling's note: "Native name Karratt. One-fourth the natural size."

This figure is described by Latham: "Thirdly, without the yellow patch under the eye; but the black plumage sprinkled with yellow dots; the tail crimson, barred with black, just as in the Supplement to my 'Synopsis.'"

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No. 54. Banksian Cockatoo, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 21 (91), var. B.

The description given by Latham of this figure is as follows: "This is 23 inches in length; bill as in the last (lead colour), the base of it hid in the feathers; head, neck, and under parts of the body dull brown, margined on the crown and nape with olive; the body above, the wings and tail glossy black; all but the two middle feathers of the last crimson in the middle, but not banded with black."

Watling's note: "The length of this bird from the top of his head to the tip of his tail 2 feet 5 inches; the extent of the wings from tip to tip 4 feet. Native name Karrott. The most common genus in New South Wales."

No. 56. Banksian Cockatoo, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 92, no. 4.

Latham's description of this figure is as follows: "Fourthly, the yellow patch under the eye composed of pale streaked feathers; side tail-feathers deep buff yellow, mottled with brown; fore part of the neck and breast marked with pale yellow buff crescents."

Watling's note is: "Native name Karrott. A rare genus. Half the size nature."

No. 57. Scythrops novæ hollandiæ, Lath., Ind. Orn., i., p. 141 (1790); Shelley, Cat. B., xix., p. 330.

Watling's note: "The native name Goe-re-e-gang. This singular bird is by no means numerous about us, even in the months that it is seen, which are only three or four times in a year. It generally makes its appearance in October, and is seldom seen unless in the mornings and evenings; they are sometimes seen seven or eight together but oftener in pairs; both on the wing and when perched they make a strange loud screaming noise, not unlike that made by the common cock or hen, when they perceive a hawk or any other bird of prey hovering over them. Their errand to this part of New South Wales seems to be merely for the purpose of pairing, building their nests, and bringing forth their young, which when done concludes their visit, and they migrate or depart to some other quarter about January; where they frequent the other part of the year we know not. In the crop and gizzard of several which I shot I found the seeds of the red gum and peppermint trees, which I believe to be their principal food. The bill, which is strong, horny, and pointed, is well adapted for breaking and

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dividing the capsules, as is the tongue, which is small and pointed, and of a hard cartilaginous substance, for picking out the seeds. In some of their stomachs I found the capsule or pericarpium whole, which they not unfrequently swallow without waiting to pick out the seeds. I have also found in their stomachs the wings and legs of some kinds of beetles, but in a quantity that bore no proportion to the capsule and seed already spoken of. The bill (whose upper mandible is very pointed and round or bent at the extremity lapping over the under) and legs are of a lead colour, the former rather inclining to a brown; the toes are placed two forward and two behind, the two hind ones opening so as to admit the two before to be placed between them when the [bird] is sitting or perched on a limb or branch of a tree not too large for the toes to grasp or go round. The bird from which this drawing is taken was a female with a very distinct ovarium, but the eggs not formed. It measures from the tip of the bill to the white extremity of the tail 2 feet, and from the tip to tip of each wing exactly the same. The tail (which it sometimes displays like a fan) is not very short of the length of the body, and gives it in flight or sitting a very majestic appearance; the legs are rather short for the size of the bird (whole body is the size of a Crow), and partakes much of the Parrot kind. The natives know very little about its habits, haunts, etc., etc. However, they consider its appearance an indication of wind and blowing weather, and that its frightful scream is through fear, as it is not a bird of very active or quick flight. Nothing in nature can be more fiery or fierce than the uncommon clearness of the pupil eye. I had a wounded one two days alive, but could not get it to eat; it bit everything that approached it very severely."

Latham has transferred this note into his account of the Channel-bill in his "General History" (vol. ii., p. 300, pl. 32), but he attributes the story of the wounded bird to "Mr. White."

No. 58. Black-faced Crow, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 116.
Corvus melanops, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. 24.
Graucalus melanops, Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 30.

Watling's note is as follows: "Natural size. This is a bird of prey; the native name Kai-a-lora." This figure is the type of the species.

No. 59. Velvet-faced Crow, Latham [MS.]; id., Gen. Hist. B., iii., p. 35 (1822).

Apparently taken from a specimen of Edoliisoma tenuirostre

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(Jard.), but not a very correct representation, as the black on the head is more extended than in any of the Museum specimens.

No. 60. Variable Crow, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 117.
Corvus versicolor, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxv.
Strepera cuneicaudata (Vieill.), Sharpe, Cat. B., iii., p. 60.

This is certainly the same bird as Cracticus cuneicaudatus of Vieillot, 1810, so that Latham's name versicolor takes precedence. I have, by mistake, omitted Latham's reference in the "Catalogue of Birds," but G. R. Gray seems to have correctly identified the species, of which Watling's picture is the type.

His note is: "This representation is about one-quarter the size of the bird the drawing was taken from, and the only one yet seen. I had the skin, therefore the iris is doubtful; however, the general likeness is very good."

No. 61. Blue-and-white Crow, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 117.
Corvus cyanoleucus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxv.
Grallina picata (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., iii., p. 272 (1877).

Latham does not seem to have recognised these drawings as representing his "Pied Grakle" (Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 130), since he gave a new name. The synonymy in the "Catalogue of Birds" is not complete, as I have omitted these references of Latham's.

Watling's note is: "One-half the natural size. Native name Mur-re-gan."

No. 62. Blue-and-white Crow, Lath.

Watling gives the following note: "Natural size. April. Native name Karrook, a rare bird."

No. 63. Black-and-white Crow, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 117.
Corvus melanoleucus, Lath., Ind. Orn. Suppl., p. xxv.

Watling's note is: "Half the natural size. May."

I am unable to identify this drawing satisfactorily. It is evidently a black Strepera, which might be S. graculina, but it does not quite agree with the specimens, as it is figured with a white rump and white throat, which features are not to be found in S. graculina.

No. 64. Pacific Roller, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 371.
Coracias pacifica, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxv.
Eurystomus australis (Swains.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xvii, p. 36.

Watling's note is as follows: "Half the size of the bird was

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taken from. It is a rare bird, the third only that we have seen; the colours are much too dull.

This drawing is the type of Eurystomus pacificus, which name definitely takes precedence over the name of australis of Swainson. In the "Catalogue of Birds" I was not certain as to the identity of Coracias pacifica of Latham, owing, doubtless, to the description having been taken from a drawing.

No. 65. Noisy Roller, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 121.
Coracias strepera, Lath., Ind. Orn., i., p. 173.
Strepera graculina (White), Sharpe, Cat. B., iii., p. 57.

This drawing represents a black-and-white Strepera with a yellow eye, and is undoubtedly taken from a specimen of S. graculina.

The following note is given by Watling: "One half the natural size. June."

No. 66. Piping Roller, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl., p. 122.
Coracias tibicen, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxvii.
Gymnorhina tibicen, Gadow, Cat. B., viii., p. 91.

This figure is the type of Gymnorhina tibicen (Lath.). Watling's note is: "Natural size. Native name Iarra-won-nang. This bird has a soft note not unlike the sound of a well-tuned flute. It is a bird of prey." Latham, as usual, has published the original note, without acknowledgment, and has twisted it into "It preys often on small birds," which is not what Watling wrote.

No. 67. Southern Oriole, Latham MS.
= Green Grakle, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 129.
Gracula viridis, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxviii.
Oriolus riridis, Sharpe, Cat. B., iii., p. 212.

Watling's note: "Half natural size."

No. 68. White-naped Grakle, Lath. MS.

Another figure of Gymnorhina tibicen.

Watling's note: "Three-fourths of its natural size. Native name Dar-rung-a. Gracula."

No. 69. Green Grakle, Lath., Suppl. ii., p. 129. See No. 67.

A larger drawing of the Green Oriole (Oriolus riridis). Latham does not seem to have recognised the identity of Nos. 67 and 69. Watling's note says simply: "Natural size. A rare bird.' Latham writes: "Inhabits New Holland, where it is said to be a rare bird."

No. 70. Cinereous Grakle, Lath. [MS.]; id., Gen. Hist. B., iii., p. 169 (1822).

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This is, in my opinion, the Harmonic Thrush of Latham, Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 182 (= Turdus harmonicus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xli.).*

Watling's note is as follows: "Natural size, from Port Jackson. A kind of Thrush by its note."

No. 71. Brown Grakle, Latham [MS.]; id., Gen. Hist. B., iii., p. 170 (1822).
= Megalurus cruralis, Vigors and Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc., xv., p. 228 (1826).
Cinclorhamphus cruralis, Sharpe, Cat. B., vii., p. 498.

Watling's note: "This drawing is about one third the natural size. New South Wales."

No. 72. Blue-headed Cuckow, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 137.
Cuculus cyanocephalus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxx.
Eudynamis cyanocephala, Shelley, Cat. B., xix., p. 324.

This drawing is the type of the species, and is a very good representation of the Australian Koel. Watling's note is: "This is the only bird hitherto found in the country of New South Wales. Another of a similar form and magnitude but of a glossy black colour was taken at the same time, but whether of a different genus or the male and female of this species Mr. White was not able to determine. In make and character it resembles the Anomalous Hornbill; the colour is more brown." Latham gives the substance of the above note, but gives credit for it to Mr. Lambert.

No. 73. Pheasant Cuckow, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 137.
Cuculus phasianus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxx.
Centropus phasianus, Shelley, Cat. B., xix., p. 340.

Again, this drawing is the type of the species. Watling's note: "One half the natural size. Native name Tem-minck. The New South Wales Pheasant. The only one seen as yet."

No. 74. Tippet Cuckow, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 138.
Cuculus palliolatus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxx.
Misocalius palliolatus, Shelley, Cat. B., xix., p. 279.

This drawing is the type of Cuculus palliolatus of Latham.

Watling's note: "One half the natural size. A rare bird."

No. 75. Fan-tailed Cuckow, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 138, pl. cxxvi.
Cuculus flabelliformis, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxx.
Cacomantis flabelliformis, Shelley, Cat. B., xix., p. 266.

* Cf. Sharpe, Cat. Birds, iii., p. 290.

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Latham's description and figure are both taken from Watling's drawings, but his plate represents the bird as of a deeper red colour underneath than in Watling's picture, which may have faded a little; the latter writer says that the figure was of the "natural size." It is the type of the species.

No. 76. Glossy Cuckow, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 138.
Cuculus plagosus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxi.
Chalcococcyx plagosus, Shelley, Cat. B., xix., p. 297.

This is the type of Chalcococcyx plagosus of Latham, who says that he is indebted to Mr. Lambert for some of the birds described by him; so that it may be that Latham, when he had these drawings before him, had received them from Mr. Lambert. It is curious that Watling's name is not mentioned, as many of the drawings bear his signature; nor is that of his employer, Mr. James Lee.

Watling's note: "The natural size. The yellow does not appear so bright as in the bird, and what is very singular in this bird it has two claws, before and behind the feet."

No. 77. Great Brown Kingfisher, Lath., Gen. Syn., ii, p. 609.
Alcedo gigantea, Lath., Ind. Orn., i., p. 245.
Dacelo gigas (Bodd.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xvii., p. 204.

Watling's note is: "Two thirds the natural size. Native name Goo-ge-na-gan."

No. 78. Great Brown Kingfisher, Lath., Gen. Syn., ii., p. 609.

Another figure of Dacelo gigas, but with a more rufous tail (i.e. female bird) and darker under-surface, the blue on the wings indicated more plainly.

Watling's note is: "This bird lives on insects, worms, etc., principally; though sometimes seeds are found in its crop. It is by no means numerous and very solitary; still from its note, which is that of a human loud and continued laugh, it might be considered a cheerful bird. The natives call it Googanegang, but with us it has the appellation of the Laughing Bird. None of them have ever been observed pairing, nor has any of their nests been found. The largest I have ever seen was the one from which this drawing was taken—from the bill end to the tip of the tail it measured 16½ inches, and from tip to tip of the wings 18 inches. It is a bird of slow and short flight, and scems when on the wings to have some difficulty to support its fore-part, which regularly from the head and bill (which is large and strong) to the tail decreases in size. The feet are of a lead colour with black claws, and small in proportion to the size of the

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bird. I have seen the feathers on the head form a more complete crest than the drawing exhibits; however, in other respects it is a faithful copy. Native name Goo-ge-ne-gang, likewise this is called the Laughing Jack Ass."

No. 79. Sacred Kingfisher, variety.
Azure Kingfisher, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 372.
Alcedo azurea, Lath., Ind., Orn., Suppl., p. xxxii.
Alcyone azurea, Sharpe, Cat. B., xvii, p. 168.

This is a very good figure of Alcyone azurea, and has nothing to do with the Sacred Kingfisher, with which Latham attempts to identify it. Watling gives no note to this figure.

No. 80. Collared Kingfisher, variety.
Halcyon sanctus (Vig. and Horsf.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xvii., p. 267.

A fairly good picture of H. sanctus, but not quite accurate, as the artist has exaggerated the white nape-patch so as to form a kind of collar.

Watling's note: "Natural size."

No. 81. Orange-winged Nuthatch, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 146, pl. 127.
Sitta chrysoptera, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxii.
Sittella chrysoptera, Gadow, Cat. B., viii., p. 360.
Neositta chrysoptera, Sharpe, Handl. B., iv., p. 351 (1903).

This figure is the type of Sitta chrysoptera, and the figure in Latham's "Synopsis" seems to have been copied from Watling's drawing.

Watling's note is: "Three fourths of its natural size. Native name Mur-ri-gang. Very rare."

No. 82. The same as No. 81.

Watling's note: "Two thirds the natural size. Under the tail a fine white [patch], barred irregularly with black. A rare bird."

No. 83. Red-breasted Tody, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 147.
Todus rubecula, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxii.
Myiagra rubecula, Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 373.

Watling gives the following note, much of which is transcribed in Latham's description: "Almost the natural size. This little bird has a bifid tongue. The points on each side the cleft are a little divided or feathered. It is the second of the kind I have seen in the course of six years' residence in N. S. Wales. The contour in general resemblance is good."

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No. 84. Variegated Bee-eater, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 155, pl. cxxviii.
Merops ornatus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxv.; Sharpe, Cat. B., xvii., p. 74.

Latham described this species from a specimen in the collection of General Davies, but he mentions a figure as being among "Mr. Lambert's collection of drawings." The figure in Latham's work is an impossible one, whereas Watling's figure is by no means bad. He gives the following note: "The same size as the bird this drawing was taken from; the colours are more brilliant. Native name Dee-weed-gang."

No. 85 is said to be the same as 84, but the drawing appears to be missing.

No. 86. Wattled Bee-eater, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 150.
Merops carunculatus, Lath., Ind. Orn., I., p. 276.
Acanthochæra carunculata, Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 263.

This drawing is mentioned by Latham (l.c). as being in Mr. Lambert's collection, and he adopts Watling's note, given herewith, almost in its entirety: "Native name Goo-gwar-ruck, which much resembles a word it is constantly chattering. Half the natural size. This bird much frequents the sea shores, where it is pretty numerous. It is a chattering bird, and lives on insects and sucking honey from the different Banksias. When other birds even larger than themselves and stronger approaches them it drives them away."

No. 87. Cowled Bee-eater, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 155.
Merops monachus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxiv.
Philemon corniculatus, Lath.; Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 271.

In his list of Watling's Plates, Latham identifies this figure (87) as the Knob-fronted Bee-eater (= Merops corniculatus, Lath., Ind. Orn., i., p. 276), but in his note on the plate itself, he seems to think that the two birds are the same, and this view is no doubt correct.

Watling's note is as follows: "About one third of the natural size. This bird is generally found perching upon the topmost boughs of the tall trees. Its food is insects and honey, which it extracts from plants and flowering shrubs. The Paroquets hold it in enmity, nor do they ever part before a severe combat."

"It varies from the Knob-fronted [Bee-eater] in the sex or age."

No. 88. Cowled Bee-eater (juv.).

Watling's note: "Native name Wergan, or a Friar. January.

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Two thirds the natural size; it is supposed to be a young bird. It varies from the Knob-fronted [Bee-eater] in sex or size."

No. 89. Golden-winged Bee-eater, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 153.
Merops chrysopterus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl. ii., p. xxxiii.
Mellivorous Bee-eater, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 166.
Acanthochæra mellivora (Lath.), Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 264.

The oldest name for A. mellivora appears to be A. chrysoptera (Lath.), both being founded on Watling's drawings. His notes are quoted by Latham, as follows: "One half the natural size. Called from our English people Querrick, from its note. Native name Wad-de-ar-gal."

No. 90. Golden-winged Bee-eater, Lath.

Watling's note is: "Native name Goo-gwar-ruck. Natural size; it lives on flies, insects, and sucking honey from the Banksias, etc."

"This genus of Flycatcher are very numerous in N. S. Wales, and seldom seen but near the seashore, especially about where the natives resort. It is a most active lively bird, constantly in action, either sucking honey, taking flies, or contending with other birds. Two or three of these kind will rout a flock of the Blue-bellied Parrots, a genus which they are often engaged with."

No. 91. Black-eared Bee-eater, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 153.
Merops auritus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxiv.

Watling's note: "Natural size." This is a chestnut-coloured bird, depicted with a brush-tipped tongue. Otherwise I should have identified it as a Cinclosoma and probably intended for C. cinnamomeum. In view of the tongue, however, I consider that the species cannot be properly identified.

No. 92. Black-and-yellow Bee-eater, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 154.
Merops phrygius, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxiv.
Meliphaga phrygia, Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 221.

This is the type of Merops phrygius of Latham, who admits that his description is taken from the "drawings of Mr. Lambert."

Watling's note: "Natural size."

No. 93. Black-and-yellow Bee-eater.

The colour of the bird in this picture has apparently very much changed with time, but Latham seems to have had no

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doubt of its identity with No. 92, and he must have examined the drawing in its early days.

Watling's note: "About half the natural size. The light tint round the eye is not plumage but a kind of fleshy excrescence, resembling in substance the gills of a cock or hen."

No. 94. Blue-cheeked Bee-eater, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 154.
Merops cyanops, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxiv.
Entomyza cyanotis (Lath.), Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 268.

Latham first described this bird as the Blue-eared Grakle (Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 130), from a specimen in General Davies' collection. He afterwards named it Gracula cyanotis (Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxix.). He does not seem to have recognised that his "Blue-cheeked Bee-eater" was the same bird, and therefore Merops cyanops (Lath.) = Entomyza cyanotis (Lath.).

Watling's note: "Two thirds the natural size. Native name Der-ro-gang."

No. 95. Blue-cheeked Bee-eater, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 154.

Watling's note: "One half natural size."

Black-headed Grakle, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii. p. 129.
Gracula melanocephala, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxviii.

No. 96. Chattering Bee-eater, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 154.
Merops garrulus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxiv.
Manorhina garrula, Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 260.

The original description was taken from a specimen in General Davies' collection. Latham does not seem to have recognised Watling's drawings as belonging to the same species, and bestowed a new name, cyanops, upon the bird.

Watling's note: "One half the natural size. This chattering bird often gives notice to the Kangaroo when the sportsmen are after them. It is pretty numerous, and always at war with others of the feathered kind. The yellow behind the eye is bare of feathers, and has just the appearance of yellow Morocco leather. The general likeness is good."

No. 97. Chattering Bee-eater.

A full-sized picture of Myzantha garrula.

Watling's note: "Natural size. The iris is doubtful. A chattering bird and often prevents the sportsman from getting a shot at the Potrigorang."

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No. 98. New Holland Creeper, White, Journ. N. S. Wales, pp. 186, 297, pls. 15, 65; Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 161.
Certhia novæ hollandiæ, Lath., Ind. Orn., i., p. 296.
Meliornis novæ hollandiæ (Lath.), Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 253.

This figure is not the type of the species, the birds having been figured by White.

Watling's note: "Natural size. Native name Balgonera. January."

No. 99. Black-eyed Creeper, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 165.
Certhia melanops, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxvi.
Glyciphila fulvifrons (Lewin), Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 210.

This is the type of Certhia melanops of Latham, founded on the "Black-eyed Creeper," of which Dr. Gadow doubted the identity. There need be no further question, however, on this point, and the species must be called Glyciphila melanops (Lath.).

Watling's note: "Natural size. A honey bird. A Flycatcher."

No. 100. Black-eyed Creeper, variety.

Watling's note: "Natural size. This bird has a whistling note and lives on honey, etc."

No. 101. Black-eyed Creeper.

Watling's note: "The same size as the bird the drawing was taken from."

No. 102. Slender-billed Creeper, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 165, pl. cxxix.
Certhia tenuirostris, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxvi.
Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris, Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 144.

This drawing is the type of A. tenuirostris (Lath.). Watling's note: "Natural size."

No. 103. Slender-billed Creeper, female.

Watling's note: "Natural size. This bird lives on flies and honey; when flying it makes a singular noise as if the tips of the wings were beat together under the bird's belly. It hovers over flowers and extracts honey with its brush tongue."

No. 104. Mellivorous Creeper, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 166.*
Certhia mellivora, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxvii.
Acanthochæra mellivora, Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 264.

* Cf. fig. 89.

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Watling's note: "One-half the natural size. Native name Goo-gwar-ruck."

No. 105. Black-headed Creeper, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 167.
Certhia atricapilla, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxvii.

This figure is intended for the bird usually called Melithreptus lanulatus (Shaw); cf. Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 204. Shaw's name is adopted by Dr. Gadow, but I cannot reconcile the description given by Shaw (Gen. Zool., viii., p. 224, 1811)—with the "back, wings, and tail cinnamon-brown"—with any species of Melithreptus. The name ought to have been dropped on this account, but it matters no longer, as Latham's name of atricapilla antedates Shaw's name by ten years.

No. 106. Identified by Latham as his "Black-headed Creeper," but it is a very poor representation, the back being brown, and no sign of the white on the nape.

No. 107. Cochineal Creeper, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 167.
Certhia dibapha, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxvii.
Myzomela sanguinolenta (Lath.); Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. xxxvii.

Watling's note: "The natural size." (See No. 108.)

No. 108. Cochineal Creeper.

This is the type of Latham's "Cochineal Creeper," as is further proved by his adoption, without acknowledgment, of Watling's note: "A rare bird, only seen in the spring."

C. dibapha is a synonym of M. sanguinolenta (Lath.), but Latham does not seem to have recognised the fact from the drawings.

No. 109. Sanguineous Creeper, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 167, pl. cxxx.
Certhia sanguinolenta, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxvii.
Myzomela sanguinolenta, Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 131.

This is the type of Latham's "Sanguineous Creeper," and I believe the plate in the second "Supplement" to the "General Synopsis" to have been taken from Watling's figure.

No. 110. Cærulean Creeper, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 169.
Certhia cærulescens, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxviii.
Zosterops cærulescens, Sharpe, Cat. B., ix., p. 152.

This is evidently intended for a Zosterops, but the colours are not very exact. The white eyelid is shown in Watling's drawing, which is of the "natural size." Latham does not mention

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the white eyelid in his description, which, however, is manifestly founded on Watling's picture, which thus becomes the type of Z. cærulescens (Lath.).

No. 111. Agile Creeper, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 168.
Certhia agilis, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxviii.

Latham's name is not founded on this drawing, which I am unable to identify. Dr. Gadow apparently did not know of the name. The bird is depicted as grey above, white below, with a brush-tongue. Watling says that the bird is of the "natural size."

No. 112. Yellow-winged Creeper, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 168.
Certhia pyrrhoptera, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxviii.
Melioruis australasiana (Shaw); Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 252.

"Watling's note: "Natural size. The only one of the kind ever shot. It is a rare bird."

There is no doubt that this drawing is the type of Latham's "Yellow-winged Creeper," and therefore his name of pyrrhoptera, which Dr. Gadow doubted as belonging to M. australasiana of Shaw, takes precedence over the latter name, which is founded on "L'Heoro-Taire noir et blanc" of Vieillot. The species must, therefore, bear the name of Meliornis pyrrhoptera (Lath.), unless this be considered inappropriate for a yellow-winged bird.

No. 113. Yellow-winged Creeper.

Latham identifies this as the same as No. 112, but it looks quite different, and has red on the quills, so that it is evident that this suggested the name of pyrrhoptera. No black on the neck or wing-coverts is shown, and I cannot identify the species, which is evidently intended for a Honey-sucker, as the brush-tongue is carefully indicated.

Watling's note is: "Natural size. A Flycatcher."

No. 114. Hoary Creeper, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 168.
Certhia canescens, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxvii.

This is another brush-tongued bird of a grey colour, with a light pinkish breast. I know of no Meliphagine bird to which the name could be applied. Watling says that his drawing is of the "natural size."

No. 115. Yellow-eared Creeper, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 169.
Certhia chrysotis, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxviii.

This figure represents Ptilotis lewini of Gadow's "Catalogue,

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ix., p. 229, and the latter species should, therefore, stand as P. chrysotis (Lath.).

Watling's note: "One half the natural size. This bird, which is not very common in New South Wales, has one single sweet whistling note. It is very shy and seldom seen, and, as most small birds in this country, it has a feathered tongue for the purpose of catching flies, etc., and sucking honey from the flowers and plants on which most of them live."

No. 116. Missing.

No. 117. Yellow-eared Creeper.

Latham has confused this figure with the foregoing. It seems to have been drawn from a specimen of Ptilotis fusca of Gould. This figure may have been taken from a bird in worn plumage.

No. 118. Yellow-eared Creeper.

Here again Latham has confounded a very different species, and there can be no doubt, I think, that the bird figured is not Ptilotis chrysotis (M. 115), but is Sylvia chrysops, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. liv. (Black-cheeked Warbler—not Honey-eater, as Gadow quotes it—of Latham, Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 248).

Watling's note is: "Natural size. This bird has a pleasant whistling note."

No. 119. Yellow-eared Creeper.

This is also identified by Latham with the foregoing pictures, but it is evidently meant for a small figure of P. lewini (= P. chrysotis [Lath.]).

Watling's note is: "Half the natural size. It is a very lively bird, sucks honey out of the gum-tree flowers, and catches flies, insects, etc."

No. 120. Red-rumped Creeper, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 169.
Certhia crythropygia, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxviii.
Myzomela sanguinolenta (Lath.), Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 131.*

This figure represents a young bird, as the scarlet plumage is very slightly indicated, and is evidently the same as the Sanguineous Creeper.

Watling gives the figure as of the "natural size," and says that it is a "rare bird."

No. 121. Black-eyed Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 181.
Turdus melanops, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xl.
Ptilotis auricomis (Lath.), Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 242.

* Cf. figs. 107–109.

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Watling's note: "Natural size. The native name of this very common bird in New South Wales is Dar-wang. It is a very lively bird, and by us called the Yellow-eared Flycatcher. The tongue is feathered at the tip for sucking honey, which it is very fond of. It builds its nest on the pensile branch of some trees or low shrubs, as I suppose, to avoid the opossum, flying squirrel, lizards, guana, and birds and mice. The yellow at ears are tufts of feathers longer than those on the other part of the head."

No. 122. Black-eyed Thrush.

This figure is the type of the "Yellow-tufted Flycatcher" of Latham (Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 215, = Muscicapa auricomis, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xlix.). The species, therefore, must bear the name of Ptilotis melanops (vide supra, No. 121).

Watling's note: "Half the natural size. Native name Dar-wang."

No. 123. Doubtful Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 182.
Turdus dubius, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xl.
Sisura inquieta (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 407.

This is the type of the "Doubtful Thrush," which has been correctly referred to S. inquieta by many writers. Watling's note: "The same size as the bird the drawing was taken from."

No. 124. Lunulated Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 184.
Turdus lunulatus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xlii.
Geocichla lunulata, Seebohm, Cat. B., v., p. 155.

The figure is taken from a bird which has apparently lost most of its tail-feathers, so that it is impossible to state whether the characters for the species are as stated by Mr. Seebohm (t.c., p. 149). It is a good figure of an Oreocichla, and is the type of O. lunulata (Lath.). According to Watling's note, it is of the "natural size."

No. 125. Yellow-bellied Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 187.
Turdus melinus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xliv.
Sericulus melinus, Sharpe, Cat. B., vi., p. 395.

"Watling's note: "Natural size. Sexual differences. May."

The only bird for which this figure could be intended seems to me to be Sphecotheres flaviventris, Gould, but this species has not a red bill, and does not occur in New South Wales. At any rate, the figure is not exact enough for me to recommend the supersession of Gould's name.

Watling's figure is, of course, the type of Turdus melinus of

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Latham, a name universally applied to the Regent Bird (Sericulus). This it certainly is not, and the name must be dropped, and the latter species called Sericulus chrysocephalus (Lewin).

No. 126. Pale-cheeked Honey-eater, Lath. [MS.]; id., Gen. Hist. B., iv., p. 167 (1822).
Manorhina melanophrys (Lath.); Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 259.

This is undoubtedly the same as No. 149 (vide infra), the latter figure being the type of M. melanophrys (Lath.).

Watling's note: "Natural size. November."

No. 127. Coach-Whip Flycatcher, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 222.
Muscicapa crepitans, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. li.
Psophodes crepitans, Sharpe, Cat. B., vii., p. 350.

This is the type of Latham's "Coach-Whip Flycatcher." He annexes Watling's paragraph on the note of the bird, but says that the native name is "Djow."

Watling's note is as follows: "One-half the natural size. Native name Wan-nang. This bird, from a single note resembling the crack of a coachman's whip, is called the Coach-Whip Flycatcher."

No. 128. White-crowned Honey-eater, Lath. MS.; id., Gen. Hist. B., iv., p. 169 (1822).
Meliornis australasiana (Shaw), Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 252.

Watling's note: "Very numerous and common in New South Wales. Native name Balganera. Half the size of nature."

No. 129. White-naped Honey-eater, Lath. [MS.]; id., Gen. Hist. B., iv., p. 168 (1822).
Melithreptus lunnulatus (Shaw), Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 204.

Watling's drawing is of the "natural size."

No. 130. White-naped Honey-eater, Lath. MS. (See No. 129.)

Watling's note: "Natural size. A male bird. December."

No. 131. White-naped Honey-eater, Lath. MS. (See No. 129.)

Watling's note: "Natural size. It is a lively little bird; frequently contends with small Parrots for flowers. March."

No. 132. White-crowned Honey-eater, Lath. [MS.]; Gen. Hist. B., iv., p. 169 (1822). (See No. 128.)
Blue-eared Grakle, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 130 (founded on a description given by General Davies).
Gracula cyanotis, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxix.
Blue-cheeked Bee-eater, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 154.
Merops cyanops, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxiv.
Blue-cheeked Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 184.

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Turdus cyanous [cyaneus], Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xlii.
Entomyza cyanotis (Lath.), Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 268.

A poor figure, but it can only be referred to E. cyanotis, which Latham has described under several names.

Watling's note: "Half the natural size. The yellow or willow-green about the eye is entirely bare of feathers, resembling much yellow morocco leather. The white on the vertex forms a crescent, with its concave side towards the bill; the dark feathers from which to the bill are very short and thin, and of a deep lead colour. The belly and feathers of the tail about the vent are white, except just under the lower mandible, where they are of a deep lead colour for about 1½ inches running down the breast. It has only one shrill whistling note, which it is constantly repeating. It hops like the Magpie, has a feathered tongue, catches flies and insects of every kind, on which it principally lives, and I am rather inclined to think sometimes kills and eats small birds, from its attacking a Warbler I one day put into the cage where I kept it for some time after being wounded. This bird is very rare, and the only one seen."

No. 133. Mustachoe Flycatcher, Latham, Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 221.
Muscicapa mystacea, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. li.
Ptilotis auricomis, Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 242 (vide supra, no. 121).

Watling gives the following note: "Two thirds the natural size. This bird is often seen contending with small Parroquets."

No. 134. Black-cheeked Warbler, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 248.
Sylvia chrysops, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. liv.
Ptilotis chrysops, Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 236.

This is the type of Sylvia chrysops of Latham.

Watling's note: "Half the natural size. It has a brush tongue, and is a lively little bird; it lives a good deal on honey."

No. 135. The Flycatcher.

Watling's note: "One third of the natural size. It has a feathered tongue." This is a brown bird, whitish underneath, but I am unable to identify the species.

No. 136.

Watling's note: "Half the natural size of the bird this drawing was taken from." This has received no name from Latham, as in the case of the preceding. I cannot identify the

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species, the figure not having the bill of a Honey-eater, though it is represented with a brush-tongue.

No. 137.

Watling's note: "Honey-eater. Natural size."

No. 138.

Watling's note: "Honey-eater. Natural size."

The two figures, 137, 138, represent some small species of Passerine bird, but I have not been able to identify them.

139. Dirigang Creeper, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 166.
Certhia leucophæa, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xxxvi.
Climacteris scandens (Temm.), Gadow, Cat. B., viii., p. 337.

This figure is the type of Latham's "Dirigang Creeper," and Dr. Gadow has wrongly identified the species. The bird which he calls Climacteris scandens of Temminck is the true C. leucophæa (Latham), and C. leucophæa, Gadow (Cat., p. 336), nec Latham, should stand as C. picumnus, Temm. [Cf. Hellmayr, Tierr., 18. Lief., Paridæ, etc., p. 224 (1903).] Mr. Hellmayr rightly points out that Strickland and others were wrong in assigning Latham's name of leucophæa to C. picumnus, but he did not succeed in identifying Latham's description, and places his Certhia leucophæa among the doubtful species of Meliphaga.

Watling's note: "Half the natural size. Native name Derigong. A small Woodpecker of New South Wales."

No. 40 (no. 1). Black-breasted Flycatcher, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 222.
Muscicapa pectoralis, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. li.
Pachycephala gutturalis (Lath.), Gadow, Cat. B., viii., p. 192.

Latham writes: "This species is found at New South Wales, in April." The figure is the type of M. pectoralis of Latham, which, in strict priority, takes precedence of his Turdus gutturalis, and the species should be known as Pachycephala pectoralis (Lath.).

Watling's note: "Natural size. April."

No. 140 (no. 2). Guttural Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 182.
Turdus gutturalis, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xli.
Pachycephala gutturalis (Lath.), Gadow, Cat. B., viii., p. 192.

Latham says: "Inhabits New Holland; not unfrequently seen at Port Jackson in the winter months." Watling's note is:

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"Natural size. The yellow is much brighter than the bird supposed to be a female of no. 1, and a very rare bird, never seen before in the cold or winter months."

No. 141. Prasine Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 183.
Turdus prasinus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xli.
Pachycephala gutturalis (Lath.), Gadow, Cat. B., viii., p. 192.

This figure is probably intended to represent a young male of P. gutturalis. The dark spot under the eye, mentioned by Latham, is the first indication of the approach to the adult plumage of the male.

Watling's note: "Natural size. December."

No. 142. Appears to be the same bird in slightly different plumage and placed in another position.

Watling's note: "The natural size of the bird this drawing was taken from. December."

No. 143. Volatile Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 183.
Turdus volitans, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xli.
Sisura inquieta (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 407.

This figure represents the same bird to which Latham has applied the names of "Restless Thrush," "Doubtful Thrush," and "Flycatching Thrush."

No. 144. Brown-crowned Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 184.
Turdus tenebrosus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xlii.
Artamus sordidus (Lath.); Sharpe, Cat. B., xiii., p. 19.

This figure represents the young of the Sordid Thrush, Turdus sordidus, Lath. As the name appears on an earlier page than T. sordidus, it must take precedence, and the species must be called Artamus tenebrosus (Lath.).

Watling says that the figure is the natural size.

No. 145. Blue-cheeked Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 184.
Turdus cyanous [cyaneus], Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xlii.
Entomyza cyanotis (Lath.); Gadow, Cat. B., viii., p. 268.

Watling's note: "Two thirds the natural size. The blue part round the eyes is bare of feathers and resembles a soft silky leather."

No. 146. Blue-cheeked Thrush.

A larger figure of the same bird.

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Watling's note: "The natural size. This rare and curious bird has a singular whistling note. It is often seen pursuing smaller birds. The general likeness is good and is a strong copy."

No. 147. Sooty Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 185.
Turdus fuliginosus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xlii.

This name is not quoted by Mr. Seebohm, but there can be no doubt but that it is the Norfolk Island Thrush (= the Ash-headed Thrush of Latham, Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 373). In this volume of Watling's drawings there are pictures of mammals and birds from Norfolk Island, showing that he had been there. The name of Merula poliocephala (Gould) must give way to that of M. fuliginosa (Lath.).

No. 148. Blue-headed Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 185.
Turdus cyanocephalus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xliii.

It is difficult to say what this figure is intended to represent. I know of no bird from New South Wales anything like it.

Watling's note: "Natural size. It is an uncommon bird. We know nothing of its habits, etc."

No. 149. Black-browed Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 185.
Turdus melanophrys, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xlii.
Manorhina melanophrys, Gadow, Cat. B., viii., p. 259.

This drawing is the type of Latham's description of the Black-browed Thrush, Manorhina melanophrys (Lath.).

Watling's note: "The tongue is short and very brushy. Native name Dill-ring."

No. 150. Flycatching Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 185.
Turdus musticola, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xliii.
Sizura inquieta (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 407.

This species has been described by Latham four times under different names.

Watling's note: "One half the natural size. Native name Barra Well-Well."

No. 151. Maxillary Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 186.
Turdus maxillaris, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xliii.
Sphecotheres maxillaris (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., iii., p. 224.

Watling's note: "The natural size of the bird the drawing was taken from. December."

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No. 152. Sordid Thrush, Latham, Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 186.
Turdus sordidus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xliii.
Artamus sordidus, Sharpe, Cat. B., xiii., p. 19.

This figure is the type of Latham's description of the Sordid Thrush, Artamus sordidus (Lath.).

Watling's note: "Natural size. Native name Goo-le-bee."

No. 153. Frivolous Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 186.
Turdus frivolus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xliii.
Pomatorhinus temporalis (Vig. and Horsf.), Sharpe, Cat. B., viii., p. 418.

This figure is the type of Latham's description of the Frivolous Thrush. The species should in future bear the name of Pomatorhinus frivolus (Lath.).

Watling says that his figure is of the natural size.

The white tips to tail feathers are not given in the figure, as they were in P. temporalis, but there is no doubt as to the species.

No. 154. Short-winged Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 187.
Turdus brachypterus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xliii.
Sphenura brachyptera, Sharpe, Cat B., vii., p. 104.

This drawing is the type on which Latham founded his description of the Short-winged Thrush, Sphenura brachyptera (Lath.).

Watling's note: "Natural size. This is a ground bird with very small wings and very short flight."

No. 155. Variable Warbler, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 250.
Pipra versicolora, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lvi.
? Chalcococcyx plagosus (Lath.), Shelley, Cat. B., xix., p. 297.

Watling gives the following note: "Almost the natural size. This bird is of very short flight; its food moths, flies, and other insects. The largest interior feathers of the tail are of a dark stone colour barred with white."

No. 156. Bearded Thrush, Lath. [MS.]; id., Gen. Hist. B., v., p. 129 (1822).
? Ptilotis cassidix (Jard.), Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 243.

Watling's note: "Natural size. December."

No. 157. Grey-headed Thrush, Lath. [MS.]; id., Gen. Hist. B., v., p. 118 (1822).
= Harmonic Thrush, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 182.

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Turdus harmonicus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xli.
Collyriocincla harmonica (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., iii., p. 290.

Watling's note: "This is a solitary bird. It has a melodious note not unlike a Thrush, but it does not warble."

No. 158. Thrush.

Watling's note: "Natural size."

No. 159. Thrush.

Watling's note: "One third of the natural size.'

No. 160. Thrush.

Watling's note: "Natural size. Native name Goo-lang-a-ga."

No. 161. Thrush.

Watling's note: "Natural size. A ground bird and of very short flight."

No. 162. Thrush.

Watling's note: "Natural size."

No. 164. Black-lined Grosbeak, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii.
Loxia bella, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xlvi.
Zonæginthus bellus, Sharpe, Cat. B., xiii., p. 293.

This figure is the type of Latham's description of the Black-lined Grosbeak, Zonæginthus bellus (Lath.).

Watling's note: "Native name Wee-bong. Natural size, the only one yet seen. May."

No. 163. Nitid Grosbeak, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 198, pl. cxxxi.
Loxia nitida, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xlvii.
Zonæginthus bellus (Lath.).

This figure is the type on which Latham based his description of the Nitid Grosbeak. It = Zonæginthus bellus (Lath.).

Watling's note: "Natural size. June."

No. 165. White-headed Finch, Female, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 210.
Fringilla lencocephala, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xlviii.
Staganophura guttata (Shaw), Sharpe, Cat. B., xiii., p. 292.

Watling says: "Two thirds of the natural size."

No. 166. Temporal Finch, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 211.
Fringilla temporalis, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. xlviii.
Ægintha temporalis (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xiii., p. 372.

This figure is the type of Latham's description of the Temporal Finch, Ægintha temporalis (Lath.).

Watling says the "Native name is Goo-lung-ag-ga. It is a very common bird in New South Wales, easily domesticated, and

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of a lively disposition even when in a cage, and in a day or two it is easily reconciled."

Latham says: "Several drawings of birds probably allied to this have come under our observation. In one of them the bill is crimson, a broad streak of the same over the eye, and the rump and vent crimson also; the crown rather full of feathers; the whole of the upper parts of the plumage and tail, beneath greenish white, with a slight reddish tinge on the breast; tail short. In another the bill was pale red, the streak over the eye and rump crimson; tail short as in the other; the plumage above greenish brown, beneath cinereous white.

"For these I am indebted to the drawings of General Davies, and in those of Mr. Lambert I have remarked a third, in which the upper parts were green, the under greenish white; bill, streak over the eye, and rump crimson; but differed from the others in having the tail much longer."

All these said to inhabit New South Wales.

No. 167. Temporal Finch.

Watling writes: "One third larger than the natural size."

No. 168. Temporal Finch.

Watling says that the drawing is "natural size," and gives the native name as Deroo-gnan.

No. 169. Red-bellied Flycatcher.
Petrœca leggei, Sharpe, Cat. B., Brit. Mus., iv., p. 165.

Nos. 170 and 171.? Petrœca multicolor.

No. 172.? Petrœca rosea.

Nos. 169 ♂, 173 ♀, 174 ♀. Petrœca leggei.

No. 175. Southern Flycatcher, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 219.
Muscicapa australis, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. l.

No. 176. Rufous-fronted Flycatcher, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 220.
Muscicapa rufifrons, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. l.
Rhipidura rufifrons (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 319.

This and the following figure are the types of Latham's description of the Rufous-fronted Flycatcher.

Watling gives the following note: "One-half the natural size. This bird is of very short flight and found among brush, rotten wood, and long grass."

Latham says: "Inhabits New South Wales, where it is known by the name of Burril: has hitherto only been met with in November."

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No. 177. Rufous-fronted Flycatcher.

Watling gives the following note: "Natural size. Native name Burril. November."

No. 179. Crimson-bellied Flycatcher, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 221.
Muscicapa coccinigastra, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. l.

Watling says: "Natural size. The only one of this kind yet seen."

Latham writes: "Inhabits New South Wales: specimens of this species are scarce."

No. 180. Black-cheeked Flycatcher, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 221.
Muscicapa barbata, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. li.
Sericornis citreogularis (Gould), Sharpe, Cat. B., vii., p. 302.

This figure is the type on which Latham based his description of the Black-cheeked Flycatcher (Muscicapa barbata). The species will, therefore, in future have to take the name of Sericornis barbata (Lath.).

Watling gives the figure as of natural size and the month of July.

No. 182. Grey Flycatcher, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 223.
Muscicapa flarigastra, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lii.
Eopsaltria australis (Lath.), Gadow, Cat. B., viii., p. 176.

Watling gives the figure as: "Natural size."

No. 183. Rose-breasted Flycatcher, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 223.
Muscicapa rhodogastra, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lii.
Petrœca multicolor (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 168.

This figure is evidently a drawing of the female of P. multicolor, the male being represented on plate No. 170.

Watling says: "This bird is from Norfolk Island," and gives the figure as of "Natural size."

No. 184. Soft-tailed Flycatcher, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 224, ex Shaw.
Muscicapa malachura, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lii.
Stipiturus malacrurus (Shaw), Sharpe, Cat. B., vii., p. 100.

Watling gives the figure as: "Natural size, and the native name Mur-re-a-ncra."

No. 185. Soft-tailed Flycatcher, Lath. (Female).

Watling says: "This the natural size. The bird is of a very short flight, seldom exceeding an hundred yards at most. It is so feeble and delicate as to be run down with the utmost ease.

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Native name Mereangeree. From a resemblance of the feathers of the tail (when in flight seems too heavy for the body) to those of the Casuary in New South Wales, and denominated the Emu, or Casuary Titmouse."

No. 186. Soft-tailed Flycatcher, Lath. (Male).

No. 187. Orange-rumped Flycatcher, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 225.
Muscicapa melanocephala, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lii.
Malurus melanocephalus (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 296.

This figure, which is the type of Latham's description of the Orange-rumped Flycatcher, is a young male of Malurus melanocephalus (Lath.).

Watling says the figure is the "natural size."

No. 188. Orange-backed Flycatcher, Lath. MS.
= Orange-rumped Flycatcher, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 225.

This figure represents the adult male of Malurus melanocephalus, fig. 187.

Watling says: "Qu. if not the other sex of the Orange-rumped. See drawing 187. Natural size. Native name (?)."

No. 189. Scarlet-breasted Flycatcher, Lath. MS.
Petrœca phœnicca (Gould), Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 166.

Watling's note: "Half the natural size. Native name Karreet. This domestic little bird frequents fields and gardens, as does the Robin in England, and it is called the Robin of New South Wales and Norfolk Island, where it is still more numerous than in New South Wales. This is a male; the female's breast is of a much paler colour, and the back, head and tail, instead of being nearly black, is a brown."

No. 190. Pied Flycatcher, Lath. MS.; id., Gen. Hist. B., vi., p. 207 (1823).
= Petrœca bicolor (Vig. and Horsf.), Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 173.

This drawing must have been intended for P. bicolor, though it is not a correct figure.

Watling's note: "Half the natural size."

No. 191. Barred-tailed Flycatcher, Lath. MS.; id., Gen. Hist. B., vi., p. 221 (1823).

Watling says: "The wings are too small for the body. It is found in the grass and a bird of short flight. Natural size."

No. 192. New Holland Lark, Lath. MS.; id., Gen. Hist. B., vi., p. 307 (1823).
? Anthus australis (Vig. and Horsf.), Sharpe, Cat. B., x., p. 615.

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Watling says the figure is two thirds the natural size and gives the name of New South Wales Lark.

No. 193. New Holland Lark, Male, Lath. MS. (See No. 192.)
Anthus australis (Vig. and Horsf.), Sharpe, Cat. B., x., p. 615.

Watling gives the following note: "Natural size. It is the Lark of New South Wales. Only seen in the winter."

No. 194. New Holland Wagtail, Lath. MS.
Rhipidura albiscapa (Gould), Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 310.

Watling gives the following note: "Natural size. It has the air and actions of a Wagtail."

No. 196. Streaked Warbler, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 247.
Sylvia sagittata, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. liv.
Chthonicola sagittata (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., vii., p. 290.

This figure is the type of Latham's description of the Streaked Warbler.

Watling gives the following note: "Natural size. This bird sings remarkably well."

No. 197. Streaked Warbler, Lath.

Watling's note is as follows: "Female. Natural size. March."

No. 198. Streaked Warbler, Female, Lath.

Watling says that his figure is one half the natural size.

No. 200. Chaste Warbler, Latham, Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 249.
Sylvia casta, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lv.

Watling says the figure is the natural size.

No. 201. White-tailed Warbler, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 249.
Sylvia leucophæa, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lv.
Micrœca fascinans (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 123.

Watling says: "One half the natural size. This little bird follows the gardeners and workmen, picking up worms, etc. It is very familiar."

No. 202. Ruddy Warbler, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 249
Sylvia rubricata, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lv.
Cacomantis flabelliformis (Lath.), Shelley, Cat. B., xix. p. 266.

No. 203. Ruddy Warbler, Female, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 249.
Sylvia rubricata, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lv.

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Eopsaltria australis (Lath.), Gadow, Cat. B., viii., p. 176.

Watling gives the following note: "Native name Thadagnan. The almost natural size. This is a very common domestic bird not unlike the Robins in Europe."

No. 204. Swallow Warbler, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 250.
Sylvia hirundinacea, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lv.
Dicæum hirundinaceum (Shaw and Nodder), Sharpe, Cat. B., x., p. 19.

No. 205. Swallow Warbler, Lath.

Watling gives the following note: "The natural size. This is a scarce bird and well resembled, and the only one we have yet seen; the blue feathers on this bird are of a beautiful changeable blue."

No. 206. Crimson-breasted Warbler, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 250.
Sylvia rubricollis, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lv.

Watling gives the following note: "Native name Bood-dang. Natural size."

No. 207. Crimson-breasted Warbler, Lath.

Watling says: "Natural size."

No. 208. Bonnet Warbler, Lath. MS.; id., Gen. Hist. B., vii. p. 135 (1823).

Watling says the figure is of the "natural size," and that it is "a rare bird."

No. 209. Ciliary Warbler, Lath. MS.; id., Gen. Hist. B., vii., p. 111 (1823).
Zosterops cærulescens (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., ix., p. 152.

Watling gives the following note: "One half the natural size. This little bird is the only one of the kind ever seen; the white round the ciliary process of the eye is composed of the most beautiful small white feathers. The pride and vanity of the draughtsman has induced him to put his name to all the drawings, but should you publish them I think the name may be left out."

No. 210. Ciliary Warbler, Lath. MS. (See No. 209.)

Watling's note: "Three fourths of the natural size. The iris is doubtful."

No. 211. Speckled Manakin, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 253.
Pipra punctata, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl. p. lvi.
Pardalotus punctatus (Shaw and Nodder), Sharpe, Cat. B., x., p. 58.

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No. 212. New Holland Manakin, M. and L., Suppl. ii., p. 253.
Pardalotus punctatus (Shaw and Nodder), Sharpe, Cat. B., x., p. 58.

Watling's note: "Half the natural size. Allied or female to Speckled Manakin."

No. 213. Variety of the New Holland Manakin, Lath. MS.

No. 214. Cærulean Manakin, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 254.

Natural size.

No. 215. Black-eared Manakin, Lath. MS.; id., Gen. Hist. B., vii., p. 242 (1823).

Natural size.

No. 216. Needle-tailed Swallow, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 259.
Hirundo caudacuta, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lvii.
Chætura caudacuta (Lath.), Hartert, Cat. B., xvi., p. 472

This figure is the type of Latham's description of the Needle tailed Swallow.

Watling gives the following note: "This bird, about half the natural size, seems to possess, in a great measure, the qualities of a Swallow. Its motions are amazing quick, eager of its prey, which it seizes with the rapidity of lightning. Its favourite food is a large locust, which at this season is plentiful. It is strongly pounced (as a bird of prey), and has a broad flat bill the tail quills armed with spikes as sharp as a needle."

No. 217. New Holland Swallow, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii. p. 259.
Hirundo pacifica, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lviii.
Micropus pacificus (Lath.), Hartert, Cat. B., xvi., p. 448.

This figure is the type of Latham's description of the New Holland Swallow.

Watling says: "This the supposed female of No. 1."

No. 218. New Holland Goatsucker, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 261.
Ægotheles novæ hollandiæ (Lath.), Hartert, Cat. B., xvi., p. 651.

No. 219. Banded Goatsucker, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 262.
Caprimulgus vittatus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lviii., pl. 136.
Ægotheles novæ hollandiæ (Lath.), Hartert, Cat. B., xvi., p. 651.

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Watling says: "Two thirds the natural size. Musquito Hawk. July."

No. 220. Strigoid Goatsucker, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 262.
Caprimulgus strigoides, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl. ii., p. lviii.
Podargus strigoides (Lath.), Hartert, Cat. B., xvi., p. 631.

This drawing is the type of Latham's description of the Strigoid Goatsucker.

Watling says the "native name is Birreagal," and the figure is "one half the natural size. July."

No. 221. Great-headed Goatsucker, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 263.
Caprimulgus megacephalus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lviii.
Podargus strigoides (Lath.), Hartert, Cat. B., xvi., p. 631.

No. 222. Gracile Goatsucker, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 263.
Caprimulgus gracilis, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lviii.
Podargus strigoides (Lath.), Hartert, Cat. B., xvi., p. 631.

Watling says the "native name is Poo-book. Half the natural size. An excellent likeness."

No. 223. Bristled Goatsucker, Lath. MS.; id., Gen. Hist. B., vii., p. 342 (1823).
Ægotheles novæ hollandiæ (Lath.), Hartert, Cat. B., xvi., p. 651.

Watling says: "Natural size, the same as the bird the drawing was taken from. March."

No. 225. White-faced Pigeon, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 268.
Columba melanoleuca, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lix.
Leucosarcia picata (Lath.), Salvad., Cat. B., xxi., p. 607.

Watling says: "One-half the natural size. Native name Go-ad-gong. Dec., 1792."

No. 226. Pale Pigeon, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 270.
Columba pallida, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lx.
Lopholæmus antarcticus (Shaw), Salvad., Cat. B., xxi., p. 235. Cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., xii., p. 217 (1905).

Although this figure is very incorrect, I am inclined to think that it is intended for Lopholæmus antarcticus.

Watling says: "About one fourth the natural size. New South Wales."

No. 227. New Holland Quail, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 283.
Perdix australis, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lxii.

VOL. II. L

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Synœcus australis (Lath.), Grant, Cat. B., xxii., p. 247.

This drawing is the type on which Latham founded his description of the New Holland Quail.

Watling gives the following note: "Natural size. July. It flies like a Quail, and in its habits much resembles that bird."

No. 228. New Holland Jabiru, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., pp. 294 and 295, pl. cxxxviii.
Mycteria australis, Lath. Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lxiv.
Xenorhynchus asiaticus (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 310.

Watling says: "In height 5 · 7½."

No. 230. New Holland Crane.
Antigone australasiana (Gould), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 265.

No. 231. Caledonian Night-Heron, Lath., Gen. Syn., iii., pt. i., p. 55 [male].
Nycticorax caledonicus (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 158.

No. 232. Caledonian Night-Heron [female].

No. 234. The Bittern, a variety.
Botaurus pœciloptilus (Wagl.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 258.

No. 235. White-bellied Heron, Latham MS.; id., Gen. Hist. B., ix., p. 101 (1824).
Ardetta pusilla (Vieill.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 234.

This figure no doubt is intended to represent the young of Ardetta pusilla.

Watling says: "This bird frequents marshes. It is a rare bird."

No. 236. Little Bittern, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 301.
Ardetta pusilla (Vieill.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 234.

Latham appears to have noticed that the Australian bird was different from the European, as he writes on this drawing as follows: "A variety of Little Bittern if not new. See drawing above, No. 237."

Watling gives the following note: "Half the natural size. Native name Go-ning-nah."

No. 237. Little Bittern, variety, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 301.
Ardetta pusilla (Vieill.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 234.

Watling gives the following note: "December. Half the natural size of the bird the drawing was taken from; the neck is

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longer, but this is his general attitude. Native name Duralia; found in marshes or moist ground.

No. 238. Pacific Heron, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 305.
Ardea pacifica, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lxv.
Notophoyx pacifica (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 111.

This figure is the type of Latham's description of the Pacific Heron, Notophoyx pacifica (Lath.).

No. 239. Common Curlew, variety, Lath., Gen. Syn., iii., pt. i., p. 120.
Numenius cyanopus (Vieill.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 350.

Watling gives the following note: "Near the natural size of the English Curlew; the native name Gaarlarr-re-bing."

No. 240. New Holland Curlew, Latham MS.
Limosa novæ zealandiæ (Gray), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 377.

Watling says: "One fifth the natural size."

No. 241. New Holland Snype, Lath., Gen. Sen., Suppl. ii., p. 310.
Scolopax australis, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lxv.
Gallinago australis (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 652.

Watling says: "Half the natural size."

No. 242. Wattled Sandpiper, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 313.
Tringa lobata, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lxv.
Lobivanellus lobatus (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 139.

Watling gives the following note: "Three quarters of the natural size. It is a rare bird, sometimes, though seldom, to be met with on the flats going to Parramatta. Native name Kalloonagh."

No. 243. Wattled Sandpiper, Lath. (See No. 242.)

Watling gives the native name as "Ban-ne-re-ra."

No. 244. Brown-eared Sandpiper, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii. p. 314.
Tringa aurita, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lxvi.
Heteropygia acuminata (Horsf.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 566.

Watling gives the following note: "Two thirds of the natural size. This bird frequents the sea shore and moist places, but are by no means numerous."

No. 245. Grisled Plover, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 320.
Charadrius griscus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lxvii.

L 2

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Charadrius dominicus (P. L. S. Müll.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 195.

Watling says: "One half its natural size. It was shot on the sea-shore."

No. 246. High-legged Plover, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 319.
Charadrius grallarius, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lxvi.
Burhinus grallarius (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 18.

Watling says: "This bird measured thirty inches."

No. 247. Sanderling, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 315.
Calidris arenaria (Linn.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 526.

Watling says: "A kind of Sand or Shore Lark, not very numerous. Native name Waddergal."

No. 249. Crescent Plover, Lath. MS.
Erythrogonys cinctus (Gould), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 125.

Watling gives the following note: "Half the natural size; the only one of the kind ever seen at Port Jackson."

No. 250. Crescent Plover, Lath. MS. [See no. 249.]
Erythrogonys cinctus (Gould), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxxiv., p. 125.

No. 251. Great-billed Plover, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 319.
Charadrius magnirostris, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lxvi.
Burhinus grallarius (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 18.

Watling gives the native name as Woal-Woo-a.

No. 252. Bridled Plover, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 320.
Charadrius frænatus, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lxvii.
Burhinus grallarius (Lath.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 18.

Watling says: "One third of the natural size."

No. 253. Brown Plover, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 320.
? Limonites ruficollis (Pall.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 545.

Watling gives the following note: "One fifth the natural size. This is a water bird, though put on a perch."

No. 254. New Holland Oyster-catcher, Lath. MS.
Hæmatopus longirostris (Vieill.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 112.

Watling says: "Seldom seen in more than pairs. It is a very solitary bird. Native name Booming."

No. 255. New Holland Oyster-catcher (variety of the Pied Oyster-catcher), Lath. MS.; id., Gen. Hist. B., ix., p. 359 (1824).
Hæmatopus longirostris (Vieill.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 112.

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This figure is taken from a young bird.

Watling gives the following note: "This is a recluse and solitary bird, being never found in more than pairs. It has but one simple plaintive tone which it never varies. The drawing is about one fourth the natural size. This appears a variety of the Red Bill, which is the common name it goes by here, or it is a young one, full plumage, for most others have had the legs as red as the bill. It frequents the sea shores and lives on spawn and young fish, both shell and others, which gives the flesh a fat, of which it has a great share. It is a strong fish of an oily flavour; both the flesh and fat are very high coloured, particularly the latter, which is mostly red and very abundant, as before noticed. It is naked or bare of feathers one third up the thigh, its toes are more fleshy and thick than sea-birds' in general, and are a little way connected by a web or membrane in so much that they may be called palmated. Native name Boo-aning or Boo-ming."

No. 256. Blue-necked Rail, variety, Lath. MS.; id., Gen. Hist. B., ix., p. 377 (1824).
Porzana palustris (Gould), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 109.

Watling gives the following note: "The natural size. The spur or hook near the pinion cannot in common be seen, but in the drawing it is separated from the feathers where they can conceal it."

No. 257. Dark Rail, Lath. MS.; id., Gen. Hist. B., ix., p. 378 (1824).
Tabuan Rail, Lath., Gen. Syn., iii., part i., p. 235.
Porzana tabuensis (Gm.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 111.

Although Latham had himself described the "Tabuan Rail," he apparently did not recognise this figure, which is evidently intended to represent the same species.

Watling says: "A bird of Norfolk Island. Natural size. December."

No. 258. White Gallinule, complete, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 327.
Notornis alba (White), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 208.

Watling's note is as follows: "One third its natural size. This bird is of Howe Island, and when young was entirely black, from that to bluish-grey, and from that to an entire white. This bird feeds itself with its feet like a Parrot."

No. 259. Three changes of the White Gallinule.

Watling's note is as follows: "Three stages of this bird taken at Lord Howe's Island before it arrives at maturity."

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No. 260. Black-jointed Gallinule, Lath. MS.; id. Gen. Hist. B., ix., p. 427 (1824).
Porphyrio melanonotus (Temm.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 205.

Watling gives the following note: "Native name Goo-la-war-ring. Reduced by scale to half the size of the bird the drawing from. August. A rare bird; frequents swamps."

No. 261. Black-jointed Gallinule, Lath. MS.

Watling says: "One third the natural size. November."

No. 263. New Holland Grebe, Lath. [MS.], Gen. Hist., x., p. 33.
Podicipes novæ hollandiæ (Stephens, ex Lath.), Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 519.

On this figure Latham founded his description of the New Holland Grebe (Podicipes novæ hollandiæ). Stephens gave the Latin title, from Latham's description.

Watling says: "One fifth of the natural size. Native name Mag-a-ger."

No. 265. American Avocet, Lath., Gen. Syn., iii., part i., p. 295 (part).
Recurvirostra novæ hollandiæ (Vieill.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 333.

Watling says: "22 inches from the extremities. This bird is found along the shores of the sea coast."

No. 266. American Avocet, Lath.

Watling says: "Native name Antiquatich."

No. 267. American Avocet, Lath.

Watling's note: "The natural size. This is a rare bird; only been seen on some lagoons. A species of the Avocetta."

No. 269. White Albatross, Lath.

Watling says: "The bird this drawing was taken from was caught some distance from the entrance to Port Jackson at sea."

No. 270. Crested Tern, Lath.

Watling's note: "One fifth of its natural size. The female."

No. 270. Caspian Tern, var. B, Lath., Gen. Syn., iii., pt. ii, p. 351 (1785).
Crested Tern, Lath., Gen. Hist., B., x., p. 101.
Sterna cristata, Stephens, Gen. Zool., Aves, xiii., pt. i., p. 146 (1826).
Sterna bergii (Licht.), Saunders, Cat. B., xxv., p. 89.

This drawing is the type of Latham's description of the

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Crested Tern, which, according to Mr. Howard Saunders, is synonymous with S. bergii, Licht.

Watling says: "One fifth of its natural size. A female."

No. 271. Caspian Tern, variety B, Lath.
Sterna bergii (Licht.), Saunders, Cat. B., xxv., p. 89.

Watling says: "One fifth of its natural size. A male. It lives on small fish. Native name Ger-ra-ger-ra."

No. 272. Caspian Tern, Lath.

Watling says: "Half the natural size of the bird which this drawing was taken from."

No. 273. Greater Tern, Lath.

Watling says: "Half the natural size, and seldom see but one in the hottest summer weather."

No. 274. New Holland Tern, Lath. [MS.], Gen. Hist. B., x., p. 103.
Sterna bergii (Licht.), Saunders, Cat. B., xxv., p. 89.

This figure is the type of Latham's description of the New Holland Tern and Sterna novæ hollandiæ, Stephens, which = S. bergii according to Mr. Howard Saunders.

Watling's note: "This almost half the natural size, and a pretty good resemblance, with this exception—only the bill not just so much bent."

No. 275. Pacific Gull, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 332.
Larus pacificus, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. lxviii.
Gabianus pacificus (Lath.), Saunders, Cat. B., xxv., p. 297.

This figure is the type of Latham's description of the Pacific Gull, Gabianus pacificus (Lath.).

Watling says: "Native name Troo-gad-dill."

No. 276. Pacific Gull, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 332.

Watling says: "Half the natural size. A large grey Gull."

No. 277. New Holland Crimson-billed Gull, Lath. [MS.], Gen. Hist., B., x., p. 145.
Larus novæ hollandiæ (Stephens), Saunders, Cat. B., Brit. Mus., xxv., p. 235.

This figure is the type of Latham's description of the New Holland Crimson-billed Gull, on which Stephens founded the name of Larus novæ hollandiæ.

Watling says: "Reduced by scale to half the size of the bird which the drawing was taken from."

No. 278. New Holland Crimson-billed Gull, Lath. MS.

Watling says: "One-sixth of the natural size."

No. 279. New Holland Crimson-billed Gull, Lath. MS.

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Watling says: "Natural size. April. Native name Ton-na-rang. Not a very common bird in New South Wales."

No. 280. Norfolk Island Petrel, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii. p. 334.
Puffinus chlororhynchus (Less.), Salvin, Cat. B., xxv. p. 372.

This figure is, in my opinion, intended to represent Puffinus chlororhynchus, Less., to which it bears a very strong resemblance. If I am correct in this supposition, the "Norfolk Island Petrel" of Latham cannot be referred to the œstrelata neglecta (Schl.) as has been suggested in the Catalogue of Birds (xxv., p. 412).

Watling writes: "Norfolk Island Petrel or the Mutton bird, in full feather."

No. 281. Norfolk Island or Fuliginous Petrel, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 334.

This is the figure of a young bird of the same species as No. 280.

Watling says: "Norfolk Island Petrel or Mutton bird, in second or middle state."

No. 282. Fuliginous Petrel, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 334.
Puffinus tenuirostris (Temm.), Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 388.

This figure, which in general appearance is darker than Nos. 280 and 281, with dark bill and feet, I am inclined to think is intended for Puffinus tenuirostris (Temm.).

Watling says: "A Norfolk Island bird."

No. 283. Black Swan, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 343.
Anas atrata, Lath., Ind. Orn., ii., p. 834.
Chenopsis atrata (Lath.), Salvad., Cat. B., xxvii., p. 41.

Watling says: "The Black Swan, the size of an English swan. Native name Mulgo."

No. 284. Black and White Goose, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 344.
Anas melanoleuca, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. lxix.
Anseranus semipalmata (Lath.), Salvad., Cat. B., xxvii., p. 44.

Watling says: "This bird is about the size of a goose. Native name Bur-ra-yen-ne."

No. 285. Hawksbury Duck, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 358.
Anas jubata, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lxix.
Chenonetta jubata (Lath.), Salvad., Cat. B., xxvii., p. 140.

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Watling says: "This species of Duck is found at Hawksbury; sometimes perching."

No. 286. Hawksbury Duck, Lath.

Watling writes: "Half the natural size. This is the only Duck of this kind ever seen. May."

No. 288. Semipalmated Duck, Lath., Gen. Syn., Suppl. ii., p. 347, pl. cxxxix.
Anas semipalmata, Lath., Ind. Orn., Suppl., p. lxix.
Anseranus semipalmata (Lath.), Salvad., Cat. B., xxvii., p. 44.

Watling says: "This bird is about the size of our native Wild Goose. They are generally found in flocks and sometimes perching upon high trees. It has been observed by the man who sometimes shoots these birds that, in opening some of them, but not all, the wind-pipe formed several beautiful circumvolutions on the breast under the skin before it entered the thorax. An officer lately has opened one and confirms the truth of the sportsman's observations. It is called by us the New South Wales Goose, Palmated, instead of being web-footed, because its manner as well as taste and flavour resembles that bird more than any other. The contour or general likeness is here very well observed. I have been informed that at times their note is tuneful and melodious, which appears probable from the conformation of the wind-pipe, if that singular circumstance is true. I have now a man out attending a pond where they most frequent, in hopes of getting one for dissection. They have only lately been observed and shot, principally on a pond near the Hawksburgh River. January 2nd, 1794. Native name Now-al-gang."

No. 291. New Holland Penguin, Lath. [MS.], Gen. Hist., B., x., p. 388.
Spheniscus novæ hollandiæ, Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool., xiii., pt. i., p. 68.
Eudyptila minor (Forster), Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 646.

This drawing is the type of Latham's description of the New Holland Penguin, on which Stephens founded the name Spheniscus novæ hollandiæ. Both of these names will now become synonyms of Eudyptila minor (Forster). Mr. Ogilvie-Grant, when writing the "Catalogue of Birds," was unable to identify the New Holland Penguin from Latham's description. (Cf. Cat. B., xxvi., p. 625, note.) Watling says: "Native name Gur-roo-mul. One-fifth of the natural size; the only one yet seen in Port Jackson."

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No. 292. New Holland Pelecan, Lath., Gen. Hist., B., x., p. 402.
[White Pelecan, variety, Lath., Gen. Syn., iii., part 2, p. 575.]
Pelecanus australis, Stephens, Gen. Zool., xiii., pt. i., p. 113.
Pelecanus conspicillatus (Temm.), Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 483.

Although reference is given on the plate to Latham's Gen. Syn., iii., p. 575, Latham must have noticed that it was a new species, as he gives a description in his "General History of Birds," and quotes the native name, which is on the plate. Watling says: "Native name Karr-ang-a-ba."

No. 293. [Lesser Gannet, variety, Lath., Gen. Syn., iii., part 2, p. 611.]
Lesser Gannet, Lath., Gen. Hist., B., x., p. 437.
Sula candida, Stephens, Gen. Zool., xiii., pt. i., p. 103 (1826).
Sula serrator, Gray, "Erebus and Terror," Birds, p. 19 (1845); Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 428.

Watling says: "One-fourth the size of nature. Native name Doo-ro-dang."

Latham in his "General History of Birds," x., p. 438, writes: "The Lesser Gannet is also found in New Holland, and called by the natives Doo-ro-dang."

No. 294. [Young Tropic-bird.]
New Holland Tropic Bird, Lath., Gen. Hist., B., x., p. 448.
Phaëton melanorhynchos, Stephens, Gen. Zool., xii., pt. i., p. 127.
Phaëton rubricauda (Bodd.), Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 451.

Watling says: "From the extremity of the bill to the tail is eighteen inches."

No. 295. Red-tailed Tropic-bird, Lath., Gen. Syn., iii., part 2, p. 614, pl. cv.
Phaëton rubricauda (Bodd.), Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 451.

Watling says: "This bird is from the tip of the bill to the rump eighteen inches, and from the rump to the end of the tail-feathers eighteen inches."

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After the date of Latham's "Synopsis," the Trustees began to issue descriptive guides to the collections under their charge.

A "Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum" was published as a sort of guide-book to the collections; it was printed by Cox and Baylis, of 75, Great Queen Street, but appears to have been an official publication of the Trustees. Many editions were issued, of which the one printed in 1808 is the earliest which we possess in the General Library of the Natural History Museum.

This little "Synopsis" tells how Sir Hans Sloane's Museum and Library (which, he says in his will, had cost him £50,000) were offered, at his death in 1753, to the British Government, who had the first refusal of the collections, for £20,000. An Act of Parliament was passed in that year sanctioning the purchase, and vesting the property of the Museum in Trustees, for the use of the public. A table of contents of the Sloane Museum, given in this little work, is intended to afford some idea of the extent of the purchase, but the exact numbers are not absolutely guaranteed. There were, however, stated to be 50,000 volumes of books, MSS., and prints, and 23,000 coins and medals; the "Quadrupeds and their parts," 8186; the "Birds and their parts, eggs and nests," 1172, etc.

In addition to the Cottonian Library, and other purchases and bequests, the Harleian Manuscripts were also bought, the Trustees assuming the management of these priceless treasures of the nation, and the title of the BRITISH MUSEUM was bestowed upon the National Collection, while a Lottery was authorised by Parliament, in order to raise the funds for their recent purchases, to secure a home for the collections, and to provide for the permanent support of the establishment. £95,194 8s. 9d. was the sum brought in by the Lottery.

The history of the Museum, as given in the "Synopsis," is continued:—

"The first act of these Trustees was to provide a proper building for the reception of the ample collections confided to their care; and after various proposals, they at length fixed upon the noble mansion, built about the year 1680 by Ralph, first Duke of Montague, who, being at that time Ambassador at Paris, sent over French artists for erecting and adorning the edifice he had in contemplation. This palace, together with its

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gardens and appurtenances, occupying in the whole an area of seven acres and twenty perches of land, was ceded by the representatives of the Montague family for the moderate sum of £10,000."

"The necessary repairs (which, the house having stood long empty, proved very expensive) were immediately proceeded upon; and the proper book-cases and cabinets having been completed, and the collections removed thither and properly distributed and arranged, the Museum was at length opened for study and public inspection, on the 15th of January, 1759. Besides the £20,000 paid for the Sloanean, and the £10,000 for the Harleian Collections, and £10,000 for Montague House, the sum of £28,663 15s. was laid out in the purchase of £30,000 Three per cent. Reduced Annuities, and appropriated to the maintenance of the establishment; and the remaining £26,531 3s. 2d. raised by the Lottery scarcely sufficed to defray the expenses of repairs, cases, furniture, removing the collections, and various other incidental charges."

From such small beginnings did the great Zoological Department develop into its present position.

A history of Montague House is to be found in Timbs' "Romance of London." The original house was burnt down in January 1686. The second house was variously described as a "mansion" and as a "palace." It must have been splendidly built to have borne the weight of some of the exhibits, such as fossils, meteorites, etc., on the upper floors. The "Synopsis" of 1808 gives us some idea of the building, which was surrounded by gardens and a high wall; and a picture, with plans of the various rooms, is to be found in Edwards' "Lives of the Founders of the British Museum," 8vo, 1870. When the present British Museum replaced Old Montague House, in 1845, the gardens were done away with and the outer wall abolished, being replaced by the iron railings and the smooth lawns of the present day.

In the old days the procedure of those visiting the Museum was as follows:—

"On entering the gate of the Museum a spacious quadrangle presents itself, with an Ionic colonnade on the south side, and the main building on the north [it measured 216 feet in length and 57 in height to the top of the cornice]; the two wings being allotted for the dwellings of the officers. The architect, Peter

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Puget, a native of Marseilles, and an artist of the first eminence in his time, was sent over from Paris by Ralph, first Duke of Montague, for the sole purpose of constructing this splendid mansion."

The ground-floor consisted of twelve rooms, and was devoted to the Library of Printed Books, to which "strangers were not admitted, as the mere sight of the outside of books cannot convey either instruction or amusement."

"The companies, on being admitted, according to the regulations," says the "Synopsis" of the year 1808, "are immediately conducted up the great staircase, the decorations of which have been lately restored. The paintings on the ceiling, representing Phaeton petitioning Apollo for leave to drive his chariot, are by Charles de la Fosse, who in his time was deemed one of the best colourists of the French school, and of whom there are many valuable performances in France, amongst which are the paintings on the cupola of the dome of the Invalides, which are ranked among the admiranda of Paris. The landscapes and architectural decorations are by James Rousseau, whose particular skill in perspective has at all times been held in high estimation."

"From the great staircase strangers are conducted into the first room of the upper storey, containing a miscellaneous collection of modern works of art, from all parts of the world. The ceiling of this room, representing the Fall of Phaeton, is painted by La Fosse."

On this upper floor were twelve rooms (see "Synopsis," p. 4).

Room I. was devoted to modern works of art. Room II. was "empty" in the year 1808, its contents having been removed into other apartments upon the transfer of the collections of Antiquities into the new building.

Rooms III., IV., V., VI., and VII. were occupied by the collections of Manuscripts.

The Saloon seems to have been unutilized for exhibition-cases at that time, but it must have been a fine room. We read in the same "Synopsis" (p. 15):—"The dome of this grand apartment was painted by the above-mentioned La Fosse. It has generally been described as representing the Apotheosis of Iris; Walpole, in his "Anecdotes of Painting," deviates still further from the truth by naming the subject the Apotheosis of Isis; but the most probable conjecture is that the painter meant it to exhibit the birth of Minerva, that goddess fully attired being the

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most prominent figure. Jupiter is immediately above her; and about him are three female figures with stars over their heads, administering to him, one of them pouring nectar, or some healing ointment, upon his head. On one side of Minerva is Vulcan, and close to him Cupid with an axe in his hand; on the other side is Mercury, seemingly starting to announce the happy tidings on earth. The other heathen divinities surround this group in admiration of the event; and in a lower compartment opposite the chimney are the Vices expelled from heaven on the manifestation of Wisdom. In the six medallions near the corners of the room are figured some of the principal achievements of Minerva. In the first, over the door of the MS. Department, she is assisting Perseus in cutting off the head of Medusa; in the second she, with some of the Muses, presides over harmony; in No. 3 she kills a lion (an emblem of her valour); in No. 4 she assists Jupiter in fighting the Titans; in No. 5 she contends with Neptune about the naming of Athens; and in No. 6 is figured the fable of Arachne metamorphosed by her into a spider. Between these medallions are groups of winged boys, emblematically alluding to their several employments, to arts, sciences, commerce, and war.

"The landscapes and architectural decorations are by the same J. Rousseau who painted in the staircase; and the garlands of flowers are by John Baptist Monoyer, the most eminent flower painter of his time."

Over the chimney is a full-length portrait of King George II. by Shackleton, and in the middle stands a table, composed of a variety of lavas from Mount Vesuvius, presented by the Earl of Exeter.

Room VIII. contained the Mineral collections, Room IX. the Petrifactions and Shells, Room X. Vegetable productions and Zoophytes, with Insects, Shells, etc., many being spirit specimens. The Birds were to be found in Room XI., disposed, so far as convenience would admit, according to the Linnæan mode of arrangement, viz., into six great divisions or orders, the separations of which were marked by white lines between each. Some birds, however, on account of the large size of the cases in which they were contained, could not conveniently be stationed in their proper orders, and were therefore disposed on the upper part of the general divisions.

The Birds were classified under the headings of Accipitres, Picæ, Anseres, Grallæ, Gallinæ, and Passeres. Those selected

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for particular notice were a young Adjutant, which was described as "a young Hazgil, or Giant Crane, from India, which, when full grown, is by far the largest of all the Heron tribe"; other birds were the "Argus Pheasant, from Sumatra, the Black or Crested Curasso-bird, the Shining African Thrush, the Long-shafted Goatsucker from Sierra Leone, etc."

"Some birds, on account of their inconvenient size, could not be admitted into the general assortment. Of these the most remarkable is the Cassowary, an Indian bird which some ornithologists place among the Grallæ, others among the Gallinæ, and others in a particular division distinct from both."

The following interesting account of the painting of the Dodo follows on p. 47:—"We must not omit a curious picture, executed long ago in Holland, of that extremely rare and curious bird the Dodo, belonging to the tribe Gallinæ, and a native of the island of Bourbon. The picture was taken from a living specimen, brought into Holland, soon after the discovery of the passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope, by the Portuguese. It was once the property of Sir Hans Sloane, and afterwards of the celebrated ornithologist George Edwards, who presented it to the British Museum." It is undated, but is probably one of several painted by Roelandt Savery between 1626 and 1678. (Cf. Newton, Dict. B., pp. 157, 158.)

There were two table-cases in this Room XI., one containing nests, "amongst the most curious of which are several hanging-nests, chiefly formed by birds of the Oriole tribe; nests of a small species of Asiatic Swallow, resembling isinglass in substance, and considered as a great delicacy by the Chinese, who use it in preparing a rich soup called bird-nest soup; two nests of a small bird called the Taylor-bird, composed of leaves sewed together; bills of various rare birds, of which the most remarkable are several kinds of Rhinoceros-birds' bills, quills, feathers of the great South American vulture called the Condor, a leg of a Dodo, in a glass." (Cf. Newton, l.c.)

On the second table were deposited a variety of eggs and nests, among them those of the Ostrich, Cassowary, Crocodile, etc. Mammals were in "cases between the windows," the Black Ourang Outang in a young state, the Chestnut Ourang Outang, in a young state, a long-tailed Macauco, etc. "In other parts of the room were to be found the 'Sea Otter, the Musk, from Thibet,' the 'Vampyre, or Great South American Bat,' the 'Platypus anatinus, or Duck-bill' (by some called Ornithorhynchus

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paradoxus), from New Holland, the most singular of all quadrupeds, a large Antelope, etc."

Room XII. was the spirit-room of the time, with "Fishes, Serpents, Lizards, Frogs, etc., as well as many specimens of Quadrupeds, preserved in spirits."

The edition of the "Synopsis" published in 1813 follows the plan of the earlier 1808 edition, and the arrangement seems to have differed but very slightly during the five years which had elapsed. The Ground Floor was still given up to the Printed Books, and on the Upper Floor Room II. was "appropriated to the use of readers," as well as Rooms III. and IV., which contained Manuscripts, as did Rooms V., VI. and VII. The Saloon still remained unoccupied, but was to receive the Mineral collections; and the contents of Rooms VIII., IX., X., XI., were the same as in 1808, with nothing particular added to the collection of Birds.

Two years later (cd. 1815) only the second Room on the Upper Floor was assigned for the use of readers, but the Greville Collection and the rest of the minerals had now been transferred to the great Saloon. Room IX. still held the collection of Shells, but the Birds were now housed in Room X., and the account of the cases was given more fully than before. Thus we read (p. 59):—"The Birds are arranged after the system of Linnæus. The most interesting part of the collection of Birds, serving to exhibit the general arrangement of the animals of that class, are contained in cases round the room."

Nos. 1—4. "Accipitres, rapacious birds or birds of prey," amongst them being "a singular variety of the Pondicherry Eagle," etc., and the Californian Vulture. This was the type of Vultur californianus of Shaw, who was Keeper of the Zoological Department at the time. This specimen is extant in the Museum to-day.

Nos. 5 and 6. The upper shelf contained the Horned Owls, etc.; second shelf: the Spotted Shrike, the Black and Yellow Shrike, with other birds of that genus; third shelf: Thrushes and Orioles, amongst which the Yellow-crowned Thrush, the Spendent [i.e. Splendent] Thrush and the Black-crested Oriole are the most remarkable. The lower shelf: the Cape Coly, Nuteracker Crow, Cornish Chough, etc.

No. 7. Upper shelf: The Sanguineous Paradise Bird, Abyssinian Hornbill; second shelf: various species of Grosbeaks and Sparrows; third shelf: Warblers, Flycatchers, and Larks; fourth

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shelf: Swallows and Goatsuckers, amongst which that rare species, the Sierra Leone Goatsucker, is the most curious.

No. 8. Upper shelf: Toucans, the Smooth-billed Pogonius, Barbets; second shelf: White-bellied Coucal, Variegated Coucal, Lathamian Coucal, Cuckoos; third shelf: Woodpeckers; fourth shelf: Woodpeckers, Kingfishers, and Jacamars.

No. 9 contains the Columbine birds or Pidgeons, the most conspicuous of which are the Crowned Pidgeon and the Green Pidgeon of Africa.

Nos. 10 and 11. Upper shelf: Small African Bustard, Argus Pheasant; second shelf: the Ring Pheasant; third shelf: varieties of the Common Pheasant, the tail of an unknown species [!]; lower shelf: the Pencil and Golden Pheasants, the Jungle Cock of India, which some have supposed to be the original stock from whence our domestic fowls have sprung.

Nos. 12 and 13. Upper shelf: Horned Screamer, Wood Grouse, etc.; following shelves: various species of Partridges, Grouse and Quails, amongst which the Lineated Partridge, the Streaked Partridge, the Tufted Quail, and the Crowned Quail are the most interesting. On the lower shelf is likewise a specimen of the Pintado, from Africa, in its wild state.

Nos. 14 and 15. The Adjutant Crane, Tiger Bittern, Night Heron, Boatbill, Tufted Umber, and the White and Rose-coloured Spoonbills, etc.

Nos. 16 and 17. Upper shelf: Scarlet Curlew, the common African Curlew, etc.; second shelf: Long-legged Plover, Scarlet Flamingo, etc.; third shelf: African Snipe, varieties of the Ruff, a Ruff in its young state, and the Reeve, which is its female, etc.; lower shelf: Spur-winged Jacana, American and common Avoset, etc.

Nos. 18 and 19. Upper shelf: Great Northern Diver, several varieties of Darters, etc.; second shelf: Etherial Tropic-bird, Terns, etc.; third shelf: Ducks, amongst them the Lobated Duck from New Holland is the most remarkable; lower shelf: different species of Merganser.

"No. 20 contains some curious nests and eggs of birds; the Soup-nests, formed by two species of Swallow; the nest of the Taylor-Bird, etc.; in the lowermost division is deposited the supposed leg of the Dodo, etc."

The remaining cases, Nos. 21 to 58, were devoted to the Invertebrata (Shells, Crabs, etc.).

Such was the report on the collection of Birds in 1815. We

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learn also from the same guide-book or "Synopsis" that the ornithological series, consisting chiefly of the Sloanean specimens, was "insensibly becoming retrograde in its comparative value; in order to supply the former of these deficiencies, the Trustees being, in the year 1769, informed that a large collection of stuffed Birds, in uncommon preservation, had been brought over from Holland by a person of the name of Greenwood, who, having for a time exhibited them to the public, became desirous to dispose of them at a reasonable price, they readily availed themselves of the opportunity and purchased the whole for the sum of £460. Many additions were afterwards made by purchases and donations; and the aggregate soon formed, not indeed a complete, but an extensive and curious a collection as any perhaps at that time extant."

It will be noted by the ornithologist who knows anything of the commencement of the Bird-collection in the British Museum, that no particular mention is made in the foregoing account of any specimens obtained by Captain Cook and Sir Joseph Banks during their voyages round the world; and yet it seems likely that some specimens had been given by Sir Joseph Banks, who is included in the list of those Trustees who were often Donors; but ornithological specimens were apparently not among his gifts at that time.

The account of this great naturalist is as follows:—"To the list [of Trustees who were donors] must be added the name of the Right Hon. Sir Joseph Banks, Bart., K.B., who, after his return from his circumnavigation, deposited at different times in the Museum numerous collections of natural and artificial curiosities from the newly discovered islands in the South Seas, which, with considerable additions since made by the Admiralty, Captain Cook, and other officers who had performed similar distant and perilous voyages, form now a very conspicuous part of the Museum. Among the many donations of various kinds which Sir Joseph Banks has since bestowed, and still continues to confer upon the establishment, we must not omit to mention a large set of Icelandic books, both printed and manuscript, which he collected in a voyage he made in the year 1772 to that island. Nor can the public be uninformed of the indefatigable zeal he has ever displayed in his endeavours, as a Trustee, to advance the honour and advantages of this Institution, which, together with his many other exertions for the benefit of science, must ever rank him among her best friends and strenuous promoters."

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Room VIII. contained further Mineral exhibitions, and Room IX. was devoted partly to Geology and to the Invertebrata, with a very perfect specimen of the skull and horns of the Irish Elk on the walls. Room X. contained the Bird collection, which has been described above, and also Crustacea, Arachnides, Insects, etc., while the collection of Mollusca was arranged in table-cases in the centre of the room.

Room XI. held the Quadrupeds, among them the Black Ourang-outang and the Chestnut Ourang-outang, both in a young state, a large Antelope, a small ditto, etc., while on the walls were cases containing Sword-fish, etc.

Room XII. was the spirit-room of that day, and had Reptilia and Fish in spirit, as well as many Mammals.

We are informed in the "Synopsis" (p. xv) that "the original building being by no means sufficiently spacious for the reception of this and the Egyptian collections, Parliament has from time to time voted sufficient supplies for the purpose of erecting an additional edifice, which is now completed, and a magnificent collection of ancient sculpture is at length opened for the inspection of strangers as well as for the improvement of artists, an advantage which the students in the fine arts have never before enjoyed in this country." The collection of Antiquities occupied thirteen rooms, the Portland Vase being exhibited in the ante-room to Room XII.

The next edition of the "Synopsis" in our library at the Natural History Museum is the fourteenth, printed by Richard and Arthur Taylor, Shoe Lane, in 1818. The "Introduction" was now omitted from the "General Guide," but it could be obtained from the messenger at the Museum.

Considerable modifications seem to have been made in the arrangement of the different collections. The ground floor is still devoted to the Printed Books, but on the upper floor the 1st Room is devoted principally to Ethnology. The articles of dress and weapons from the South Sea Islands must have been mostly from Cook's voyages and Banks' donations, though the fact is not stated.

Room II. (for the use of readers) is now "empty." Rooms III.—VII. do not appear to have been altered, and contained the Manuscripts. The "Saloon" is still devoted to the collection of Minerals, of which a full account is once more given, with certain improvements and italicisation, and a plan of the "order of the table cases in the Saloon." An "Alphabetical List of the

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Minerals is also given, with references to the Table Cases and the Diagram," by which anyone could refer without difficulty to specimens exhibited.

In this year we find that the Birds have been moved to Room VIII. The classification has been changed, and the wall space seems to have been more ample, as the collection of Birds and nests occupied only thirteen cases, instead of twenty. The collection of Mollusca occupied table-cases on the floor of the room as before, and the Echinoderma, Star-fishes, and some Corals were also in table-cases in this room.

Room IX. was filled with Geological and Palæontological specimens, and Room X. with the "British Oryctognostic Collection," or British simple mineral substances.

Room XI. is to be "appropriated to British Zoology," and is at present under arrangement.

The spirit collection and the stuffed Mammals, which were housed in Rooms XI. and XII. in the previous Synopsis, are not mentioned in the edition of 1818.

The "Synopsis" of 1819 is almost a reprint of the previous edition, and it is curious that in neither of these editions is any reference made to the purchase of Colonel Montagu's British collection, acquired by the Trustees in 1816. It must have been this collection which required Room XI. for its exhibition, and in 1819 we find that the arrangement of the British Birds was completed, and in the cases between the windows were to be placed the spirit-specimens of Reptiles, Fishes, etc. The "Synopsis" by this time has grown in size, as the collections increased and were more minutely described, and the 15th edition had risen to 162 pages instead of 92 pages as in the previous year.

The 14th edition, of 1818, and the 17th edition, of 1820 (printed by Richard and Arthur Taylor, Shoe Lane), vary but little from the preceding ones, but the descriptions of the various collections are improved in many instances. Four years later, in 1824, the size of the "Synopsis" has been somewhat increased; it was printed by G. Woodfall, Angel Court, Skinner Street. The arrangement, however, is the same, and the Second Room on the Upper Floor, which was empty in 1820, now contains "miscellaneous objects under arrangement." In the Third Room, the Lansdowne Library of Manuscripts, acquired in 1807, is not yet finally arranged, the same announcement having been made four years before. The collection of Minerals in the Saloon

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appears to have been increased somewhat, as the plan of the Table-cases shows an addition of two to their number.

In Room VIII. the order of the Birds is once more slightly changed, and some additions have been made since the last "Synopsis," such as the "Manura" from New Holland, and the Argus Pheasant. The "Scarlet Curlew" of previous editions is now correctly called the "Scarlet Ibis." Dr. J. E. Gray was appointed assistant in the Zoological Department in 1824, and a change in the classification and arrangement in the Mollusca in the Bird-room appears to have taken place.

Rooms IX. and X. contained Petrifactions and the British Oryctognostic collection.

Room XI. The British Birds are housed here, and the collection of eggs is arranged along with the birds, in separate glass cases, their numbers corresponding to those affixed to the mounted specimens. Cases 23 and 24 contain nests, windpipes, and other parts of various British Birds. An "Alphabetical List of the English names of the Birds in this room" is also printed.

The 23rd edition of the "Synopsis," 1826, is almost a verbatim reprint of that of 1824 (also called the 23rd edition), as far as the natural history collections are concerned.

The next edition of the "Synopsis" in our Museum Library is that of 1832 (twenty-sixth edition), and the book has now grown to be a small volume of 236 pages, being again printed by G. Woodfall, Angel Court, Skinner Street. C. König was Keeper in 1832, and J. E. Gray and G. R. Gray were both assistants. This "Synopsis" shews a great improvement in descriptive work, and the collections have been much advanced, particularly as regards the Mammalia, many additions from Sir E. Parry's Arctic voyages being recorded.

On the first landing-place of the great staircase are a Musk Ox, from Melville Island, and a Polar Bear, "procured in the late Arctic expeditions, and presented by the Lords of the Admiralty." On the upper landing are a male and female Giraffe, or Camelopard, from South Africa, presented by W. J. Burchell, Esq.; a Great Seal, said to be from the north-west coast of Britain, and an Ursine Seal, presented by Capt. Fitzroy, R.N.

In this account of the Museum attention is drawn to the various ethnological collections presented to the nation by Captain Cook and Sir Joseph Banks, whose names are specially mentioned as donors, as well as that of Mr. Archibald Menzies.

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Rooms II., III. and IV. are devoted to the Sloanean and Banksian collections of Plants, and to Sir William Smith's collection of English Fossils, "arranged according to the strata in which they were found."

Rooms V., VI., VII. were occupied by Sir Joseph Banks' Library, with some cabinets of Insects in Room VI.

The Birds have been removed from Room VIII. to Room XII., the place of the birds being taken by ethnological specimens.

The Saloon is now occupied by the collection of Mammalia, in which appears, as a curiosity, "a Mule-whelp between the Lion and Tiger, born at Atkins' travelling menagerie at Windsor." In Room IX. are stated to be portraits of Sir Hans Sloane, the founder of the collection of Natural History, and an original picture of John Rae, one of the earliest and most illustrious of scientific British Naturalists. The latter is now in the Natural History Museum. In the same room are deposited the collections of Amphibious and Invertebrate Animals, preserved in spirits, and the overflow of large Mammals from the Saloon. The Batrachia and Crustacea, with other Invertebrata, were also exhibited, many of them in spirits.

Room X. contained the collection of Reptiles in spirits, Tortoises, Crocodiles, etc. A full description is given of these collections (pp. 47–68). "In the Table Cases, in the centre of the room, are arranged the Collection of Foreign Radiated Animals."

Room XI. is now dedicated to the general collection of Fish and Crabs, and the table-cases contain the remainder of the Radiated Animals.

Room XII. is now the home of the Bird collection, arranged in glazed cases, with the collection of Shells in table-cases. There are 42 cases for the Birds, instead of 22 as in 1826.

The Royal collection of books having now been received, there appears to have been a "Long Gallery" above the "King's Library," and to this the collection of Minerals was transferred.

The series of native Birds, of which Dr. Leach had published a catalogue in 1816, was chiefly composed of the Montagu Collection, and even at the time when I succeeded George Robert Gray, the British collection mainly consisted of the Montagu series.

Two years later the 28th edition of the "Synopsis" (1834) gives evidence of continued progress in the natural history collections.

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Beside the Giraffes on the first landing was now a River Horse, or Hippopotamus, from South Africa. The contents of the various rooms were much as before, but Room XII. is given over to the British Collection of Birds and their eggs, shells, etc. The general series of Birds is exhibited in Room XIII.

No striking alteration in arrangement of the Birds is shown in any of the following: 29th edition (1835), 31st (1836), 33rd (1837), 36th (1838), 38th (1839). In 1840, however, when Sir Henry Ellis was Principal Librarian, and Dr. John Edward Gray was Keeper, considerable changes have been made. The 42nd edition of the "Synopsis" is now a bulky little volume of 370 pages, and the descriptions of all the collections are much enlarged, and we find the names of Darwin, Rüppell, Burchell, and other well-known explorers, whose collections have contributed to the increase of the series. The Saloon contained the Mammalia, both the mounted specimens as well as those in spirit being in "upright glazed cases round the room, the smaller in those between the windows, and the Bats in shallow cases affixed to the others." Shells, Corals, Insects, and Crustacea were "arranged in a series in the table-cases of the several rooms."

Room IX. had additional stuffed Mammalia, as well as spirit-specimens, Reptilia, Mollusca, etc., and in Room X. was the collection of Reptilia in spirits, with a full account of them, and a table of their classification, doubtless the work of Dr. J. E. Gray himself. The mounted collection of Fish, as well as the specimens in spirits, occupied Room XI.

The "Northern Zoological Gallery" had apparently not long been finished, as Sir Henry Ellis, in his introduction, describes the additional buildings and galleries gradually ordered by the Government for the large collections as they were purchased or presented. In 1823, on "the donation, of His Majesty King George IV., of the library collected by King George III., the Government ordered drawings to be prepared for the erection of an entire new Museum, a portion of one wing of which was to be occupied by the recently acquired library. This wing, on the eastern side of the then Museum Garden, was finished in 1828; and the northern, and a part of the western compartment of a projected square, have since been completed. The Townley Gallery at present joins on to the centre of the western compartment; and Montague House, the old building of the Museum, continues to form the general front."

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In the Northern Zoological Gallery, separated into five rooms, were all kinds of lower animals—Sponges and Corallines in the table-cases of Room I., Echinoderma, Holothurians, Star-fishes, etc., in Room II., Radiated animals, Zoophytes, etc., in Room III., Insects and Crustacea in Room IV., and "Annulose animals" in Room V. Considerable information concerning the objects in all these rooms is given, with tables of classification: all this was doubtless Dr. Gray's work.

In the "Eastern Zoological Gallery" was the collection of mounted Birds, the British species being distinguished by a letter "B" printed at the end of the pedestal. The account of the bird-collection is also very full, with a tabular classification at the end. This part of the guide was certainly written by George Robert Gray. Down the Bird-Gallery were the table-cases containing the Shells.

The Mollusca were personally under the charge of the Keeper, who with Mrs. Gray arranged the collection. A very full description, with a table of classification, is given by Dr. J. E. Gray of this portion of the collection.

The 43rd edition of the "Synopsis," published in 1841, is again a bulky little volume of nearly 400 pages, but does not differ very much from the edition of 1840, though it is amplified in many respects. Rooms XII.–XIII. of the upper floor have now become the "Mammalia Room" and the "Mammalia Saloon."

The Bird-Gallery was the same as I remember it when I took charge of the ornithological collections in 1872, and the shell-cabinets occupied the floor space, having a separate gallery apportioned to them on the removal of the Natural History collections to the new Museum at South Kensington.

The British Birds and the collection of British Birds' Eggs, the latter including two specimens of the egg of the Great Auk (Plautus impennis), were at some time or other transferred to the British Room in the Northern Gallery, and the eggs, which were stuck down on wooden tablets and exposed to the light, soon became bleached and rotten. In 1842, however, the collection of eggs was exhibited in table-cases in the Bird-Gallery, as we learn from the 44th edition of the "Synopsis." There is nothing new to remark upon in this edition, excepting that a catalogue is given of the paintings which used to hang on the walls of the old Bird-Gallery at Bloomsbury. Some of these portraits are extremely interesting, among them being those of Sir Hans Sloane, John Ray, and others.

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The Museum Library does not contain quite all the successive editions of the "Synopsis" after the 44th edition of 1842. Those examined by me have been the 46th (1844), 47th (1844), 48th (1845), 49th (1846), 50th (1847), 52nd (1847), 53rd (1848), 54th (1849), 55th (1850), 57th (1851). After 1842 the descriptions of the zoological objects were much curtailed in the "Synopsis," as a separate "Guide to the Zoological Collections" was to be obtained in the Hall (cf. 46th ed., p. 10, note). The 46th and 47th editions are apparently identical, and both were issued in 1844. Those of 1845, 1846 and 1847 (edd. 48, 49, 50) differ only in small particulars from the previous issues. The 51st edition is not in the Library, but doubtless did not differ from the others published in the same year, as the 52nd to the 55th editions show little change as far as the Birds are concerned. The 56th edition is unfortunately missing from the set in our Library, but the 57th is interesting as showing some alterations in the case of the British Birds and their eggs, which were removed from the Eastern Gallery to the 3rd Room of the Northern Gallery, to join the general British Collection as there arranged.

This plan of exhibition remained unaltered till the time of the removal of the collections to the Natural History Museum at Kensington.

Since the early voyages had enriched the British Museum with their valuable but ill-prepared results, many collections had been added. Leaving aside for the moment several valuable additions, which are duly chronicled below, one of the principal donations was that of General Hardwicke, who during his service in the Indian army made a collection of drawings of Eastern birds by native artists, which afterwards formed the basis of Gray and Hardwicke's "Illustrations of Indian Zoology."

He likewise presented to the British Museum a number of mounted specimens of birds from all parts of the world, and many of these specimens were so well mounted that they would not have disgraced the best of modern taxidermists. General Hardwicke seems to have been endued with extraordinary enthusiasm for the study of natural history, and to have been a god-send to the Museum in its earlier development. An oil-painting of this "grand old man" of zoology is to be found in the Natural History Museum. Sir John Richardson gives the following account of General Hardwicke (see Report Brit. Ass., 1845, p. 188, note):—

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"General Hardwicke began his collections of illustrations of Asiatic zoology in the last century, and continued them till his final return to this country in 1818. He lost many specimens and the fruit of much labour by three several shipwrecks; but this, instead of damping his ardour, roused him to fresh exertions, and he was busy up to the time of his death in preparing his collections for publication, the scientific part having been undertaken by Mr. Gray. Among the drawings of fish which he procured, there are some by Major Neeld, others by Major Farquhar, and a considerable number copied from the drawings of Buchanan Hamilton, by that gentleman's consent, and by the same artists whom he employed. This is mentioned because a charge of piracy has been made in the 'Calcutta Journal' against General Hardwicke, who was however too high-minded to appropriate to himself the labours of others without due acknowledgement; and the careful references in his own writing on the drawings of Buchanan Hamilton show that he had no intention of claiming anything that belonged to that distinguished naturalist. The General bequeathed his specimens, and the whole of his collections of drawings, amounting to twenty folio volumes, to the British Museum, and also set apart a sum of money to defray the expenses of publishing the scientific description of them. His collections have been deposited, as he wished, in the national institution, but his intentions respecting the publication have been entirely frustrated by a Chancery suit which was instituted soon after his death."

The great collections presented by Mr. Bryan Hodgson, from Nepal, Sikhim and Tibet, marked an era in the history of the Zoological Department; but the scientific value of this collection depended mainly upon the series of coloured drawings of the birds executed by native artists, while the skins from which the drawings had been taken were apparently of secondary account, and were very roughly prepared, with a label generally tied round the neck of the specimen, bearing a number which corresponded with the coloured picture of the species. The Hodgson donation dealt mainly with the birds of the Himalayas, with the exception of one collection of skins from Behar; and for many years the Museum lacked a representative series from the greatest dependency of the Empire.

Thanks to the donations of Mr. Allan Hume, C.B., Colonel Wardlaw Ramsay, Dr. F. D. Godman and Mr. Osbert Salvin, Mr. Radcliffe Saunders, and the bequests of Mr. Henry Seebohm

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and Mr. Philip Crowley, the ornithological collection of the British Museum has gradually been raised to the foremost position, and one of its most formidable rivals, the Honourable Walter Rothschild, is at the same time one of its most generous patrons. I believe that the utmost estimate of the number of birds' skins and eggs in the year 1872, when I first took office, would be 30,000, or 35,000 at the most. At the present moment, the series is more than 400,000 in number, of which the eggs alone number close on 100,000. The donations are chronicled in detail below.

One more remark may be permitted. The collection of the British Museum must always be of priceless value, as it contains the material on which was founded the "Catalogue of Birds," being a description of all the known species of birds in the world. The great collections presented or bequeathed to the Museum during the past twenty years were formed with the distinct idea of illustrating the natural history and geographical distribution of birds, and these collections afford material for exact study unequalled by any other museum in the world.

In the following pages are given the details of the gradual progress of the Ornithological Section, as far as it has been possible to compile the record from existing documents.

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II. CHRONOLOGICAL ACCOUNT OF THE PRINCIPAL ACCESSIONS TO THE COLLECTION OF BIRDS TO THE END OF 1905.

In the foregoing pages I have given an account of the formation of the bird-collection so far as it could be gathered from different publications. No actual registers were kept during the early days of the Museum, and it was not until 1837 that a formal register was started. Before that date G. R. Gray had commenced a MS. catalogue of the collection of Birds, and this exists in several vellum-bound books, most of which are still to be found in the bird-room. They are occasionally of service in hunting up the history of some of the ancient specimens.

As already stated, the specimens from Sir Hans Sloane's collection have long ago perished, and of those presented by Sir Joseph Banks but one specimen now survives, as far as I can discover. Some few birds were afterwards received from the Northern Land expeditions, being presented by Sir John Richardson, Admiral Sir George Back, and others; but the specimens described by Swainson and Richardson in the "Fauna Boreali-Americana" do not appear to have been presented to the nation in their entirety. During the time that the Zoological Society of London possessed a museum of its own, most of the birds collected by the exploring voyages, such as the Beagle, the Sulphur, and other ships, were given to the Society, instead of to the British Museum. When the Zoological Society decided to give up its museum these valuable collections were acquired by the British Museum, but the task of selection (presumably by G. R. Gray) was not too carefully performed, and several types were overlooked, which ultimately found their way into private museums, such as that of the late T. C. Eyton, for instance.

When the Banksian collection of birds was presented I have no record. It is certain that some of the specimens procured during Captain Cook's voyages were presented, on the return of the ships, to the Leverian Museum, Bullock's Museum, etc., while others still remained in Sir Joseph Banks' possession. Thus much we may gather from a study of Latham's "General Synopsis of Birds," which mentions several species as being in the above-named collections.

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Although the disappearance of the actual specimens is never sufficiently to be regretted, some little compensation for their loss is to be found in the collection of drawings made by the artists whom Banks employed during the voyages of Capt. Cook. These "Drawings" came into the possession of the British Museum with the rest of the Banksian Library, and they are now preserved in the Natural History Museum at South Kensington.

PARKINSON'S DRAWINGS.

The earliest of these collections is that of SYDNEY PARKINSON, who accompanied Sir Joseph Banks as draughtsman, on Capt. Cook's first voyage round the world (1768–1771). See Hist. Coll. Brit. Mus., I. (Libraries), p. 44.

The figures of birds are 32 in number (Plates 7–38). Many of them are mere pencil outlines, and it is tolerably certain that all the artists who accompanied Banks on Captain Cook's voyages, Parkinson, George Forster, and Ellis, were in the habit of drawing an outline, sometimes colouring the bill and feet from the freshly shot bird, but much of the colouring was left to be filled in at home from the actual specimens, and in many cases this was never done.

Pl. 7. "No. 12, Falco. The colour of the beak pale bluish-grey, the feet dirty grey blue. Terra del Fuego."

This plate, which is a pencil sketch only, is apparently intended to represent Ibycter chimango (Vieill.); Sharpe, Cat. B., i., p. 41 (1874).

Pl. 8. "No. 5, Green Peroquet, Otahite. Aã."
= Cyanorhamphus erythronotus (Kuhl.) (cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xx., p. 579).

Kuhl's type of his Psittacus erythronotus was in Bullock's Museum, and thence came into the British Museum, but is no longer to be found there (cf. Salvad., t.c., p. 580, note). It is not mentioned in G. R. Gray's list of Psittacidæ (p. 12, 1859).

Pl. 9. "No 3, Blue Perroquet. The face, throat and breast white, romp and neck dirty grey, turning blue towards the edge, the feet and beak a bright orange, claws black, all the rest of the body wt dark ultra[marine], shaded wt P[ale] B[lue], like shining blue steel. Avinne."

This plate, which is only a pencil sketch, most probably represents the Otaheitan Blue Parrakeet of Latham, Gen. Syn., i., p. 255

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(Psittacus taitianus, Gm.), Coriphilus taitianus, Salvad., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xx., p. 46 (1891).

Pl. 10. "The whole bird black, spots on the head and on the shoulders dirty white, the breast feathers waved with pale brown, the outer feathers of the tail scarlet and yellow with narrow facia of black, the iris dark brown, the pupil black, the beak dirty white, with the point of the upper mandible dark grey. Black Cockatoo."

This plate, which is also a pencil sketch, represents one of the Black Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus). Parkinson in his Journal (p. 144) writes: "Large black Cocatoos, with scarlet and orange-coloured feathers on their tails, and some white spots between the beak and the ear, as well as one on each wing." Latham, describing his Banksian Cockatoo (Gen. Syn., Suppl., p. 63, pl. cix.) refers to Parkinson's Black Cockatoo as being probably identical.

Pl. 11. "The beak very dark brown, changing gradually into yellowish toward the base of the upper mandible; the feet purple brown, the length of the wing in the natural size 7½ inches. Anas antarctica. Terra del Fuego."
A pencil sketch apparently referable to Nettion flavirostre (V.); Salvadori, Cat. B., xxvii., p. 261.

Pl. 12. "The head, neck, breast and back soot colour, which gradually grows paler on the coverts of the wings to their edges, which are bordered with white; the large wing feathers and the tail are the same sooty colour but shaded with M. blk. The upper coverts of the tail and the sides pure white; the beak blk., as are the feet, with a spot of yellow on each web. Dec. 22, 1768."
= Occanites oceanicus (Kuhl); cf. Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 358.

Kuhl (Beitr., p. 136, 1820) gives the first description of this species, but calls it "Procellaria oceanica, Banks," and quotes Tab. 12 of Banks' pictures, this being of course the abovementioned drawing of Parkinson's. It is not, however, Kuhl's actual type of the species, as the specimen was described by him as having been formerly in Ridell's collection, but now in that of Temminck. It does not appear in the Catalogue of the "Muséum des Pays Bas."

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Pl. 13. "No. 6, Procellaria æquorea; Dec. 23, 1768; Lat. 37° South. The throat, breast and belly white; the Remiges, Rectrices, and beak black; the feet black, on the webs marks of yellow as mark'd out in the figure."
Is Pelagodroma marina (Lath.); Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 362. P. æquorea is the name (unpublished) given by Solander to this species in his MS. notes, as related by Mr. Salvin (Orn. Misc., i., p. 227).

Pl. 14. "The large feathers of the wing, the tail, beak and feet are black, the belly and coverts of the tail white. December 23rd, 1768. Lat. 37° South."
Is Cymodroma grallaria (Vieill.); cf. Salvin, Orn. Misc., i., p. 238; id., Cat. B., xxv., p. 366.

Pl. 15. "The beak a pale blueish lead-colour, the legs and toes pale blue wt a cast of purple; the webs dirty white. Feb. 1st, 1769. Lat. 59° 00′."
Most probably = Prion desolatus (Gm.); Salvin, Cat., xxv., p. 434.

Pl. 16. "The beak black, the legs and toes pale violet grey on the outermost toe, the webs dirty white and partly grey, veined with dirty purple. Feb. 15, 1769. Lat. 48° 27′, Long. 93°."
May be Halobæna cærulea (Gm.); cf. Salvin, Orn. Misc., i., p. 328; id., Cat. B., xxv., p. 431.

Pl. 17. "Feb. 2nd, 1769. Lat. 59° South. Giant Petrel," Lath., Gen. Syn., vi., p. 397 (1785). Ossifraga gigantea (Gm.); cf. Salvin, Orn. Misc., i., p. 238; id., Cat. B., xxv., p. 422. A pencil outline only.

Pl. 18. Coloured figure, Ossifraga gigantea; cf. Salvin, l.c.

Pl. 19. "Feb. 2nd, 1769. Lat. 58°." Procellaria fuliginosa, Solander MSS.; cf. Salvin, Orn. Misc., i., p. 238.
= Majaqueus æquinoctialis (Linn.); Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 395.

Pl. 20. "The beak is black, the legs and upper part of the feet pallid white, the lower part, where marked off, dark brown; the claws black; the under part of the whole bird white. Dec. 23, 1768."
Procellaria sandaliata, Solander MSS.; cf. Salv., Orn. Misc., i., p. 328.
= œstrelata arminjoniana, Gigl. and Salvad. (cf. Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 413).

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Pl. 21. "Bill entirely black, the iris of the eye brown, pupil black. Feb. 1st, 1769. Lat. 59° 00′."
Procellaria lugens, Banks MSS. (cf. Kuhl, Beitr., p. 144).
= œstrelata brevirostris (Less.); cf. Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 409.

Pl. 22. The same as 21.

Kuhl gives the MS. name of P. lugens, Banks, but he himself refers the figures to Procellaria grisea [nec Gmelin]. The earliest published name seems to be that of œstrelata brevirostris (Less.).

Pl. 23. "The beak fuscus, the lower mandible paler and blueish; the feet of the same colour. Feb. 15, 1769. Lat. 48° 27′, Long. 93°."
Nectris fuliginosa, Solander MSS.
= Puffinus griseus (Gm.); cf. Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 386.

Pl. 24. "The beak blue grey towards the back, and the point black; the legs and feet the same colour as in the Procellaria cyanopedo. Nectris munda. Feb. 15, 1769. Lat. 48° 27′, Long. 93°."

The late Mr. Osbert Salvin was of opinion that this pencil-sketch represented the species described by Giglioli and Salvadori as Puffinus elegans (Ibis, 1869, pp. 67, 68); cf. Salvin in Rowley's Orn. Misc., i., pp. 256, 257, pl. xxxiv. (1876); id., Cat. B., xxv., p. 385.

Pl. 25. "The face and throat white as marked of[f] on the figure; the whole body above and below fusco-palido; the belly, the feet, whitish wt a cast of blue, the nails white. Dec. 23rd, 1768. Lat. 37° South. Diomedea exulans."

This figure probably represents the young of Diomedea exulans (cf. Salvin, Orn. Misc., i, p. 238; id., Cat. B., xxv., p. 442).

Pl. 26. "The bill entirely black, the iris of the eyes yellow-brown, the pupil black; the skin that goes along the beak from the head pale violet clouded wt pale brown. Feb. 1st, 1769. Lat. 59° 13′. Diomedea antarctica."
= Phœbetria fuliginosa (Gm.); cf. Salvin, Orn. Misc., i., p. 238; id., Cat. B., xxv., p. 453.

Pl. 27. "The beak, excepting the back of the upper mandible and part of the under one, is a dirty greenish white. Feb. 3rd, 1769. Lat. 57° 30′."
Is Diomedea profuga, Solander MSS., which is Thalassogerou

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chlororhynchus (Gm.); cf. Salvin, Orn. Misc., i., p. 238; id., Cat. B., xxv., p. 451.

Pl. 28. "The beak is of a lead colour, whitish towards the base of the upper mandible; the bag is of a dirty orange; the feathers of the whole body is quite black, having a cast of purple on the back; the feet and claws lead colour." "Rio Janeero. Specimen lost. To be coloured from No. 3 in log No. Pelecanus aquilus."

This is no doubt Fregata aquila (Linn.), Cat. B., xxvi., p. 443.

Pl. 29. "The beak and all the bare part round the eye is a brownish grey, the point only excepted, which is whitish; the iris of the eyes grey, pupil black, the feet something reddish."

"Terra del Fuego. Pelecanus antarcticus."

It is difficult to say what this pencil sketch actually represents. It may be intended for Phalacrocorax atriceps, King; Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 390. In Solander's MSS. in the Museum library there is a fuller description of Pelecanus antarcticus.

Pl. 30. "Pelecanus serrator."
= Sula serrator, G. R. Gray; cf. Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 428.

Solander's MS. refers to a specimen being procured on the 24th of December, 1769. He gives a full description of the bird.

Pl. 31. Phaëton erubescens, Banks' MSS.
= Phaëthon rubricauda, Bodd.; cf. Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 451.

A complete coloured figure inscribed "Sydney Parkinson pinx. 1769. Tawai" [Otaheite Islands]. It bears the name of Phaëton erubescens, of which a full account is given in Solander's MSS. This name is first published by G. R. Gray in his "List of Anseres," p. 182. A life-sized drawing of the head is also figured on this Plate 31.

Pl. 32. "Larus gregarius. Terra del Fuego."

"The beak and feet the colr of minium; the breast and belly white wt a cast of red, the same as in the Cocatoo wt the red crest; the claws dark brown; the length of the wing in the natural size 11 inches."

Mr. Howard Saunders, who has examined this Plate, which is only a pencil outline, is of opinion that it is intended to represent Larus glaucodes, Meyen; cf. Saunders, Cat. B., xxv., p. 203.

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In Solander's MSS. there is a fuller description: "gregarius, LARUS, albus, supra canus, abdomine pallide incarnato, rectricibus nonnullis apice nigris, rostro pedibusque rubris.

"Habitat: juxta littora Terræ de Fuego, ubi gregatim volitant, et sæpe totas scopulas cooperiunt."

Pl. 33. "Eperia." "No. 2. Egg Bird. Otahite."

"The whole bird interely white; the beak a lead colour, as are also the toes; the webs between white; the Rachi of the wing feathers pale brown and those of the tail black."

Mr. Howard Saunders thinks that this sketch, which is named "Egg Bird," is intended for Gygis candida (Gm.). It may be noted, however, that the name "Egg Bird" is also applied to Sterna fuliginosa; cf. Saunders, Cat. B., xxv., p. 106.

Pl. 34. "Columba porphyracea, Forster. Oopaa." "Green Dove. Otahite."

The Tahiti bird is Ptilopus purpuratus (Gm.), according to Salvadori, Cat. B., xxi., p. 105.

Pl. 35. "Amahò, Columba pectoralis, Otahite. The red on the neck brighter: some of a fine shiny purple."
= Phlogænas, sp.; cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xxi., p. 601, note.

This bird is only known from Latham's description, which was founded on a specimen in the Banksian Collection (cf. Salvadori, l.c.). It is apparently not mentioned in Solander's MSS.

Pl. 36. "No. 11, Turdus. Terra del Fuego."

A pencil outline, probably intended for Turdus magellanicus, which is the only species of true Thrush found in the island by Captain Crawshay.

Pl. 36, fig. 2. "The whole wings and tail black and little inclining to brown; the feathers of the back at their bases are black and their edges scarlet, which makes it look darker: the scarlet of the Belly is more yellow than the rest: the legs fusca: the beak black excepting the oblong space mark'd of[f] on the base of the under mandible, which is white. Rio Janeiro."

This pencilled figure is intended for Xipholena atropurpurea.

Pl. 37, fig. 1. "Rio de Janeiro."

There is no name given to this figure, but I should say it very fairly represents Spermophila cærulescens (Vieill.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii., p. 126.

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Pl. 37, fig. 2. "Loxia nitens, of the Coast of Brazil. Nov. 8th, 1768. Sydney Parkinson pinx. ad vivum, 1768. Brasil."

This figure is undoubtedly intended to represent Volatinia jacarini (Linn.), Sharpe, Cat. B., xii., p. 152, though the name Loxia nitens has not previously been associated with it. This same title is given in Solander's MSS. and may be a name attached to the drawing either by himself or by Banks.

Pl. 38, fig. 1. "Motacilla avida, Sept. 28th, 1768. Lat. 19° 00′ North."

This figure is evidently intended for Motacilla flava (Linn.), and is a young bird, probably procured when the species was on its southward migration.

Solander's MS. contains an account of the same specimen. The name avida is bestowed by him on the species.

Pl. 38, fig. 2. "Motacilla velificans, of[f] the Coast of Spain. Sydney Parkinson pinx. ad vivum, 1768, Sept.; T. 10, P. 6, Sept. 4, 1768."

This figure is evidently that of a female Wheatear, Saxicola œnanthe (L.); cf. Seebohm, Cat. B., v., p. 383.

FORSTER'S DRAWINGS.

The most important of the sets of Drawings from the Banksian Library are undoubtedly those of JOHANN GEORG ADAM FORSTER, who accompanied his father, Johann Reinhold Forster, on Capt. Cook's second voyage (cf. Hist. Brit. Mus. Coll., Libraries, pp. 36, 37). His drawings are mostly on folio sheets of paper. After fifty years a description of them was published by Heinrich Lichtenstein in 1844.* The Birds commence with:—

Pl. 32. Falco serpentarius, Miller.
= Serpentarius secretarius (Scop.); Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., i., p. 45 (1874).
Serpentarius serpentarius (Miller); Sharpe, Hand-list B., i. p. 241 (1899).

This is a large coloured figure, but no mention is made of this or the next bird in the "Descriptiones Animalium."

Pl. 33. "Falco plancus, Gm."
= Polylorus tharus (Mol.); Sharpe, Cat. B., i., p. 31.

This is a large full-sized figure, identified in a MS. handwriting as Falco plancus, under which name it is figured by Shaw in Miller's "Cimelia Physica" (Pl. 17), 1796. It is the "Plaintive

* Descriptiones Animalium quae in itinere ad maris australis terras per annos 1772, 1773, et 1774 suscepto collegit, observavit, et delineavit Joannes Reinholdus Forster, etc., curante Henrico Lichtenstein. 8vo. Berolini, 1844.

N 2

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Eagle" of Latham, Gen. Syn., i., p. 34 (1781). He quotes Miller's plate 17, so that part of the "Cimelia" must have appeared before 1781. It is Vultur plancus of Forster's Descr. Anim., p. 321.

Pl. 34. Falco leucurus.
= Ibycter australis (Gm).; cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., i., p. 38. "Statenland, ♂, Jan. 3rd, 1775."

This bird is described by Latham as the "Statenland Eagle," and he quotes some notes given him by Forster.

Pl. 35. Falco leucaëtos, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 70.
= Astur novæ-hollandiæ (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., i., p. 118.

From New Holland.

Pl. 36. (Adult male) Falco harpe, Forst., Descr. Anim., pp. 68, 69.
= Harpa novæ zealaudiæ (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., i., p. 372.

Pl. 37. (♂, juv.). Ditto.

Pl. 38. (♀). Ditto.

Pl. 39. Strix fulva, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 71.
= Ninox novæ-zealandiæ (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., ii., p. 172.

From Queen Charlotte Sound.

Pl. 40. "Lanius leucorhynchos, Linn."
= Artamus leucogaster (Valenc.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xiii., p. 3. "Pœmanghee, Sept. 7th, ♀, 1774."

Pl. 41. "Lanius cafer, Forst."; id., Descr. Anim., p. 398, Cape of Good Hope (= Lanius ferrugineus, Gm., S. N. i., p. 306).
= Laniarius rufiventris (Swains.); cf. Reichenow, Vögel Afrikas, ii., p. 582.

The bird from which this coloured figure was taken is mentioned by Latham (Gen. Syn., i., p. 163) as being in Sir Joseph Banks' collection.

Pl. 42. "Psittacus hysginus, Forst."; id., Descr. Anim., p. 159.

Count Salvadori is of opinion that this figure represents Pyrrhulopsis koroensis, Layard; cf. Cat. B., xx., p. 496. It is a better figure than that of Ellis, but both probably represent the same bird.

Pl. 43. "Psittacus bisetis, Lath." Psittacus bisetis, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 258.
= Nymphicus cornutus (Gm.); cf. Salvadori, Cat. B., xx., p. 591.

"N. Caledonia, 11th September, 1774."

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Pls. 44–47. Psittacus pacificus, Gm.
= Cyanorhamphus novæ-zealandiæ, Sparrm.; cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xx., p. 581.

The bird figured on Plate 46 is said to be from "Dusky Bay, April 6th, 1778."

Pl. 47. Is a Parraquet similar to the foregoing, but with a red rump. It is the Pacific Parrot, var. C, of Latham's "General Synopsis" (i., p. 253).
= Psittacus pacificus, var. γ, Gm. Syst. Nat., i., p. 329.

Count Salvadori identifies this with C. auriceps (Kuhl); cf. Salvad., Cat., xx., p. 587.

Pl. 48. Psittacus palmarum, Gm.; Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 259.
= Hypocharmosyna palmarum; cf. Salvadori, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xx., p. 78.

"Tanna, ♂, 16th Aug., 1774."

Pl. 49. Psittacus sapphirinus, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 201 (1844: Tahaitee).
= Coriphilus taitanus (Gm.); cf. Salvadori, Cat. B., xx., p. 46.

Pl. 50. Psittacus hypopolius, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 72 (1844: New Zealand).
= Nestor meridionalis (Gm.); cf. Salvadori, Cat. B., xx., p. 5.

Pl. 51. Psittacus poliocar, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 399 (1844).
= Agapornis cana (Gm.); cf. Salvadori, Cat. B., xx., p. 507.

"Madagascar, May 4, 1775."

Pl. 52. Callæas cinerea, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 74 (1844: New Zealand).
= Glaucopis cinerea (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., iii., p. 142.

Said to have been found in both islands of New Zealand by Forster (l.c.), who does not seem to have noticed the difference in the colour of the wattles between the two species of Glaucopis. The bird figured is G. cinerea.

Pl. 53. Corvus cinereus, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 260 (1844: New Caledonia).

This is the type of the "New Caledonian Crow" of Latham (Gen. Syn., i., p. 377), "from a drawing in the collection of Sir Joseph Banks."

= Artamides caledonicus (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 10.

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Pl. 54. Coracias pacifica, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 261 (1844: New Caledonia).
= Aplonis striata (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xiii., p. 127.

This is the "Blue-striped Roller" of Latham (Gen. Syn., i., p. 414, pl. xvi.). He does not say whence he described the specimens, but the Plate seems to have been adapted from Forster's drawing.

Pl. 55. Oriolus musæ, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 163 (1844).
= Tatare longirostris (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., vii., p. 525.

Pl. 56. Cuculus fasciatus, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 160 (1844: Huaheine et Otahaitee).
= Urodynamis taitiensis (Sparrm.); cf. Shelley, Cat. B., xix., p. 314.

"Taheitee. Tayarabboo."

Pl. 57. Cuculus nitens, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 151 (1844: Charlotte Sound, New Zealand).
= Chalcococcyx lucidus (Gm.); cf. Shelley, Cat. B., xix., p. 295.

Pl. 58. Alcedo collaris, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 162 (1844: Otaheitee).
= Todirhamphus veneratus (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xvii., p. 288.

"Erooro at Taheitee."

Latham's "Venerated Kingfisher" (Gen. Syn., i., pt. 2, p. 623, 1782) was described from a specimen in the Leverian Museum. It is said to "inhabit Apye, one of the Friendly Isles, where it is held as sacred among the natives as that of Otaheite." His "Respected Kingfisher" (t.c., p. 624) "inhabits Otaheite, where it is called 'Erooro.' It is accounted sacred." As Latham does not state where he found the specimen he described, it seems to me extremely probable that he took his description from Ellis' Drawings, No. 23, from "Otaheite"—"Erooroo."

As Forster's figure shows a dark band across the chest, a feature not mentioned by Latham in his description of the "Venerated Kingfisher," it is evident that the latter was not described from the actual bird figured by Forster. Both the "Venerated" and "Respected" Kingfishers of Latham seem to be the same species, and hence Todirhamphus tutus, Sharpe (nec Gm.), Cat. B., xvii., p. 291, will require another name, which I propose should be Todirhamphus wiglesworthi, in memory

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of the young explorer who did such good work as the historian of the Pacific Avifauna.

Pl. 59. Alcedo cyanea, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 76 (1844: New Zealand).
= Halcyon vagans (Less.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xvii., p. 271.

"Nr. Dusky Bay, April 4, 1773."

Pl. 60. Alcedo cancrophaga, Forst. (nec Lath.), Descr. Anim., p. 4.
Halcyon erythrogaster, Gould; Sharpe, Cat. B., xv., p. 234 [= H. actæon (Less.); Oustalet, C. R., iii., Congr. Intern. Ornith., Paris, p. 228 (1891)].

[St. Jago.]

Pl. 61. Certhia cincinnata, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 78 (1844: Queen Charlotte's Sound, N.Z.).
= Prosthemadera novæ-zealandiæ (Gm.); cf. Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 257.

Pl. 62. Certhia olivacea, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 79 (1844: New Zealand).
= Anthornis melanura (Sparrm.); cf. Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 255.

Pl. 63. Certhia cardinalis, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 262 (1844: Tanna, New Hebrides).
= Myzomela cardinalis (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Handl. B., v., p. 66 (1906).

"Tanna, ♂, 16th August, 1774."

Latham's "Cardinal Creeper" was described from a specimen in the Leverian Museum (Gen. Syn., i., pt. 2, p. 733, pl. 33, fig. 2); it may well have been the actual specimen figured by Forster.

Pl. 64. Certhia carunculata, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 165 (1844: Tonga-Tabu).
= Ptilotis carunculata (Gm.); cf. Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 225.

Latham called this bird the "Wattled Creeper" (Gen. Syn., i., pt. 2, p. 732), and described it from a specimen in the Leverian Museum.

"Tonga-tabu or Amsterdam Isle."

Pl. 65. Anas picta, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 333 (1844: Statenland).
= Chloephaga inornata (King); cf. Salvadori, Cat. B., xxvii., p. 134.

Pl. 66. Anas ganta, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 336 (1844: Tierra del Fuego).
= Chloephaga hybrida (Molina); cf. Salvadori, Cat. B., xxvii., p. 130.

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Pl. 67. Anas cheneros, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 92 (1844: Dusky Bay, New Zealand).
= Casarca variegata (Gm.); cf. Salvadori, Cat. B., xxvii., p. 183.

"Dusky Bay, N.Z., April 7, 1773."

Pl. 68. Anas pteneres, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 338 (1844: Straits of Magellan).
= Tachyeres cinereus (Gm.); cf. Salvadori, Cat. B., xxvii., p. 373.

"Statenland, Jan. 2, 1775."

Pls. 69, 70. Anas montana, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 44 (1844: Cape of Good Hope).
= Casarca cana (Gm.); cf. Salvadori, Cat. B., xxvii., p. 182. Pl. 69 is a pencil sketch only.

Pl. 71. Anas xanthorhyncha, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 342 (1844: South Georgia).
= Nettion georgicum (Gm.) (cf. Salvadori, Cat. B., xxvii., p. 264); Nettium georgicum, Sharpe, Handl., i., p. 219.

[♂, Jan. 17, 1775.]

On this plate is founded Latham's description of the "Georgia Duck" (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 2, p. 478) "from the drawings of Sir Joseph Banks."

Pl. 72. Anas xanthorhyncha, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 45 (1844: Cape of Good Hope).
= Anas undulata, Dubois (cf. Salvadori, Cat. B., xxvii., p. 212).

These two plates, named A. xanthorhyncha by Forster, represented two very different species.

Pl. 73. Anas pyrrhorhyncha, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 45 (1844: Cape of Good Hope).
= Pœcilonetta erythrorhyncha (Gm.) (cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xxvii., p. 285).

Although Latham (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 2, p. 507) does not state where he found the specimen of his "Crimson-billed Duck," there can be no doubt that it was from Forster's Drawings, or from a specimen in Banks' collection, that it was described.

Pl. 74. Anas malacorhynchus, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 94 (1844: New Zealand).
= Hymenolæmus malacorhynchus (Gm.) (cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xxvii., p. 455).

"Dusky Bay, New Zealand, April 3, 1773." "He-weeyo."

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Gmelin founded his specific name on Latham's "Soft-billed Duck" (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 2, p. 522). This was undoubtedly founded on Forster's Plate 74, with some details taken from the account in Cook's Voyage (vol. i., pp. 72, 97), and the specimen figured was no doubt in the Banksian collection.

Pl. 75. Anas assimilis, Forster, Descr. Anim., p. 46 (1844: Cape of Good Hope).
= Nettion capense (Gm.) (cf. Salvadori, Cat. B., xxvii., p. 259); Nettium capense, Sharpe, Handl. B., i., p. 219.

Latham (Gen. Syn., Pt. 2, p. 519, 1785) described his "Cape Wigeon" from the Drawings of Sir Joseph Banks. This plate of Forster's is, therefore, the type of the species.

Pl. 76. Anas viduata.
= Dendrocygna viduata (Linn.) (cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xxii., p. 145).

"Cape of Good Hope."

Pl. 77. Anas leucophrys, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 93 (1844: Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand).
= Anassuperciliosa, Gm. (cf. Salvadori, Cat. B., xxvii., p. 206).

Latham's "Supercilious Duck" (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 2, pl. 497) was taken from this figure of Forster's, which is consequently the type of the species.

"Dusky Bay. He-tarrera."

Pl. 78. Anas lophyra, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 340 (1844: Staten-land).
= Anas cristata (Gm.) (cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xxvii., p. 216).

Latham (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 2, p. 543, 1785) describes his "Crested Duck" from Forster's Drawings, and the figure is, therefore, the type of the species.

Pl. 79. Anas atricilla, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 95 (1844: New Zealand).
= Fuligula novæ zealandiæ (Gm.) (cf. Salvadori, Cat. B., xxvii., p. 368).

"Dusky Bay. He-patek."

This is another species, described from the Forster Drawings, being the "New Zealand Duck" of Latham (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 2, p. 543), on which Gmelin founded his Anas novæ zealandiæ.

Pl. 80. Aptenodytes chrysocome, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 99 (1844: New Holland).
= Catarrhactes chrysocome, Forst. (cf. Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 635).

A pencil outline.

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Pl. 81. "Aptenodytes patachonica." A. patagonica, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 347 (1844: Falkland Islands and South Georgia and islands of New Guinea*); cf. Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 627.

"♂. Jan. 17, 1775."

Pl. 82. Aptenodytes antarctica, Forst., Comment. Götting., iii., p. 141, pl. iv., 1781; id., Descr. Anim., p. 349.
= Pygoscelis antarctica (Forster); Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 634.

Pl. 83. Aptenodytes magellanica, Forst., t.c., 1781; id., Descr. Anim., pp. 348, 351 (1844: Tierra del Fuego, Statenland, Falkland Islands).
= Spheniscus magellanicus (Forst.); Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 651.

"Staten Land."

Pls. 84, 85. Aptenodytes minor, Forst., t.c., 1781; id., Descr. Anim., p. 101 (1844: Dusky Bay, New Zealand).
= Eudyptila minor (Forst.); Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 646.

"New Zealand. 'Korora.'"

Pl. 86. Procellaria similis, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 59 (1844: Antarctic Ocean).
= Halobæna cærulea (Gm.); Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 431.

Pl. 87. Procellaria vittata, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 21 (1844: Southern Ocean).
= Prion vittatus (Gm.); Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 432.

Pl. 88. Procellaria tridactyla, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 149 (1844: Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand).
= Pelecanoides urinatrix (Gm.); cf. Salvin., Cat. B., xxv., p. 437. "Teetee."

Pls. 89–90. Procellaria nivea, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 58 (1844: Antarctic Ocean).
= Pagodroma nivea (Gm.); Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 419 "Dec. 30, 1772." Pl. 90 is only a pencil outline.

Pl. 91. Procellaria glacialis, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 25 (1844: Southern Ocean).
= Priocella glacialoides (Smith); Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 393.

* Doubtless a misprint for New Zealand.

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Pl. 92. Procellaria hæsitata (nec Kuhl), Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 208 (1844: Lat. 48° S. Pacific Ocean); Gould, B. Austr., vii., pl. 47.
= Priofinus cinereus (Gm.); Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 390.

Latham (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 2, p. 405, 1785) founded his description of his "Cinereous Petrel" on a specimen in the British Museum. From his description of the colours of the bill and feet, it is evident that he had also Forster's Drawings in his mind.

Pl. 93. Procellaria fuliginosa, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 23 (1844: Southern Ocean).
= œstrelata macroptera (Smith); cf. Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 453.

Pl. 93A. Head of Ossifraga gigantea.

Pl. 94. Procellaria fuliginosa, Forst. (nec pl. 93).
= Puffinus griseus (Gm.); cf. Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 386.

The type of Latham's "Grey Petrel" (undè Procellaria grisea, Gm.) was in the Leverian Museum.

Pl. 95. Procellaria antarctica, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 60 (1844: Antarctic Seas).
= Thalassœca antartica (Gm.); cf. Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 392.

Pl. 96. Procellaria capensis, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 20 (1844: Southern Ocean).
= Daption capensis (Linn.); cf. Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 428.

Pl. 97. Procellaria gularis.

This plate represents a Flying Petrel, and it has been referred to Procellaria hæsitata by Kuhl and Temminck. The type of the latter species was purchased by Temminck from Bullock's sale, and was described by Kuhl: it is now in the Leyden Museum. This is the well-known "Capped Petrel," but Forster's plate represents œstrelata gularis, of Peale, 1848: cf. Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 414. It seems to me also that Procellaria inexpectata, of Forster (Descr., p. 204), refers to this Plate 97, in which case the species would bear the name of œstrelata inexpectata (Forster, 1844).

Pl. 98. Procellaria leucocephala, Forster, Descr. Anim., p. 206 (1844).
= œstrelata lessoni (Garnot); cf. Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 401.

This drawing is referred to P. hæsitata by Kuhl, but it represents quite a different species.

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Pl. 99. D. albatrus (nec Pall.), Forster, Descr. Anim., p. 27 (1844).
= Diomedea exulans, Linn.; Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 442.

Pl. 100. Diomedea chrysostoma, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 24 (1844: Southern Ocean).
= Thalassogeron chlororhynchus (Gm.); cf. Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 451.

Pl. 101. Diomedea chrysostoma, Forster, l.c. This pencil drawing appears to have been taken from a specimen of Thalassogeron culminatus, Gould; cf. Salvin, t.c., p. 451.

Pl. 102. Diomedea palpebrata, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 55 (1844: Antarctic Ocean, 25 Jan. 1773).
= Phœbetria fuliginosa (Gm.); cf. Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 453.

Pl. 103. Pelecanus punctatus, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 104 (1844: Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand).
= Phalacrocorax punctatus (Sparrm.); cf. Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 354. "Pa-degga-degga."

Pl. 104. Pelecanus carunculatus, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 102 (1844: Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand).
= Phalacrocorax carunculatus (Gm.); cf. Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 384.

Latham's "Carunculated Shag" (Gen. Syn. iii., p. 2, p. 603; undè P. carunculatus, Gm.), was described from a specimen in the Leverian Museum. It may have been the bird that Forster painted. Forster considered that he saw the same species in Tierra del Fuego, but he evidently confused P. albiventer with the New Zealand bird.

Pl. 105. Pelecanus magellanicus, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 312 (1844: Straits of Magellan).
= Phalacrocorax magellanicus (Gm.); cf. Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 388.

"Tierra del Fuego, December 28, 1774."

This bird was also described by Latham as the "Magellanic Shag" (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 1, p. 604), from a specimen in the Leverian Museum.

Pl. 106. Pelecanus pica, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 104 (1844: New Zealand).
= Phalacrocorax varius (Gm.); cf. Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 394.

Latham's "Pied Shag" (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 2, p. 605) was also described from a specimen in the Leverian Museum, but he

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likewise mentions having seen the species in the drawings in Sir Joseph Banks' possession. The egg is figured on the plate, and described by Latham.

Pl. 107. Pelecanus piscator, Forst. (nec Linn.).
= Sula cyanops (Sund.); cf. Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 430.

"Norfolk Island, Oct. 9, 1774."

Pl. 108. Pelecanus plotus, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 278 (1844: New Caledonia).
= Sula sula (Linn.); cf. Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 436.

"New Caledonia, ♀, 16 Sept., 1774."

Pl. 109. Larus scopulinus, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 106 (1844: New Zealand); Saunders, Cat. B., xxv., p. 238.

"New Zealand. He-talla."

Pl. 110. Sterna scrrata, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 276 (1844: New Caledonia).
= Sterna fuliginosa (Gm.); cf. Saunders, Cat. B., xxv., p. 106.

"New Caledonia, ♀, Sept. 16th, 1774."

Pl. 111. Ardea ferruginea, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 274 (1844: New Caledonia).
= Nycticorax caledonicus (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 158.

"New Caledonia, Sept. 11th, 1774."

A figure of this Night Heron is given in Cook's "Voyage" (vol. ii., pl. 50). Latham founds his "Caledonian Night Heron" (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 1, p. 15, 1785) on a description supplied to him by Forster, whose drawing thus represents the type of the species.

Pl. 112. Is apparently Demiegretta sacra.

Pl. 113. Is a pencil sketch of a Heron, but there is no clue as to its identification.

Pl. 114. Ardea jugularis, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 172 (1844: Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand).
= Demiegretta sacra (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxvi. p. 137.

Pl. 115. Ardea palearis, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 47 (1844: Cape of Good Hope).
= Bugeranus carunculatus (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 267.

The figure of the Wattled Crane is by "Shumacker," according to Lichtenstein, but the drawing is signed "G. Forster, 1773."

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The picture was taken from a living bird in the Indian Merchants Society's Gardens at the Cape, and on this drawing in the collection of Sir Joseph Banks Latham founded his description and figure of the "Wattled Crane" (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 1, p. 82, pl. lxxviii.), which thus becomes the type of the species.

Pl. 116. Tantalus capensis [Tantalus cafer, on plate], Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 48 (1844: Cape of Good Hope).
= Geronticus calvus (Bodd.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 17.

"G. F., 1773."

Pl. 117. Tantalus melanops, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 332 (1844: Staten Land).

Is the "Black-faced Ibis" of Latham (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 1, p. 108, pl. lxxix.) described from a specimen in Sir J. Banks' collection, procured by Dr. Forster "in New Year's Island, near Staten Land."

= Theristicus melanopis (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 21.

"Staten Land, Jan. 3, 1775."

Pl. 118. Scolopax caffra, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 49 (1844: Cape of Good Hope).
= Ancylochilus subarquatus (Güld.); Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 586.

Pl. 119. Scolopax phæopus, Forst. (nec Linn.), Descr. Anim., p. 242 (1844: Otahaitee).
= Numenius tahitiensis (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 367.

"Otaheite, May 3, 1774. Tewea."

The Otaheite Curlew was described by Latham (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 1, p. 122) from a specimen in the collection of Sir Joseph Banks, doubtless the identical one figured in Forster's drawings.

Pl. 120. Tringa pyrrhetræa, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 174 (1844: Otaheitee).
= Prosobonia leucoptera (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 525.

"Taheitee. Torow."

The type of this now extinct species is in the Leyden Museum.

It is curious that the three figures of this bird do not agree with each other. Latham does not tell us much of the actual specimen which he described as the White-winged Sandpiper (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 1, p. 172, pl. lxxxii.). He appears to have seen three specimens, which must all have been in Sir Joseph Banks'

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possession. The only one extant to-day is the example in the Leyden Museum, which I consider to be the bird figured by Forster, and described by me in 1896 (Cat. B., vol. xxiv., p. 525). The bird figured by Latham (pl. lxxxii.) differs somewhat from Forster's painting, in that it is shown with a rufous eyebrow, white lores, and a single rounded patch of white on the bend of the wing. Forster's specimen, it will be seen, came from Tahiti, but the bird figured by Ellis is quite different from Forster's and Latham's figures, and came, moreover, from Eimeo or York Island, where it was called "Te-te." Ellis' figure certainly represents a different bird from Forster's. It has a circlet of rufous colour round the eye, it has a double patch on the wing-coverts, and the median and greater wing-coverts are pale ferruginous like the rump. I propose to call this bird Prosobonia ellisi.

Pl. 121. Charadrius torquatula, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 108 (1844: Dusky Bay).
= Thinornis novæ zealandiæ (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 304.

"Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand." "Doodoorrooattoo."

Latham's "New Zealand Plover" was described from the collection of Sir Joseph Banks, and Forster's drawing was no doubt taken from the same specimen.

Pl. 122. Charadrius glareola, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 109 (1844: S. Island, New Zealand).
= Ochthodromus obscurus (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv. p. 211.

"Ha poho-èra," April 4, 1773.

The "Dusky Plover" of Latham (Gen. Syn., pt. 1, p. 211) was described from a specimen in Sir Joseph Banks' collection, and was doubtless the original of Forster's sketch.

Pl. 123. Charadius glaucopus, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 176 (1844: Otaheitee).
= Charadrius dominicus, P. L. S. Müll.; cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 195.

"Tonga Tabboo or Amsterdam Island."

Pl. 124. Is also Charadrius dominicus, but in more full plumage.

"Poemanghee. New Caledonia, ♂, Sept. 6th, 1774."

Pl. 125. Chionis lactea, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 330 (1844).

Is Chionis alba (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 710.

"Staten Land, Jan. 2nd, 1775."

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Pl. 126. Rallus troglodytes, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 110 (1844: New Zealand).
= Ocydromus australis (Sparrm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 64.

Pl. 127. Rallus pacificus, pt. Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 177 (1884, Otaheitee).
= Hypotænidia philippensis (Linn.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 39. Namoka, ♀, July 1, 1774.

Pl. 128. Also named Rallus pacificus, but evidently a distinct bird from the preceding one. It has a red bill, and agrees with Forster's diagnosis of his Rallus pacificus, so that it must be the type of the species.

Pl. 129. Rallus caffer, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 50 (1884: Cape of Good Hope).
= Rallus cærulescens, Gm.; cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 25.

Latham's Blue-necked Rail (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 1, p. 234) is taken from the Drawings of Sir Joseph Banks, so that this plate is the type on which the species was founded.

Pl. 130. Rallus minutus, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 178 (1844: Otaheitee and Tonga-Tabu).

Is Porzana tabuensis (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 111.

"Tana, ♀, 12th August, 1774."

Latham, speaking of a variety of his Tabuan Rail (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 1, p. 235), says:—"Inhabits the Island of Tanna. Sir Joseph Banks." His remarks apply either to a specimen, or to the drawing in the Banksian Library, probably the former, as there are no colours given in Forster's Drawing, which is only a pencil sketch (cf. Wiglesworth, Av. Polyn., p. 61, 1891; Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 111, note).

"Taheitee Maho."

Pl. 131. Rallus tannensis, Forster, Descr. Anim., p. 275 (1844). "Tana, ♀, 12th August, 1774."
= Poliolimnas cinereus (V.); Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 130.

Pl. 132. Rallus æthiops, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 400 (1844: Cape of Good Hope).
= Limnocorax niger (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 150. April 24, 1775.

Latham's Black Rail (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 1, p. 236) was founded on a specimen in the British Museum, but he does not mention the Banksian collections in connection with the species.

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Pl. 133. Otis afra, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 51 (1844: Cape of Good Hope).

Is Compsotis afra (Forst.) [♂]; Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 293.

Latham's White-eared Bustard (Gen. Syn., ii., pt. 2, p. 802, pl. lxix.) is founded on "a pair in the possession of Sir Joseph Banks" (undè Otis afra, Gm. Syst. Nat., i., p. 724).

Pl. 134. The two figures on this plate are apparently the female and young male of Compsotis afra.

Pl. 135. Tetrao capensis, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 400 (1844; South Africa).
= Francolinus capensis (Gm.) (cf. Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. B., xxii., p. 165).

The type of Latham's "Cape Partridge" (Gen. Syn., ii., pt. 2, p. 756) was in the British Museum.

Pl. 136. Columba leucophrys, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 168 (1844: Otaheitee).
= Phlogœnas erythroptera (Gm.); cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xxi., p. 600 [vide postea, p. 205, for Latham's Garnetwinged Pigeon, described from a specimen in the Leverian Museum].

"Tahiti."

Pl. 137. Columba argetræa, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 80 (1844: New Zealand).
= Hemiphaga novæ zealandiæ (Gm.) (cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xxi., p. 236).

"Dusky Bay, N.Z., April 3, 1773. Harrèroo."

This seems to be the type of Latham's "New Zealand Pigeon" (Gen. Syn., ii., pt. 2, p. 640), as he gives Forster's note, but does not mention the Banksian specimens or drawings.

Pl. 138. Columba xanthura, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 264 (1844: Tanna).

Latham describes this species as among Sir Joseph Banks' drawings, but he refers to it as a variety of his "Hooked-billed Pigeon," with which it has nothing to do. He names it Columba tannensis in his "Index Ornithologicus," vol. ii., p. 600, = Ptilopus tannensis (Lath.) (cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xxi., p. 127).

Pl. 139. Columba globicera, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 166 (1844: Tonga-Tabu et Eavowe: Otaheitee).

I am inclined to think that this figure represents Columba pacifica, Gm. (Globicera pacifica, Salvad., Cat. B., xxi., p. 173), though Count Salvadori seems to entertain some doubt about it.

VOL. II. O

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The plate is the type of Columba forsteri, Wagler, Isis, 1829, p. 739.

Pl. 140 = ♀ Columba porphyracea, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 167 (1844: Tropical Islands).

Is Ptilopus porphyraceus, Salvad., Cat. B., xxi., p. 100.

"Taheiti. Oo-oò-pa."

Pl. 141. Ditto, ditto. Male.

Pl. 142. Columba ferruginea, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 265 (1844: Tanna).

"Tanna, ♀, 17th August, 1774."

This plate was examined by Count Salvadori, who was unable to identify the species (cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xxi., p. 605).

Pl. 143. Alauda littorea, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 90 (1844: New Zealand).
= Anthus novæ zealandiæ (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., x., p. 616.

"Kogoo uròare."

The "New Zealand Lark" of Latham (Gen. Syn., ii., pt. 2, p. 384, pl. li.) was founded on this plate, "from Sir Joseph Banks' Drawings." The figure is therefore the type of A. novæ zealandiæ (Gm. ex Lath.).

Pl. 144. Sturnus carunculatus, Forster, Descr. Anim., p. 81 (1844: New Zealand).
= Creadion carunculatus (Gm.); Sharpe, Cat. B., iii., p. 144.

See Latham's description of his "Wattled Stare," where he refers to Dr. Forster's notes.

Pl. 145. Loxia turdus, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 85 (1844: New Zealand).
= Turnagra crassirostris (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., vii., p. 4.

"Dusky Bay, Queen Charlotte's Sound, April 4, 1773."

Pl. 146. Turdus badius, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 239 (1844: Oriadea).
= Turdus ulietensis, Gm.; cf. Seebohm, Cat. B., v., p. 276, note. Aplonis inornata, Sharpe, Cat. B., xiii., p. 135, note.

"Raietea, ♀, June 1, 1774."

Mr. Seebohm (l.c.) considered this figure to be that of a Merula, and he gave a figure of it in the fifth volume of the "Catalogue," adding a yellow eyelid, which is not in Forster's picture. I cannot identify the species for certain (cf. Cat. B., xiii., p. 276, note), but I have little doubt that it is the "Bay

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Thrush" of Latham's "General Synopsis" (ii., pt. 1, p. 35), undè Turdus ulietensis, Gm. The specimen is said to be "in the collection of Sir Joseph Banks."

Pl. 147A. Turdus phœnicurus, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 404 (1844: Cape of Good Hope).
= Cossypha caffra (Linn.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., vii., p. 39.

Pl. 147B. Turdus sordidulus, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 404 (1844: Cape of Good Hope).
= Saxicola familiaris, Stephens.

Pl. 148. Turdus ochrotarsus, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 82 (1844: New Zealand). "No. 3. N.Z., Dusky Bay, March 28th, 1773."

Sir Walter Buller, in his "Supplement" to the "Birds of New Zealand" (p. 123), separates Miro ochrotarsus from M. albifrons (Gm.) (cf. Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., iv., p. 235).

He admits two distinct forms of Miro as inhabiting the South Island of New Zealand, viz., M. albifrons, Gm., "with the under parts rufescent," and M. ochrotarsus (Forster), "with almost the entire under parts pale lemon-yellow, and a conspicuous spot of white on the forehead."

Forster's Turdus ochrotarsus is described as having the breast, abdomen and vent pale "rufescent."

Latham's White-fronted Thrush (Gen. Syn., ii., pt. 1, p. 71) is described from a specimen, in Sir Joseph Banks' collection, from "Dusky Bay, New Zealand." It is said to have "the under parts dirty yellowish buff-colour." From this it would appear that Miro ochrotarsus (Forster) is identical with M. albifrons (Gen. Syst. Nat., i., p. 822) founded on Latham's "White-fronted Thrush," both having rufescent or buff under parts Sir Walter Buller's M. ochrotarsus (nec Forster) with the lemon-coloured belly requires a new name, which I propose to call M. bulleri.

Pl. 149. Turdus minutus, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 83 (1844: New Zealand).
= Petrœca macrocephala (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 176. "Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand."

The type of the "Great-headed Tit" of Latham (Gen. Syn., ii., p. 557, pl. lv.) is founded on specimens in Sir Joseph Banks collection.

Pl. 150. "Turdus diabaphus."
Muscicapa diabapha, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 267 (1844: Norfolk Island).

O 2

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= Petrœca multicolor (Gm.), founded on the Red-bellied Flycatcher of Latham (Gen. Syn., ii., pt. 1, p. 343, pl. 50), "in Sir Joseph Banks' collection," probably the same specimen as was figured by Forster; cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 168.

"Norfolk Island, ♂, 11th Oct., 1774."

Pl. 151. Turdus xanthopus, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 266 (1844: New Caledonia).
= Merula xanthopus (Forst.); cf. Seebohm, Cat. B., v., p. 276; Sharpe in Seebohm's Monogr. Turdid., ii., p. 139, pl. 126.

This figure represents the type of the species.

Pl. 152. Loxia oryx, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 53 (1844).
= Pyromelana oryx (Linn.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xiii., p. 230.

Pl. 153. "Loxia pulchella." Fringilla pulchella, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 273 (1844: New Caledonia).
= Erythrura psittacea (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xiii., p. 382. "New Caledonia."

The "Parrot Finsch" of Latham (Gen. Syn. ii., part 1, p. 287, pl. xlviii.) is founded on Forster's specimens. "This is a most beautiful species, and was shot by Dr. J. R. Forster at New Caledonia."

Pl. 154. Fringilla bicincta, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 405 (1844: Cape of Good Hope).

This is the figure on which Latham founded his description of the White-cheeked Finch (Gen. Syn., ii., part 1, p. 278, 1783, = Fringilla nævia, Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i., part 2, p. 911, 1788). Latham says: "Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope. From a drawing in the possession of Sir Joseph Banks." This is Fringillaria capensis (Linn.).

Pl. 154. Muscicapa dubia, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 406 (1844: Cape of Good Hope).
= Sphenœacus africanus (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., vii., p. 95.

Pl. 155. Muscicapa ventilabrum, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 86 (1844: New Zealand).
= Rhipidura flabellifera (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 308.

"Dusky Bay, N.Z., March 28, 1773."

A note on the plate says: "Fan-tailed Flycatcher, Lath., Gen. Syn., ii., p. 340, no. 33, tab. 49, from this drawing." Latham seems to have seen more than one specimen, and does not specify where his type came from.

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Pl. 156. Luteous Flycatcher, Lath., Gen. Syn., ii., pt. 1., p. 342 (founded on Forster's drawing), Muscicapa lutea, Gm., S. N., p. 944; Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 169 (1844: Otaheitee), and M. atra, Forst., t.c., p. 171.

Is Pomarea nigra (Sparrm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 434.

Pl. 157. Muscicapa chloris, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 87 (1844: New Zealand).
= Clitonyx ochrocephala (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Hand-list B., iv., p. 1.

"Queen Charlotte's Sound."

Latham specifically mentions that his description of his Yellow-headed Flycatcher (Gen. Syn., ii., pt. 1, p. 342) was taken from a drawing in the Banksian Collection.

Pl. 158. Muscicapa heteroclita, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 271 (1844: Tana).
= Zosterops flavifrons (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., ix., p. 187.

"Tana, Aug. 7, 1774."

Latham's "Yellow-fronted Flycatcher" was founded on Forster's drawing, or on specimens in Sir Joseph Banks' Museum.

Pl. 159. Muscicapa nævia, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 269 (1844: New Caledonia).

Is Symmorphus nævius (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 110.

This is the figure on which the name of the species was founded. It is the "Nævous Flycatcher," Lath., Gen. Syn., ii., pt. 1, p. 343 (1783), = Muscicapa nævia, Gm., Syst. Nat., p. 944.

Pl. 160. Motacilla gracula, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 324 (1844: Tierra del Fuego).
= Cinclodes patagonicus (Gm.); Sclater, Cat. B., xv., p. 22.

Latham's "Patagonian Warbler" is described from a specimen in the Leverian Museum.

Pls. 161, 162. Motacilla seticauda, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 328 (1844: Tierra del Fuego).

A MS. note on Plate 161 quotes Latham's reference, and adds: "From this figure and the following."

Is the Thorn-tailed Warbler, Lath., Gen. Syn., ii., part 2, p. 463, tab. 52. "Inhabits Tierra del Fuego. In the collection of Sir Joseph Banks." Motacilla spinicauda, Gm., Syst. Nat., i., part 2, p. 978: Oxyurus spinicauda, Scl., Cat. B., xv., p. 30: Aphrastura spinicauda, Sharpe, Hand-list B., iii., p. 51.

"Tierra del Fuego, December 21, 1774."

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Pl. 163. Motacilla magellanica, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 326 (1844: Tierra del Fuego).
= Scytalopus magellanicus (Gm.); cf. Scl., Cat. B., xv., p. 338).

"Tierra del Fuego, ♀, 28th December, 1774."

This drawing is the type of the Magellanic Warbler, Lath., Gen. Syn., ii., part 2, p. 464 (from Sir J. Banks' drawings).

Pl. 164. Motacilla citrinella, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 89 (1844: New Zealand).

Citrine Warbler, Lath., Gen. Syn., ii., part 2, p. 464 (from Sir J. Banks' drawings).

"Dusky Bay, New Zealand."

This is the type of Motacilla citrina, Gm., founded on Latham's "Citrine Warbler." The drawing would appear to represent an adult female, according to the identifications of Mr. Ogilvie-Grant ("Ibis," 1905, pp. 595, 596).

Pl. 165. Motacilla longipes, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 88 (1844: New Zealand).
= Xenicus longipes (Gm.); Scl., Cat. B., xiv., p. 452.

This figure is the type, on which Latham founded the name and description of his "Long-legged Warbler"; cf. Gen. Syn., ii., part 2, p. 465 (= Motacilla longipes, Gm., ex Lath.). He says that it was taken from Sir J. Banks' drawings. He also gives the locality, Dusky Bay, New Zealand, and the native name, E Teetce tee poinom, evidently copied from this plate.

Pl. 166. Parus urostigma, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 90 (1844: New Zealand).
= Certhiparus novæ zealandiæ (Gm.); cf. Gadow, Cat. B., viii., p. 76.

"Dusky Bay. Native name Tòe tòe."

This figure represents Latham's description of the New Zealand Titmouse, Gen. Syn., ii., part 2, p. 558 (undè Parus novæ zealandiæ, Gm.). Latham mentions that it was taken from Banks' Drawings, and therefore Forster's plate becomes the type of the species.

Pl. 167. Hirundo pyrrholæma, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 241 (1844: Otahaitee).
= Hirundo tahitica, Gm.; cf. Sharpe and Wyatt, Monogr. Hirundinidæ, i., p. 275.

"Taheite."

Latham speaks of having seen a specimen in the collection of Sir J. Banks, and on this he founded the description of his "Otaheite Swallow."

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Pl. 168. Hirundo peruviana, Forst., Descr. Anim., p. 240 (1844: Otaheitee).

This figure is intended to represent Collocalia francica (Gm.); cf. Hartert, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xvi., p. 502 (note).

ELLIS' DRAWINGS.

WILLIAM W. ELLIS accompanied Capt. Cook on his third voyage, as an artist. His Drawings of Birds consist of 96 illustrations, mostly coloured, and are very passably executed (cf. Hist. Coll. Brit. Mus., I., Libraries, p. 35).

Pl. 7. Oriental Falcon, Lath., Gen. Syn., i., p. 34 (1781); "in the possession of Mr. Banks."

undè Falco orientalis, Gm., Syst. Nat., i., p. 264 (1788) (cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., i., p. 376).

"Flew on board off Japan. W. W. Ellis ad viv. del. et pinx., 1779."

A young Peregrine Falcon.

Pl. 8. Strix funerea.
= Surnia funerea (Linn.) (cf. Cat. B., ii., p. 131). Sandwich Sound, N.W. Coast of America.

Pl. 9. Tabuan Shrike, Lath., Gen. Syn., i., p. 164 (1781). undè Lanius tabuensis, Gm., Syst. Nat., i., p. 306 (1788).

Aplonis tabuensis, Sharpe, Cat. B., xiii., p. 130.

"The Friendly Isles, 1778."

The Tabuan Shrike was described by Latham from a specimen from Tongatabu in the Leverian Museum, probably the identical one figured by Ellis.

Pl. 10. "Pulo Condore. W. Ellis ad viv. delint et pinx., 1780."
= Cittocinchla suavis (Scl.) (cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., vii., p. 85).

Pl. 11. Parrakeet. "From Middleburgh."

On the plate is written in MS.: "Lath., vol. i., p. 214, no. 16." On referring to this volume we find the Tabuan Parrot figured (Pl. vii.), = Psittacus tabuesis, Gm., Syst. Nat., i., p. 317 (1788), = Pyrrhulopsis tabuensis (Gm.); cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xx., p. 494.

Another MS. note on Ellis' plate refers the species to Psittacus hysginus, of Forster, which Count Salvadori thinks may have been intended for the bird now called Pyrrhulopsis kordoensis, Layard (cf. Salvad., t.c., p. 496). This may be the case, but Ellis' figure is not P. tabuensis, as there is no sign of a blue collar.

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Pl. 12. A red-fronted Parrakeet. Identified in MSS. as Psittacus pacificus, Forster, which is Cyanorhamphus novæ zealandiæ (Sparrm.) (cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xx., p. 581).

"New Zealand." "W. W. Ellis ad viv. delin. et pinx., 1777.

Latham founded his "Pacific Parrakeet" (Gen. Syn., i., p. 252, 1781) on a specimen in the Leverian Museum. His "Var. A" came from New Zealand.

Pl. 13. Identified as Psittacus euchloris, Forster. It is the "Blue-crested Parrakeet" of Latham, Gen. Syn., i., p. 254 (1781), described from a specimen in the Leverian Museum, probably the same as that figured by Ellis.
= Vini australis (Gm.) (cf. Salvad., t.c., p. 43).

"Friendly Isles." "W. W. Ellis ad viv. etc., 1778."

Pl. 14. Identified as Psittacus sapphirinus, Forster.

Otaheitan Blue Parrakeet, Latham, t.c., p. 255, = Psittacus taitianus, Gm., Syst. Nat., i., p. 329 (1788).
= Coriphilus taitianus (Gm.) (c.f. Salvad., t.c., p. 46). "Otaheitee. W. W. Ellis delt, etc., 1778."

Pl. 15. Identified as Psittacus hypopolius, Forster.

Is the "Southern Brown Parrot" of Latham (Gen. Syn., i., p. 264), from the Leverian Museum.
= Nestor meridionalis (Gm.) (cf. Salvad., t.c., p. 5). "New Zealand."

Pl. 16. Named, apparently by G. R. Gray, and quite correctly, Platycercus flaviventris (Temm.) (cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xx., p. 545).

"Adventure Bay, New Holland. W. W. Ellis ad vivum delin: pinxit: 1777."

Pl. 17. A pencil sketch of a Drongo (Dissemurus). "Princes Island and Pulo Condore."

Pl. 18. Pacific Thrush, Lath.
= Lalage pacifica (Gm.) (cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 97). "Friendly Isles. W. W. Ellis ad vivum delin. et pinx., 1778."

The Pacific Thrush was described by Latham (Gen. Syn., ii., pt. i., p. 38, 1783), from a specimen in Banks' collection, doubtless the one from which Ellis drew his figure.

Pl. 19. Is Colaptes auratus (Linn.) (cf. Hargitt, Cat. B., xviii., p. 12).

"King George's Sound. W. Ellis del., etc., 1778."

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Pl. 20. Is Picoides americanus, Brehm. (cf. Hargitt, Cat. B., xviii., p. 279).

"Norton Sound. W. W. Ellis ad viv. del., etc., 1778."

Pl. 21. Is Sitta europea, Linn., from "Kamtschatka. W. Ellis del., etc., 1779."

This would be the form named by Taczanowski Sitta albifrons, which Dr. Hartert (Vög. Pal. Fauna, Heft iii., p. 331) recognises as Sitta europea albifrons.

Pl. 22. Is apparently a figure of Todirhamphus wiglesworthi, Sharpe, which is T. tutus, Sharpe et auct. passim (nec Gm.), and is the same as T. veneratus (Gm.). See my remarks.

"Otaheite. W. W. Ellis ad viv. delin., etc., 1777."

Latham's description was taken from a specimen in the Leverian Museum, probably the very one drawn by Ellis.

Pl. 23. Is the "Respected Kingfisher," Lath., Gen. Syn., i., pt. 2, p. 624 (1781).
= Todirhamphus tutus (Gm.) (cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xvii., p. 291) = T. veneratus (Gm.).

"Friendly and Society Isles. Otaheitee—Erooroo. Ulietea—Tautoria. W. Ellis" (no date).

Latham's description may have been taken from Ellis' Drawing, but does not quite agree.

Pl. 24. Is Promerops cafer (Linn.) (cf. Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 283).

"Cape of Good Hope."

Pl. 25. Is Prosthemadera novæ-zealandiæ (Gm.) (cf. Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 257). "Certhia circinnata, Forst." is written in pencil on the plate.

Pl. 26. Is Moho nobilis (Merrem) (cf. Gadow, Cat., ix., p. 284). "Sandwich Isles. W. W. Ellis delin. et pinx. ad viv., 1779."

Described as the "Yellow-tufted Bee-eater" by Latham (Gen. Syn., i., pt. 2, p, 683 (1784)).
= Merops niger, Gm., Syst. Nat., i., p. 465 (1788). Cf. Acrulocercus nobilis, Wilson and Evans, Av. Hawaienses, p. 105, Pl. 40.

Pl. 27. Is Drepanis pacifica (Gm.) (cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., x., p. 5). "Sandwich Isles. W. W. Ellis ad vivum delin. et pinx., 1779." Cf. Wilson and Evans, Av. Hawaienses, p. 3, pl. 3).

Pl. 28. Hemignathus obscurus (Gm.) (cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., x., p. 4).

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"Sandwich Isles. W. W. Ellis, ad viv. delin: et pinx: 1779."

Gmelin's Certhia obscura (Syst. Nat., i., p. 470, 1788), is founded on the "Hook-billed Creeper" of Latham, Gen. Syn., i., pt. 2, p. 703, pl. xxxiii., fig. 1 (1782). The type was in the Leverian Museum, and at the sale of the latter was purchased by the Earl of Derby, and is now in the Liverpool Museum.

On this plate is founded Gray's name of Drepanis ellisiana (Cat. B., Trop. Isl., p. 9). Cf. Wilson and Evans, Av. Hawaienses, p. 67, pl. 28.

Pl. 29. Is Vestiaria coccinea (G. Forster) (cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., x., p. 6).

"Sandwich Isles. W. W. Ellis ad viv. delin. et pinx., 1779." Cf. Wilson and Evans, t.c., p. 9, pls. 5, 6.

Pl. 30. Crimson Creeper, Latham, Gen. Syn., i., pt. 2, p. 739 (1882).
= Himatione sanguinea (Gm.) (cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., x., p. 8).

"Sandwich Isles. W. W. Ellis ad viv. delin. et pinx., 1779."

Described by Latham from a specimen in the Leverian Museum, doubtless the same one as that drawn by Ellis. Cf. Wilson and Evans, t.c., p. 19, pl. 8.

Pl. 31. Olive-green Creeper, Lath., Gen. Syn., i., pt. 2, p. 740 (1782; specimen in Leverian Museum).
= Himatione virens (Gm.) (cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., x., p. 9).

"Sandwich Isles. W. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1779." Cf. Wilson and Evans, t.c., p. 29, pl. 14.

Pl. 32. Is Selasphorus rufus (Gm.) (cf. Salvin, Cat. B., xvi., p. 392).

"King George's Sound."

Pl. 33. "Anas hyemalis. Kamtschatka. W. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1779."

Is Harelda glacialis (Linn.) (cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xxvii., p. 389).

Pl. 34. "Anas histrionica. Kamtschatka."

= Cosmonetta histrionica (Linn.); Salvad., Cat. B., xxvii., p. 395.

Pl. 35. "Anas stelleri. Kamtschatka."

= Heniconetta stelleri (Pall.); Salvad., Cat. B., xxvii., p. 419.

Pl. 36. Is Merganser serrator (Linn.); Salvadori, Cat. B., xxvii., p. 479.

"Sandwich Sound, N.W. coast, America."

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Pl. 37. Is Lunda cirrhata (Pall.); Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 612. "Coast between Asia and America. W. Ellis ad vivum delin. et pinx., 1778."

Pl. 38. Is Simorhynchus cristatellus (Pall.); Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 601.

"Bird Island, between Asia and America. W. Ellis ad vivum, etc., 1778."

Pl. 39. Giant Petrel, Lath., Gen. Syn. iii., pt. 2, p. 396, pl. c. (1785).
= Ossifraga gigantea (Gm.); Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 422. "Island of Desolation. W. Ellis ad vivum, etc., 1776."

Pl. 40. Is a species of Puffinus.

"Amongst the ice."

Pl. 41. Apparently a Diomedea of some sort (cf. Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 441).

"Amongst the Ice. W. W. Ellis ad vivum, etc., 1779."

Pl. 42. A grey Ossifraga gigantea.

"Amongst the Ice. W. W. Ellis, etc., 1779."

Pl. 43. Is Prion desolatus (Gm.) (cf. Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 434).

"Island of Desolation. W. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1776."

Pl. 44. Diomedea exulans (Linn.) (cf. Salvin, Cat. B., xxv., p. 441).

"At sea between Van Diemen's Land and New Zealand."

Pl. 45. Two figures of Catarrhactes chrysocome (Forst.); Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 635.

"Island of Desolation. W. W. Ellis ad vivum, etc., 1776."

Pl. 46. Aptenodytes patagonica, Forst.; Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 627.

"Island of Desolation."

Pl. 47. Head of Sula cyanops, Sundev.; Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 430.

"Turtle Island. W. W. Ellis ad vivum, etc., 1777."

Pl. 48. A small figure with head and egg (full-size) of Phaëthon rubricauda, Bodd.; Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 451.

"Palmerston Island. W. Ellis ad vivum, etc., 1777."

Pl. 49. Is Uria grylle (Linn.); Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 573.

"Unalashka. W. Ellis ad vivum, etc., 1778."

Pl. 50. Is Uria lomoia (Pall.); Grant, t.c., p. 577.

"Unalashka. W. Ellis ad vivum, etc., 1778."

Pl. 51. Is Rissa tridactyla (Linn.), Saunders, Cat. B., xxv., p. 305.

"Kamtschatka. W. Ellis ad vivum, etc., 1778."

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Pl. 52. Is apparently Larus vegæ, Stejn.; Saunders, Cat. B., xxv., p. 270.

"Kamtschatka. W. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1779."

Pl. 53. Is Anous stolidus (Gm.); Saunders, Cat. B., xxv., p. 136.

"Palmerston Island."

Pl. 54. Is apparently Sterna vittata, Gm.; Saunders, Cat. B., xxv., p. 51.

"Island of Desolation. W. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1776."

Latham's "Wreathed Tern" (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 2, p. 359 1785), on which Gmelin founded his Sterna vittata, was said to be from Sir Joseph Banks' collection. Christmas Island is a misprint for Christmas Harbour, Kerguelen Land, as has been pointed out by Mr. Howard Saunders (l.c.).

Pl. 55. Sterna serrata, Forst.
= Sterna fuliginosa, Gm.; Saunders, Cat. B., xxv., p. 106.

"Turtle Island. W. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1778."

Pl. 56. White Tern, Lath., Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 2, p. 363 (1785, from a specimen in the Leverian Museum).

Is Gygis candida (Gm.); Saunders, Cat. B., xxv., p. 149.

"Turtle Island. W. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1778."

Pl. 57. Sterna frontalis, Gray; Saunders, Cat. B., xxv., p. 97.

"At Sea between New Zealand and Modieu. W. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1777."

The name of Sterna striata of Gmelin is founded on the "Striated Tern," Lath., Gen. Syn., iii., p. 358, pl. 98. The bird is described from Sir Joseph Banks' Drawings, and Latham's figure is certainly adapted from Ellis' Drawing. S. striata appears to supersede S. frontalis as a name for the species.

Pl. 58. Is Demiegretta sacra (Gm.) (white phase); Sharpe, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 137.

"Friendly Isles."

The Sacred Heron of Latham (Gen. Syn., iii., pt. 1, p. 92, 1785), was described from a specimen in the collection of Sir Joseph Banks, from Otaheite.

Pl. 59. Is Chionarchus minor (Hartl.); Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 712.

"Kerguelens Land. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1776."

Pl. 60. Is probably Limonites minutilla (Vieill.); Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 548.

"King George's Sound. W. Ellis ad vivum, etc., 1778."

Pl. 61. Is Pelidna amerieana (Cass.); Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 608.

"King George's Sound. W. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1778."

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Pl. 62. Is Heteractitis incanus (Gm.); Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 453.

"King George's Sound. W. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1778."

Pl. 63. Is Phalaropus hyperboreus (Linn.); Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 698.

"Between Asia and America. W. Ellis ad vivum, etc., 1778."

Pl. 64. Is Rhyacophilus glareola (Gm.); Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 491.

"Christmas Isle. W. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1778."

Pl. 65. Prosobonia ellisi, Sharpe.

"Eimeo or York Isle. 'Tete.'".

This species is now believed to be extinct, and the only specimen of Prosobonia known is in the Leyden Museum; cf. Schl., Mus. Pays Bas, Scolopaces, p. 18 (1864); see antea, p. 190, where I have described Ellis' figure as P. ellisi.

Pl. 66. Is Aphriza virgata (Gm.); Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 208.

"Sandwich Sound."

Pl. 67. Is Ægialitis cucullatus (Vieill.); Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 302.

"Adventure Bay. W. Ellis, ad vivum, 1777."

Pl. 68 = Charadrius dominicus, P. L. S. Müll.; Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiv., p. 195.

"Christmas Isle. W. W. Ellis ad viv., 1778."

Pl. 69 = Gallinula sandwichensis, Streets.; Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 180.

"Sandwich Isles." Cf. Scott Wilson and Evans, Av. Hawaienses, p. 156, pl. 55 (1893).

Pl. 70. Pennula sandwichensis (Gm.).

"Sandwich Isles. W. W. Ellis ad viv., etc."

Cf. Wilson and Evans, Av. Haw., p. 175, pl. 57. Here the whole question of these small Crakes (Pennula) is discussed, and Ellis' plate is reproduced for comparison with P. wilsoni, Finsch.

Pl. 71. Is Phlogœnas crythroptera (Gm.); Salvad., Cat. B., xxi., p. 600.

"York Isle or Eimeo." "Oo-oo widou. W. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1777."

The plate has been identified as Columba pectoralis by some one, probably G. R. Gray (cf. Cat. B., Trop. Isl., p. 44). Latham's type of his "Garnet-winged Pigeon" was from Eimeo,

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and was in the Leverian Museum; it was probably the actual specimen figured by Ellis from Sir J. Banks' collection.

Pl. 72. Is Globicera pacifica (Gm.); Salvad., Cat. B., xxi., p. 173.

"Friendly Isles. W. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1778."

Pl. 73. Is the "Wattled Stare," Latham, Gen. Syn., ii., part 1, p. 9, pl. 36 (1783), described from a specimen in the Leverian Museum.
= Creadion carunculatus (Gm.); Sharpe, Cat. B., iii., p. 144.

"New Zealand. W. W. Ellis ad vivum, etc., 1777."

Pl. 74. Fig. 1 = Hesperocichla nævia (Gm.); cf. Seebohm, Cat. B., v., p. 176.

"King George's Sound. W. Ellis ad vivum, etc., 1778."

Pl. 74. Fig. 2 is Turdus migratorius, Linn.; cf. Seebohm, Cat. B., v., p. 220.

"King George's Sound."

Pl. 75. Is Calliope calliope (Pall.); cf. Seebohm, Cat. B., v., p. 305.

"Kamtschatka. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1779."

Pl. 76. Is Tatare longirostris (Gm.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., vii., p. 525; id., Handl. B., iv., p. 189.

"Eimeo or York Island."

The type of Latham's "Long-billed Thrush" was from Eimeo, and he mentions several other specimens as being in Sir J. Banks' collection from York Island. The species was described from a specimen in the Leverian Museum. From one of these birds Ellis' figure was doubtless taken.

Pl. 77. Is Phæornis obscura (Gm.), founded on the Dusky Flycatcher of Latham, Gen. Syn., ii., pt. 1, p. 344 (1783), described from a specimen in the Leverian Museum, probably the very specimen figured by Ellis.

"Sandwich Isles."

Pl. 78. Is Graucalus parvirostris, Gould; Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 32.

"Adventure Bay, Van Diemen's Land. W. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1777."

Pl. 79. Is the "Parrot-billed Grosbeak" of Latham (Gen. Syn., ii., pt. 1, p. 108, pl. 42, 1783), described from a specimen in the Leverian Museum.
= Psittirostra psittacea (Gm.); Sharpe, Cat. B., x., p. 51.

"Sandwich Isles. W. W. Ellis, etc., 1779."

Pl. 80. Is Calcarius lapponicus (Linn.); Sharpe, Cat. B., xii., p. 579.

"Unalaschka. W. W. Ellis, etc., 1778."

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Pl. 81. Is Zonotrichia coronata (Pall.); Sharpe, Cat. B., xii., p. 600.

"Sandwich Sound. W. Ellis ad vivum, etc. 1778."

Pl. 82. Represents the ♀ of Z. coronata, with nest and eggs figured.

Pl. 83. Is Montifringilla brunneinucha (Brandt); Sharpe, Cat. B., xii., p. 278.

"Off the coast of Japan. W. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1775."

Pl. 84. Is a ♀ Brambling, Fringilla montifringilla, L.; Sharpe, Cat. B., xii., p. 178.

"Off the coast of Japan. W. W. Ellis ad viv., 1779."

Pl. 85. Is a ♂ Loxops coccinea (Gm.); Sharpe, Cat. B., x., p. 50.

"Sandwich Isles. W. W. Ellis ad. viv., etc., 1779."

Pl. 86. This figure has been identified in MSS. on the plate as Turdus minutus of Forster.
= Petrœca macrocephala (Gm.); Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 176.

"New Zealand. W. W. Ellis ad. viv., etc., 1777."

This identification seems to me to be wrong, and Ellis' figure is more like Petrœca toitoi (Garn.), though the white used for colouring the under parts has changed to a dull brown.

Pl. 87. Is Chasiempis sandvicensis (Gm.); Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 232.

"Sandwich Isles. W. W. Ellis ad. viv., etc., 1779."

The "Sandwich Flycatcher" of Latham (Gen. Syn., ii., pt. 1, p. 344, 1783) was founded on a specimen "in the collection of Sir Joseph Banks," perhaps the identical one figured by Ellis.

Pl. 88. Is apparently Wilsonia pusilla (Wils.); Sharpe, Cat. B., x., p. 435.

"Between Asia and America. W. W. Ellis ad. viv., etc., 1778."

Cf. Ridgw., Birds, N. and Middle America, ii.

Pl. 89. Is Cyanecula succica (Linn.).

Erythacus cœruleculus, Seebohm, Cat. B., v., p. 308.

"On the ice."

Pl. 90. Is Saxicola œnanthe (Linn.); Seebohm, Cat. B., v., p. 391.

"On the ice. W. Ellis ad viv., etc., 1778."

Pl. 91. Young Wagtail.

"Caught on board, lat. 66°. W. W. Ellis ad viv., etc. 1778."

Apparently a young Motacilla flava.

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Pl. 92 = Tatare æquinoctialis (Lath.); Sharpe, Cat. B., vii., p. 528.

Acrocephalus æquinoctialis, Sharpe, Handl. B., iv., p. 190.

"Christmas Isle. W. W. Ellis ad viv., 1778."

Latham described this bird (Gen. Syn., Suppl. i., p. 187) from the papers of Mr. Anderson, and does not mention Ellis' Drawings or Sir Joseph Banks' collection.

Pl. 93. Fig. 1. Parus insularis, Hellmayr (cf. Hartert, Vög. Pal. Fauna, i., p. 359).

Fig. 2. Parus minor, Temm. (cf. Hartert, t.c, p. 346).

"Coast of Japan. W. W. Ellis ad viv., 1779."

Pl. 94. Is Parus hudsonicus, Forst. (cf. Hellmayr, Tierr. Paridæ, p. 71).

"Norton Sound. W. W. Ellis ad viv., 1778."

Pl. 95 = Malurus cyaneus (Ellis); Cat. B., iv., p. 286.

"Adventure Bay. W. W. Ellis ad viv., 1777."

This is the Tasmanian Superb Warbler, described by me in 1879 in the "Catalogue of Birds" (iv., p. 287) as Malurus gouldi. This must now be called Malurus cyaneus (Ellis), and the Australian species, hitherto called M. cyaneus by authors, must bear the name of M. superbus (Shaw).

Pl. 96. Is Collocalia leucophæa (Peale); Hartert, Cat. B., xvi., p. 502.

"Friendly Isles."

Forster's Drawing represents a different species to that figured by Ellis, which shows a white rump.

1809–1820.

THE BULLOCK COLLECTION.

When Dr. Leach was Keeper of the Zoological Department, he represented the British Museum at the sale of Bullock's great collection, and several birds were bought for the National Museum. Unfortunately many of the most valuable specimens, including a number from Captain Cook's voyages, were allowed to pass into the hands of purchasers from abroad, and left the country. These specimens were probably acquired by Bullock at the dispersal of the Leverian Museum.

Professor Newton possesses a copy of the Sale-Catalogue of Bullock's Collection, and he has most generously lent it to me, thus enabling me to trace the history of many important

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specimens from the collections made during Cook's voyages. As we gather from Latham's "General Synopsis," quite a number of Sir Joseph Banks' birds must have been given by him to Sir Ashton Lever, instead of to the British Museum.

Professor Newton's copy is marked with the names of the purchasers and the prices paid for the specimens.* It is a most interesting little volume, showing that the sale was attended by naturalists from various countries, Dr. Leach being the purchaser for the British Museum. From the copy lent me by Professor Newton, we learn that Dr. Adams attended for the Edinburgh Museum, Professor Temminck for Leyden, Mr. Fector for Vienna, while Baron Laugier represented Paris, and Professor Lichtenstein, Berlin.

The sale commenced on the 29th of April, 1819, and the Catalogue has, as a frontispiece, a sketch of the "Interior of the Great Room of the Egyptian Hall." The following is the title of the "Catalogue":—

PART FIRST, | containing the first six days' sale. | Catalogue | (without which no Person can be admitted to the View or Sale) | of the | ROMAN GALLERY, | of | ANTIQUITIES AND WORKS OF ART, | and the | LONDON MUSEUM of NATURAL HISTORY: | (unquestionably the most extensive and valuable in Europe) | at the | EGYPTIAN HALL IN PICCADILLY; | WHICH WILL BE SOLD BY AUCTION, | positively without the least reserve, | BY MR. BULLOCK, | on the premises, | on Thursday the 29th of April, 1819, | And continue every Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, till the whole | is sold. | To commence precisely at ONE o'clock.

The remaining Parts of the Catalogue, about Twenty days, will be published with all possible | speed; the Articles to be viewed THREE Days previous to that on which they are respectively | sold.

William Bullock was, according to the "Dictionary of National Biography" (vol. vii., p. 256), in 1808 a jeweller and goldsmith in Liverpool, and it was in this town that his Museum was originally started. In the Zoological Library in the Natural History Museum is a small octavo tract, being the seventh

* Since Professor Newton drew my attention to the importance of this "Sale-Catalogue" and lent me his copy, on which I have founded my notes, I have discovered another copy of the same Catalogue among the Tracts in the Natural History Muscum. It is practically identical with Professor Newton's volume, but differs in a few minor details.

VOL. II. P

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edition of a guide-book to Bullock's Museum.* It bears the following title:—

A | COMPANION | to the | LIVERPOOL MUSEUM, | containing | A brief Description of upwards of Seven Thousand | NATURAL AND FOREIGN CURIOSITIES, | ANTIQUITIES, | and Productions of the Fine Arts, | collected during several Years of arduous Research, and at an Expense | of upwards of Twenty Thousand Pounds, | by | WILLIAM BULLOCK, | of Liverpool; | And now open for Public Inspection, in the Great Room, | No. 22 Piccadilly, London, | which has been fitted up for the Purpose in a manner entirely new.

"O Nature! how in every charm supreme!
Whose vot'ries feast on raptures ever new,
O! for the voice and fire of Seraphim
To sing thy glories with devotion due."—BEATTIE.

The Seventh Edition. | Printed for the Proprietor, | by | Richard Cruttwell, St. Jame's-street, Bath. | 1809.

There is an engraved frontispiece, with three figures of men in armour of different periods, each figure having a compartment to itself, under a canopy on which appears the word "MVSEVM." It may have been intended to represent the entrance to the show, which must have been in existence for some years, if the "Companion" had reached its seventh edition in 1809. The title-page, on its reverse, publishes an announcement that the Proprietor is willing to give the "full value for rare and uncommon Quadrupeds, Birds, Fishes, Reptiles, Shells, Old Paintings, Carvings on Wood or Ivory, Stained Glass, ancient and foreign Arms and Armour, or any uncommon Production of Art or Nature."

Then follows a list of "Names of the Ladies and Gentlemen who have presented curiosities to the Liverpool Museum," but I do not detect any familiar name among the number of patrons, though a "George Bullock" will be referred to later on. The list of donors "non-residents in Liverpool" includes a few more familiar names, such as S. Polito, Dr. J. E. Smith, President of the Linnean Society, Lord Stanley (Knowsley), and a certain J. Bullock of Surinam.

A Preface, composed after the manner of the time, occupies

* On the cover is a printed label:—" DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE | of the | LIVERPOOL MUSEUM, | now open | AT THE GREAT ROOM, | 22 Piccadilly, near the Haymarket."

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three pages (v–vii), and is dated from the "Liverpool Museum, July 10, 1809." It concludes as follows:—" If this Treatise then, under all its imperfections, should afford one hour of entertainment, or assist the researches of those patrons and friends who have so liberally countenanced its Proprietor since the establishment of his Collection, his hopes are in some degree exceeded, and his wishes accomplished."

The "curiosities" from the South Seas contain many specimens brought by Captain Cook, and are said to have been once his property, as we are informed in a foot-note; some were purchased at the sale of the "late Leverian Museum." Some feather-cloaks from the Sandwich Islands are specially mentioned.

Among the "Works of Art" were a "beautiful Equestrian Model of Edward the Black Prince in Armour, finely executed by Mr. G. Bullock, of Liverpool"; and "a small Anatomical Figure, from the original of Dr. Hunter, done in rice paste of its natural collour."

The "Companion to the Liverpool Museum" then proceeds to the section of "Natural History" (p. 12). Among the "Quadrupeds" described, mention is made of a "beautiful and gentle animal, brought from the Slave Coast of Africa … its manners were quite gentle and mild. It died in the collection of Mr. Polito, in the winter of 1808, owing probably to the severity of the weather." This was the "Palatine Monkey" (Simia Roloway). Among the rarities of Bullock's Museum were "the Porcupine Ant-Eater" (Myrmecophaga aculeata of Shaw), "lately discovered in New Holland," and the Platypus (Platypus anatinus). Of the Hunting Leopard (Felis jubata) we learn (p. 19) that "three living ones were shown a few years since in the Tower, that were part of a pack belonging to the late Tippoo Sultan."

With respect to the Beaver (p. 21), Bullock speaks of a pair purchased by Mr. Polito, for the purpose of exhibiting in his collection. The latter gentleman also presented the skin of a Panther to the Liverpool Museum (p. 23). Some of Bullock's notes on the Mammals are very interesting, as, for instance, the fact that "the Kangaroo may be considered in some degree as naturalised in England, several having been kept for many years in the Royal domains at Richmond, which have, during their residence there, produced young, and promise to render this most elegant animal a permanent acquisition to the country."

On the Birds many notes are given, which at that time must have been very interesting, though they now read a little old-

P 2

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fashioned. A Golden Eagle (p. 28) is recorded as "finely preserved in the act of preying on the white hare of Scotland." The specimen is figured by Bullock in his "Companion to the London Museum" in 1812 (plate to p. 41), and did duty for many pictures in popular works on Natural History. Many of us can still remember this Eagle, with its wings outspread, and the bloodstains (sealing-wax) on the stomach of the Hare which it held under its feet. The group was purchased at Bullock's sale for nine guineas by Dr. Leach, and long held a place of honour in the British Gallery of the old British Museum.

The Proprietor of the Liverpool Museum apparently had also a small menagerie; he speaks of certain animals which he kept alive, and a Mocking Bird lived for some time with him (p. 32). He gives an elaborate account of the Birds of Paradise in his collection, and in view of the extinction of some of these beautiful birds in the present day by the plume-traders who supply the ornaments for ladies' hats, it is interesting to read that even in Bullock's time "the extreme elegance of the tail-feathers of this bird have made them expensive articles of female decoration."

The Humming Bird warrants a long descriptive note on its plumage and nest, Bullock's conclusion being as follows: "Such is the history of this little being, who flutters from flower to flower, breathes their freshness, wantons on the wings of the cooling zephyrs, sips the nectar of a thousand sweets, and resides in climes where reigns the beauty of eternal spring."

In 1807 he visited the Bass Rock and procured several Gannets in different plumages, which he describes (p. 38).

From the Leverian Museum Bullock appears to have purchased a specimen of the Crowned Pigeon (Goura coronata), which "when living, was many years in the possession of her present Majesty, who presented it to the Leverian Museum" (p. 39).

The Lyre Bird is spoken of as the "Botany Bay Bird of Paradise" (p. 39).

The "Companion" ends with the following announcement: "In a short time will be published by subscription, in two vols., 8vo (dedicated by permission to Lord Stanley), price to subscribers 1l. 48., An accurate DESCRIPTION of the SUBJECTS OF NATURAL HISTORY, Foreign and other CURIOSITIES, &c., &c., &c., in the LIVERPOOL MUSEUM, illustrated by upwards of Thirty Etchings, by Howitt, and comprising such Articles of Natural History and Antiquity as have been found in Lancashire and the adjoining Counties."

In 1809, or about that time, Bullock removed the "Liverpool

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Museum" to London, and in 1812 he published another guidebook to his collection, now called the "London Museum." The title is as follows:—

A Companion | to | Mr. Bullock's | LONDON MUSEUM | and | PANTHERION; containing | a Brief Description | of upwards of fifteen thousand | Natural and Foreign Curiosities, | Antiquities, | and | Productions of the Fine Arts, | collected during seventeen Years of arduous Research, and | at an Expense of | Thirty Thousand Pounds; | and now open for Public Inspection in the | Egyptian Temple, | just erected for its reception, in | Piccadilly, London, | opposite the end of Bond Street; | by Wm Bullock, | Fellow of the Linnean Society, and Honorary Member of | the Dublin Society. | [Then follows Beattie's verse, "O Nature!" etc.] The Twelfth Edition. | Printed for the Proprietor. | 1812.

It will be noticed that he now states that his Museum had cost him £30,000, being £10,000 more than was stated in 1809. In the "Address" which takes the place of the "Preface" of 1809, "Mr. Bullock respectfully begs leave to solicit the attention and patronage of the Nobility, Gentry, and the Public, to an Establishment for the advancement of the Science of Natural History, which in magnitude and expense, he presumes, is unparalelled, as the work of an individual."

"The very flattering and general approbation which honoured the exhibition of his Museum on its first opening in a temporary situation in London, was a convincing proof that his future efforts for the extension and improvement of the Collection would be duly appreciated. His exertions to obtain articles of rarity and interest have, therefore, been unceasing. In most departments, the subjects have been doubled in number; the specimens are choice, in the highest possible preservation, and are arranged according to the Linnean system. They consist of about Fifteen Thousand species of Quadrupeds, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Shells, Corals, etc., etc., collected during twenty years of unwearied application, and at an expense exceeding thirty thousand pounds.

In adapting the edifice which Mr. Bullock has just completed for his present Collection, by displaying it advantageously for the Study of the Naturalist, the Instruction of the Curious, and the Amusement of those who are delighted in viewing the

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Beauties of Nature, or the Curiosities of Art, he has endeavoured to render it worthy of the British Metropolis, whilst he has also provided this means for enlargement, as future additions shall accumulate.

One department of the Museum (the Pantherion), completed with much labour and great expense, is entirely novel, and presents a scene altogether grand and interesting. Various animals, as the lofty Giraffe, the Lion, the Elephant, the Rhinoceros, etc., are exhibited as ranging in their native wilds and forests; whilst exact models, both in figure and colour, of the rarest and most luxuriant Plants from every clime, give all the appearance of reality; the whole being assisted with a panoramic effect of distance and appropriate scenery, affording a beautiful illustration of the luxuriance of a torrid clime.

The Museums of France have been enriched with the spoils of nearly the whole Continent, and the Gallery of the Louvre contains more treasures in Painting and Sculpture than perhaps will ever again be amassed in one Collection. But though her active and persevering Ruler, desirous of making his capital the centre of attraction, has contributed to the Museum Naturale every specimen of Natural History which in the present state of the Continent could be procured, our unrivalled Navy, and the extension of our Colonies throughout the habitable world, present such advantages to this country, that the writer feels confident, that if his exertions are seconded by the Public as they have hitherto been, he will very shortly be enabled to make a collection of Natural History far surpassing anything of the kind at present in existence; and he pledges himself to exert his utmost power in accomplishing this important work.

To the numerous Royal, Noble, and liberal Contributors to his Museum, by whose kindness his Collection has been enriched by so many valuable articles, which could not have been procured by pecuniary means, Mr. Bullock returns his unfeigned thanks.

When the information and delight which may be derived from this Exhibition, especially by the rising generation, are considered, the great sum expended in forming it, and the erection of the present large and commodious building for its reception, the Proprietor trusts that the terms will be approved of.

Admission to each Exhibition, one shilling ….. Annual Ticket, not transferable 1l. 1s… … Subscriber for Life 10l. 10s.

MUSEUM, PICCADILLY,
March 28, 1812."

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As in his "Companion to the Liverpool Museum" of 1809, so in the "Companion to the London Museum" of 1812, Bullock gives a list of the "Names of the Ladies and Gentlemen who have presented curiosities to the Museum." Among the names of these donors are those of "Her Majesty"; H.R.H. the Princess Charlotte of Wales, T.R.H. the Duke and Duchess of York, Lady Banks and Sir Joseph Banks, Capt. Barrow, H.G. The Duke of Bedford, J. Bullock (Surinam), General Davies, John Francillon, the late B. Gurney of Norwich, J. Irby of Britwell House, Maidenhead, A. B. Lambert, V.P. Linnean Society, W. E. Leach, Sir John Leicester of Tabley, Mrs. Mawe, Mrs. Polito (Exeter Change), Jonathan Salt of Sheffield, Dr. J. E. Smith, President of the Linnean Society, Mr. Sowerby, Lord Stanley, M.P. (Knowsley).

In contrast to the "Companion to the Liverpool Museum" of 1809, which commences with a description of the "Curiosities," the "Companion to the London Museum" of 1812 commences with the Natural History specimens.

The number of species exhibited has very largely increased since 1809, but the descriptive notes of the last edition are reproduced, save that when Bullock formerly spoke of a specimen having been sent "to the Proprietor of this Museum," he speaks, in 1812, of the identical specimen as having been sent "to me."

Bullock was his own auctioneer, and prefaced his Sale-Catalogue with an "Address" of three pages, which is somewhat amusing reading, as, for instance, when he deplores that the size of the collection renders it impossible for the Proprietor to "publish the whole of the Auction Catalogue, with that descriptive accuracy which the subject requires, in time for the requisite circulation previous to the commencement of the sale, etc.

"In submitting the whole of this valuable collection to the hammer, without the smallest reserve or purchasing in, either directly or indirectly, Mr. Bullock trusts to the liberality of the Public, and confidently expects to receive a fair remuneration for the articles which now compose the London Museum; a collection, which is the result of thirty years of unremitting attention, under the auspices of the most scientific characters, not only in this country, but in various other parts of the world; and which has been formed at an expense considerably exceeding £30,000.

As many of the articles of Natural History in this Museum have been collected in several places, and under a variety of

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circumstances, by Mr. Bullock himself, he trusts that his knowledge of many particulars, which may add interest or value to the articles themselves, will be a sufficient apology (if any be necessary for the manner in which a man chooses to dispose of his own property) for his appearing before the public in the new character of an Auctioneer: a character which he hopes to convince those who may do him the honour of attending the sale, he has not assumed from any unworthy pecuniary motive, but from a proper desire to apprize the bidder of the actual circumstances connected with the article he may wish to buy, that he may be fairly and fully in possession of its nature and character.

Any catalogue of a sale so various and complicated as this, must be necessarily incomplete. A catalogue must rather lead the eye to the article than explain it in detail; but from the nature of even one branch of the collection, the Ornithological department, a detail is utterly impossible within the limits of any printed statement intended for general perusal. The almost exclusive command of the seas, during a protracted war, successively filled this country from every part of the world with the most novel and extraordinary specimens in this branch of Natural History, which generally centred in this Museum, and formed an important part of its extensive attractions. There are many thousands of birds unknown (chiefly owing to what we have already said of the maritime nature of the late war) to Continental Naturalists, and for which names are not to be found in the Linnean classification. The Proprietor is aware of what he must suffer from the impossibility of describing in detail a very large part of this branch of his collection; but as he repeats his fixed determination to sell without reserve, he relies that the liberality of the lovers of Natural History, who must be aware of the value of particular articles in their branch of study, which he cannot describe as they deserve, will give him that assistance on this occasion to which they may think his labours entitle him, and his collection deserves: he neither asks nor expects more. The Proprietor, as they must see, availed himself of the great opportunities his country possessed during the late war of enriching this branch of his collection at a great expense. He now confidently relies that the result of his labours will not prove an eventual bar to the laudable enterprise of future collectors."

It will be noted that Bullock claims to have an important series of specimens from the ships engaged during the late war,

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and many objects from Captain Cook's voyages are included in the Catalogue.

The FIRST DAY'S SALE (Thursday, April 29, 1819) consisted of Roman antiquities, models in rice paste by Mr. Geo. Bullock, etc. Most of these lots were purchased by a Mr. Davis, including Lot 44, which fetched 33s. and consisted of "Portraits of various British Birds, executed in feathers, and a copy of Tenniers in coloured straw." A "curious model of a Man-of-War, near three feet long, made entirely of glass, in a mahogany glazed case," having a MS. note added, "made by the proprietor when a boy," was sold for seven guineas. Several "models of Animals finely executed from life in a manner entirely new," included those of a "Lion and Lioness, very spirited and fine," which was bought by Mr. Mathieson for £7, and "a large Elephant, a correct copy of the one lately living at the Jardin des Plantes at Paris," went to the same gentleman for £5; while a Rhinoceros, a Camel, and a Buffalo and Roman Bull were purchased by Lord Mountmorres for £19 14s.

Mr. Davis, of Bond Street, purchased Lot 66 for £39. It consisted of "Fifteen different Animals, appropriately displayed on a rock, modelled in cork, with foliage carved in ivory, and inclosed in a large glazed mahogany case; the animals consist of the Elephant, Panther, Wild Boar, Zebra, Stag, and Hind, White Stag, Spotted Axis, Wood Goat (male and female), Chamois (male and female), Roe Buck, Blood Hound, and Italian Greyhound, all copied from life, and forming a fine group for a public exhibition." "The original model of the Colossal Statue of Napoleon, twelve feet high, which was taken from the top of the celebrated Column of Peace in the Place Vendôme, when the Allies entered Paris in 1814," was bought for £33 12s. by Mr. Beckford of Fonthill.

The SECOND DAY'S SALE (April 30, 1819) consisted of pictures, a few birds, property of Napoleon, etc.

Lot 19. A "Virgin and Child and St. Anthony—Corregio" fetched £16, and a MS. note says: "Cost him 10d. and 5d. carriage. Bought at Tivoli, near Rome, where he found it stopping up the window of a cow-house."

Lot 11 was a "portrait of Titian, extremely spirited," by Giorgione, and fetched 23 guineas. A MS. note informs us that it was "declared as above by Mr. West, P.R.A."

The birds were contained in Lots 37 to 44, and are only

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remarkable for the prices they fetched. They were "arranged in bell Glasses for Chimney-Piece ornaments."

Lot 37. "A Glossy Thrush—extremely rare," was purchased by Lord Stanley for £6, and he bought, for 3 guineas, Lot 43—"the Spotted Tanager and Blue Creeper from Senegal; very rare." These birds would not fetch as many shillings in the present day.

Among the Napoleonic treasures was the "Eagle carried before the Emperor on State occasions." A picture of the meeting of the Emperors of France and Russia on the raft at Tilsit, said to have cost 100 guineas, fetched £16.

The THIRD DAY'S SALE, May 4, 1819, consisted of "Birds." In addition to the private buyers, Dr. Leach purchased for the British Museum, Professor Temminck for Holland, Mr. Fector for Vienna, Baron Logier (Laugier) for Paris, Dr. Adams for Edinburgh. Among the names of the private purchasers occur the names of Sabine, Swainson, Vigors, Yarrell, Leadbetter, Calvert, Hale, Lincoln, Riddell, Lord Stanley, Lord Temple.

Leach purchased among other specimens:—

Lot 16. Ardea pavonia, Crowned Crane (£1).

Lot 29. Ardea garzetta, Little Egret; very rare, British (22s.). No longer in the British Museum.

Lot 37. Oyster-catchers (21s.).

None of these appear to be now preserved in the Museum.

Lot 38. New Holland and American Avoset (35s.). Spec. b of Recurvirostra noxæ hollandiæ of my "Catalogue of Birds," vol. xxiv., p. 334, may probably be Bullock's old specimen.

Lot 39. Procellaria gigantea, Giant Petrel; very fine (25s.). Spec. h of Salvin's "Catalogue of Birds," vol. xxv., p. 424, may be the old Bullock specimen.

Lot 43. Psophia crepitans, Gold-breasted Trumpeter (male and female), in glass cases (42s.). Probably spec. a of Gray's Catalogue, "Gallinæ," p. 73 (1844): not in the Museum in 1894. (Cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 279.)

Lot 46. Roller, Coracias garrula; very rare and fine ["British" added in MS.] (31s. 6d.). (Cf. Gray's "Catalogue of British Birds," p. 36.) It seems to have perished. (Cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xvii., p. 17.)

Lot 52. Crowned Crane (the female) (£5).

Lot 59. Black Curassow (15s.). This may be the specimen recorded by Gray under Crax alector, spec. a (Gray, Cat. "Gallinæ," p. 20, 1844).

Lot 70. Nondescript Heron, East Indies (38s.).

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Lot 99. Pelecanus bassanus, the Soland Goose (18s.). This is still in the collection. (Cf. Gray, Cat. Brit. B., p. 245 (1863); Ogilvie-Grant, Cat. B., xxvi., p. 427.)

Lot 109. Cape Penguin (31s. 6d.). This must be spec. a of Gray's Catalogue of 1844, p. 154, and spec. e of Mr. Ogilvie-Grant's volume (Cat. B., xxvi., p. 650, 1898).

The FOURTH DAY'S SALE (May 5, 1819), consisted of "British Land Birds," a number of which were bought by Sir Thomas Ackland.

Lot 1. Falco Chrysaetus, the Golden Eagle (male), killed in Scotland; finely preserved in the act of preying on the white hare. This well-known group, which for many years was a conspicuous object in the British Gallery at Bloomsbury, was purchased by Dr. Leach for 9 guineas.

Lot 2 (the female) was purchased by Dr. Leach for 4 guineas, as was also

Lot 3. The young and egg of ditto, the only one known in any collection (35s.).

Lot 5. A female Sea-Eagle; killed in the park of Sir Joseph Banks, in Lincolnshire (extent of wing 8 feet 4 in., MS. note); was bought by Sir Thomas Ackland for nine guineas.

Lot 7, a female White-tailed Eagle, was secured by Dr. Leach for £3 8s., and Lot 8, Two young birds taken in "the Isle of Hoy, one of the Orkneys," were also purchased by him for £4 4s.

Lot 11. Falco fulvus, Ring-tailed Eagle (male), went to Mr. Sabine for £7 15s.

Lot 12. The female was bought by Leach for £5 5s.; and Lot 13, Two young of ditto, was also purchased by him for £5 15s. 6d.; cf. Gray, Cat. Brit. B., pp. 3, 6 (1863).

Lot 22. F. Lanareus, Lanner (male and female). Bought by Lord Stanley for £2 12s.

Lot 31. Strix Nyctea, Snowy Owl (male), killed in Britain, was purchased by Leach for the enormous sum of 25 guineas. This bird is no longer in the Museum.

Lot 32. Another Snowy Owl (killed in Shetland by Mr. Edmonson, MS. note) was likewise bought by Leach for £9 10s. It is still in the Museum; cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., ii., p. 128.

Lot 34. Strix bubo, Great-eared Owl, was purchased by Colonel Bullock for £3 10s.

Lot 36*. Strix flammea, White Owl (male, female, and young) (and tree containing young, MS. note), fetched 15s. Bought by a Mr. Ashmead.

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Lot 37. Strix stridula, Tawny Owl, egg and young ones. Purchased by Leach for 7s.

Lot 38. Strix nebulosa, Barred Owl. Purchased by Dr. Leach for £2.

What bird this could have been I have been unable to determine. It was not the true Strix nebulosa, as in 1875, when I published the second volume of the "Catalogue of Birds," the Museum only possessed one specimen of this species, presented by Lord Odo Russell (cf. Cat. B., ii., p. 258, 1875). Bullock's specimen may have been S. lapponicum, spec. a. (cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 255).

Lot 52. A nondescript Cuckoo, perfectly white, less than half the size of the common; taken in Cornwall, and sent to Sir Joseph Banks; the only one known. Bought by Mr. Sabine for 3 guineas (the Museum copy says by Dr. Leach).

Lot 58. Merops Apiaster, Bee-eater; very rare. Bought by Col. Bullock for 14s.

Lot 66. Turdus roseus, Rose-coloured Thrush (female), taken in the Orkneys, 1818; extremely rare. A MS. note states that it was killed in the garden of the Rev. Mr. Hamilton, Isle of Hoy. Lord Stanley bought the specimen for 3 guineas.

Lot 67. Turdus roseus, Rose-coloured Thrush (male); very fine. Bought by Sir Thomas Ackland for £5 6s. A MS. note states that it "flew against the light House of Isle of Sanda and was killed. Sent to Mr. B[ullock] by Mr. Strong."

In the Museum copy this specimen is said to have been bought by Dr. Leach, but there is no example recorded by G. R. Gray as being in the British Museum in 1863.

Lot 102. Little Bustard, Otis tetrax (male); extremely rare. Purchased by Dr. Leach for the British Museum for £10. This is spec. b of Gray's "Catalogue of British Birds" (p. 134), recorded as from "Norfolk," from Mr. Bullock's Museum. In our official copy I find that I have a MS. note from the Rev. O. Pickard-Cambridge to the effect that this individual was killed by the Rev. G. Pickard-Cambridge, at Walmwell, Dorsetshire. This locality is given by me in the "Catalogue of Birds" (vol. xxiii., p. 290). Professor Newton has added a note to his copy of Bullock's Sale-Catalogue: "The Rev. O. Pickard-Cambridge, says (in litt., Nov. 2, 1877), that his father sent Bullock a female Little Bustard killed at Walmwell in Dorset in the late autumn or beginning of winter about or before 1818." This was probably the female (Lot 103) which was bought for 8 guineas by Mr. Brooks, at whose sale, according to Professor

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Newton, it formed No. 43, Lot 6 (Sale-Catalogue, 15th day, August, 1828, p. 95). The specimen in our Museum is a male, and it is probable that the locality for it is correct, and that Mr. Pickard-Cambridge was mistaken as regards this Museum specimen.

Of the "British Water Birds," according to the Sale-Catalogue in our Museum, Dr. Leach bought Lot 108, Crane, A. Grus, extremely rare, for £6; but Professor Newton's copy says that the bird was "shot by Lord Gage in Britain" and purchased by Mr. Sabine. There is no mention of a Crane in Gray's "List of Grallæ," and the purchase by Mr. Sabine was probably correct.

Lot 110. The Great White Heron, A. Alba, very rare, said to have been purchased by Dr. Leach, had not survived till 1844, as it is not mentioned in Gray's "List of Grallæ, etc."

Lot 113. Squacco Heron, A. Comata, very rare, seems to have met a similar fate.

Lots 116, 117, Gardenian Heron, were also both purchased by Dr. Leach, but are no longer in the Museum.

The FIFTH DAY'S SALE (Thursday, May 6, 1819) began with the British Water Birds. No. 15, Greenwich Sandpiper, has a MS. note in Professor Newton's copy: "Shot near Edinburgh. Supposed to have been a young Reeve." This was spec. p of the Ruff in Gray's "List of Grallæ," 1844, p. 103, and it occurs in his Catalogue of 1863 (p. 164). It could not have been kept, as I did not find it when I wrote the "Catalogue of Birds."

Lot 29 contains the Corn Crake, Rallus Crex, with its egg; "Common Gallinule, Gallinula chloropus (male and female). These species were taken in the Isle of Tristan d'Ancuna." The latter bird must have been Porphyriornis nesiotis, described by Dr. Sclater in 1861 from living specimens presented by Sir George Grey to the Zoological Gardens (cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 166). Professor Newton's copy of Bullock's Sale-Catalogue has a note that this Lot 29 was purchased by Dr. Leach, but I cannot trace the specimens in the Museum records. The Museum copy says that a Mr. Winn was the purchaser, and if this were the case, these Moorhens did not come into the Museum.

Lot 43. Great Auk, Alca Impennis (male), a very fine specimen of this exceedingly rare bird, killed at Papa Westra in the Orkneys, the only one taken on the British coast for many years; and an egg; in glass case. These specimens were purchased by Dr. Leach for £16 5s. 6d. They are still in the Museum, the bird being a very fine one, but the egg is not a good

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specimen, having been bleached by exposure to the light for fifty years in the old British Museum at Bloomsbury.

Dr. Leach also bought the next Lots, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, including Razor-Bills, Puffins, Guillemots, etc. They were mentioned by Gray in 1863 in his "Catalogue of British Birds," but very few were retained by Mr. Ogilvie-Grant when he wrote the twenty-sixth volume of the "Catalogue of Birds."

Lot 61, "An undescribed Gull, much allied to the Arctic [Tern], but much superior in size, killed at Brighton," was apparently the specimen of the Gull-billed Tern (Sterna anglica) recorded by Gray as from "Great Britain. From Mr. Bullock's Collection," in his "Catalogue of British Birds," 1863, p. 241. It has since been destroyed, having fallen into bad condition, and was not recognised as the specimen purchased by Leach.

No. 68. The great white-winged Gull, Larus Glaucus, lately killed in Shetland and Northumberland; a fine adult male and female, and the young of the first year. These were bought by Leach for £6 16s. 6d. One of the young birds is still in the Museum (cf. Howard Saunders, Cat. B., xxv., p. 293).

Lot 78. "An undescribed Petrel with a forked tail, taken at St. Kilda in 1818; the only one known." This was bought by Leach for £5 15s., and is apparently the specimen described by Temminck as Procellaria leachii ("Man. d'Orn.," ii., p. 812).

No. 79. Glariola austriaca, Austrian Pratincole (male), killed in Shetland. The second specimen killed in Britain. See Montague and Linnean Transactions. This is said to have been purchased by Dr. Leach for eight guineas. There is no trace of the specimen at the present time, and it was apparently not in the Museum in 1863 (cf. Gray, Cat. Brit. B., p. 137).

Lot 83. Red-breasted Goose, shot near Berwick, was purchased by Leach for £27. It is still in the British Museum (cf. Gray, Cat. Brit. B., 1863, p. 185; Salvad., Cat. B., xxvii., p. 126, 1895).

Lot 89. Eider Duck (male and female). Young ones, nest of eider, and eggs, taken on Papa Westra, one of the Orkneys, in 1812. These were purchased by Leach for £2, and are most probably the series mentioned by Count Salvadori as having "no locality" (Cat. B., xxvii., p. 429).

Lot 97. Rufous Duck (A. Nyroca); rare (male and female). Purchased by Leach for £4 8s. They are recorded by Gray in 1863 as having been from the London market, but the only one now remaining seems to be the male recorded from "England" by Count Salvadori (Cat. B., xxvii., p. 348).

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Lot 114. A white variety of the Shag, and a ditto of the Jay. The Shag has disappeared, but the Jay is mentioned by Gray in 1863 (p. 85) and by me (Cat. B., iii., p. 94).

ELEVENTH DAY'S SALE, May 18, 1819. This day was again devoted to birds.

Lot 4, "Crimson-breasted Woodpecker, Picus Olivaceous (sic!), the specimen brought by Capt. Cook," was bought by Baron Laugier for 12s., who also purchased Lot 5 (male and female Sacred Kingfisher) for 13s.

Lot 6, Gigantic Heron ("female," in Prof. Newton's Catalogue), was bought by Dr. Adams for Edinburgh for 39s. The same gentleman purchased the next, Lot 7, a male of the same species, "a noble specimen in the finest plumage," but he had to pay £8 for it.

Mr. Vigors and Mr. Swainson likewise purchased specimens on this occasion, and a good many were secured by Mr. Fector for Vienna.

Lot 19. Belted Kingfisher, Aleedo Alcyon, and an undescribed species from the Sandwich Islands, were bought by Dr. Leach for a guinea. I have been unable to trace them, so far, in the British Museum cabinets.

Lot 31. Pigmy Auk, Aptenodytas pygmæa, "very rare: the only specimen in Britain," fetched 35s. from Mr. Leadbeater.

Lot 32. A Beef-eater, Buphaga africana, from Africa, fetched £2 4s. from a Mr. Hobart—an enormous figure.

Lot 33. A Black-bellied Darter or Anhinga, Plotus melano-gaster, was purchased by Mr. Vigors for 53s.

Lot 35. A "beautiful undescribed Roller from Africa; the only one known," was bought by a Mr. Riddell for £4.

Leach purchased a number of the Petrels, spending more than £25 on the following numbers:

Lot 39. Stormy Petrel (10s. 6d.).

Lot 41. Pintado Petrel, P. capensis (16s.).

Lot 42. Black Petrel, Æquinoctialis (£6 16s. 6d.!).

Lot 43. Great Petrel or Mother Carey's Goose, P. gigantea; a fine specimen, 3 feet long (£10!).

Lot 44. Sooty Petrel, P. grissea (male and female) (£3 6s.).

Lot 45. Cinereous Petrel, P. cinerea, "from Tristran d'Acunha," MS. note in Professor Newton's copy (£2 16s.).

Lot 46. Two Petrels, undescribed, "brot. home by Cook," MS. note in Professor Newton's copy (19s.).

Lot 47. Two ditto, ditto (24s.).

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The next lot was bought by Mr. Fector for 27s. It is described as

Lot 48. A Scallop Toad Darter, undescribed, from Cayenne. It was doubtless an example of the Heliornis fulica, which has scalloped toes, but is hardly a Darter!

Lot 56. Grey Tern, Latham MS., was bought by Professor Temminck for 18s.

Lot 57. Wreathed Tern, S. Vittata, "from Sir Jo. Banks" (MS. note in Professor Newton's copy), went to Dr. Leach for 16s.

Lot 60. Tern, unknown, Leach bought for 8s.

Lot 61. "The Tailor Bird, with its curious nest, from the Leverian Museum; the only ornithological specimen from that collection in the sale." This was purchased by a Mr. Ledbrook for £2 7s. On the 17th day's sale a pair of the same species with nest (Lot 91) was bought by Lord Stanley for £3 15s.

Lot 62. Peacock Pheasant, East Indies, very rare. Bought by Dr. Leach for 5 guineas.

Lot 64. Jungle Cock, Phasianus varius, very rare; supposed to be the original stock of our domestic fowls. This was secured by Baron Laugier for 6 guineas.

Lot 65. Short-tailed Crow, Corvus Brachyurus; very rare (£2 2s.).

Lot 66. Hawkesbury Duck, New Holland (30s.).

The above were purchased by Dr. Leach.

Lot 67, Lobated Duck, New Holland, was bought by the Linnean Society for £2 13s. The Society also bought Lot 97, Emew (£10 10s.), and 98, Lesser Emew (£7 10s.), Lot 106, Ardea Antigone, 5 feet high (£6 6s.).

Lot 80, the Jacamarciri, or Great Jacamar, Galbula grandis, was bought by Dr. Adams for 10 guineas.

Lot 81. Guinea Tody, Latham MS.

Lot 83. African Tody, ditto.

Lot 85. Sharp-tailed Nuthatch, ditto.

Lot 86. Boat-billed Tody, ditto.

None of these lots were purchased by Leach, and several birds marked as "unknown" or "undescribed" were also passed by him.

Lot 93. Three-toed Ostrich, Struthio camelus Americanus (an early instance of the employment of trinomial nomenclature in Great Britain!). Bought by Dr. Adams for the Edinburgh Museum, for £2 4s.

Lot 94. The Ostrich, S. Camelus (a fine full-grown male),

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10 feet high; beautifully preserved, and in the highest preservation. Bought by Professor Temminck for £38 6s. 6d.

Lot 105. Wattled Heron, Ardea Carunculata; a noble specimen, near 6 feet high; from the French Museum. Purchased by Mr. Leadbeater for 7 guineas. The reference to the "French Museum" probably means that it formed part of the loot taken by the Allies on the occupation of Paris.

Lot 116 was a "Beautiful nondescript diminutive species of Woodpecker, from Africa; the smallest known." This was bought by Mr. Fector for 12s. for Vienna.

Lot 117. A Ditto was bought by Mr. Vigors for 13s.

Lot 118. A Scarlet Ibis, Tantalus Ruber; an adult bird, in the finest plumage. This was bought for 4 guineas by "Mr. Ledbrook for Lord Temple," as a MS. note in Professor Newton's copy informs us.

The TWELFTH DAY'S SALE, Wednesday, May 19, 1819, consisted of "Foreign Birds." A certain Mr. Bell, "of Buckingham Street," bought many of the lots, as did also Mr. Vigors and Lord Stanley. Dr. Leach does not appear as a bidder on this day, but many specimens were purchased by Professor Temminck, Baron Laugier, and Mr. Fector. The latter secured Lot 121 for £2 15s., consisting of the "Red-breasted Roller from Mexico, extremely rare. Latham's Supplement, vol. ii., p. 125."

For Lot 111, a "Beautiful Blue Crow, from Mexico," undescribed, Lord Stanley paid £16 5s. 6d., and for the previous Lot 110, a "Peruvian Jay, C. Peruvianus; very rare," Baron Laugier paid the enormous sum of 17 guineas!

"Part Third" of the Sale-Catalogue announces a further auction of six days' duration, commencing on Thursday, the 20th of May, 1819, the FIFTEENTH DAY. Leach appeared again on the scene, but bought very little. The bidders from Holland, France, and Austria were as keen as ever, and Mr. Vigors and Mr. Swainson purchased some lots, principally South American birds undetermined, and some Toucans.

Lot 35, Puff-backed Shrike, Latham MS. (male and female), went to Mr. Fector for £1 11s. 6d.

Lot 64. "A splendid nondescript species of Lanius [altered to Corvus in MS. in Prof. Newton's copy], the largest and most beautiful known; sent to Europe by Pérouse, and perhaps the only remaining memento of his voyage." This specimen fell to Mr. Leadbeater for £7 17s. 6d.

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Lot 71, Genoese Eagle, Latham MS., killed in 1814 near Genoa, was purchased by Mr. Vigors for 32s.

Many species of the Accipitres are said to be "unknown."

Lot 79 was in the latter category, but Professor Newton's copy has a MS. note "brot by Sr Joseph Bankes." The Lot was bought by Dr. Leach for 4 guineas.

Lot 97. Zone-tailed Eagle, bought by Leach for 30s.

Lot 113, an Egyptian Vulture (female), was also purchased by him for £2 12s. 6d.

Lot 121. "White Jer Falcon, Falco Islandicus; a beautiful specimen of this exceeding rare British bird, in its snow white plumage." For this specimen Leach gave £10, but it is no longer in the British Museum.

Although many of his purchases were afterwards found in the last-named Museum, there is no absolute proof that he was acting on behalf of that institution. As Professor Newton observes in his copy of Bullock's Sale-Catalogue, "The specimen of the Jer Falcon is not included in the List of Birds in the British Museum. Hence Dr. Leach may have bought other things not for the Museum, or some may have been destroyed since, e.g. the Aust. Pratincole." From the evidence of his "Catalogue of Mammals and Birds," 1816, it would seem as if Leach had a private collection.

For Lot 126, a pair of the "Cærulescent Hawk," i.e. the Small Falconet, of Java, Baron Laugier gave the extravagant (according to our notions of the present day) price of £5 15s. 6d.!

The FOURTEENTH DAY'S SALE took place on the 21st of May, 1819, and consisted of "Birds of the Psittacus or Parrot Genus; of which this collection contains perhaps a greater variety, and more undescribed species, than any other; many of them were brought by Sir Joseph Banks, in his Voyage of Discovery with Captain Cook; and are in no other collection."

It is difficult to understand why Banks, who was a Trustee of the British Museum and a liberal donor to our institution, should have parted with his specimens of birds to Bullock and the Leverian Museum.

The following were bought by Dr. Leach:—

Lot 15. Yellow-winged Parrakeet, P. verescens (15s.).

Lot 19. Horned Parrakeet, P. cornutus; brought by Sir Joseph Banks from the South Sea; the specimen described by Doctor Latham (£5 10s.). This was doubtless the typical bird

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from which Forster's sketch was taken. The specimen is mentioned in Gray's List of Psittacidæ (p. 7), 1859, but seems to have been discarded by Count Salvadori in 1891 (cf. Cat. B., xx., p. 501).

Lot 27. Great Pacific Parrot, Latham MS., unique (34s.).

Lot 30. Pacific Parrot, P. Australis; very rare; South Seas (26s.).

Lot 32. Undescribed Parrot; brought by Sir Joseph Banks. Bought by Lord Stanley for £3.

Lot 33. Undescribed Parrot. "This and the last are not known in any other collection." Dr. Leach brought this lot for £2 12s. 6d. In the Museum copy of the Catalogue, Lord Stanley is noted as the purchaser.

Lot 42. Parrot undescribed; from the South Seas; brought by Sir Joseph Banks. Purchased by Dr. Leach for £3 10s.

No. 43. Beautiful Small Parrot, undescribed; it was killed on a vine in the garden of Colonel Johnson, at Port Jackson, and is the only one ever seen in the colony. This lot was purchased by the Linnean Society for £4 18s.

Lot 56. Wave-headed parrot, Latham MS.; new. Fetched £2 13s.

Lot 60. Sanguine-bellied Parrot, Latham MS.; new. Fetched 27s.

Both the above were bought by Lord Stanley.

Lot 69. Crimson-winged Parrot, P. Erythropterus (male and female), a most beautiful species; brought in Captain Flinders' voyage of discovery from the north coast of New Holland. Bought by Sir T. Coates for £5 18s. [In the Museum copy the name is given as Sir C. Coote].

Lot 71. Lesser Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, P. Sulphureus. Bought by Dr. Leach for £2 10s.

Lot 77. Banksian Cockatoo, P. Banksi. Linnean Society, for £3.

Lot 78. A splendid species of Black Cockatoo, with scarlet tail (male and female); undescribed.

Lot 93. A pair of beautiful Yellow Macaws (male and female), from the Spanish main; undescribed. Purchased by Lord Stanley for £21.

Lot 114. Southern Parrots (male and female), P. Nestor, very fine, and extremely rare; brought by Sir Joseph Banks from the South Seas. Bought by Dr. Leach for 16 guineas. This specimen is apparently still in the Museum, as Count Salvadori

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in his "Catalogue of Birds" mentions a specimen of Nestor meridionalis from New Zealand, from Capt. Cook's voyages (cf. Cat. B., xx., p. 5 (1891)).

The FIFTEENTH DAY'S SALE took place on Tuesday, May 28, 1819. It still consisted of Birds—" Herons, Ducks, Woodpeckers, Bee-eaters, &c."

A certain Captain Laskey bought several lots, as did a Mr. Molinari, who had purchased a few lots in the sales of the previous days. Lots 7, 14, 37, 39, 41, 52 are marked as "sold," having apparently been disposed of before the sale commenced.

Lot 8. Undescribed Heron. Purchased by Mr. Fector for Vienna (£2 2s.).

Lot 9. Beautiful Heron; unknown. Bought by Prof. Temminck (13s.).

Lot 10. Roufous Heron, undescribed; from "New Holland," corrected in MS. in Professor Newton's copy to "S. America." Bought by Prof. Lichtenstein (14s.).

Lot 16. Unknown Heron. Bought by Lord Stanley (17s.).

Lot 17. Small Bittern; undescribed. Bought by Prof. Temminck for 1 guinea.

Lot 27. Ibis; unknown. Lord Stanley (28s.).

Lot 28. Patagonian Penguin, A. Patachonica. Mr. Ledbrook (21s.). He also bought several other lots, presumably for Lord Temple.

Lot 51. Albatross, Diomedia Exulans. A MS. note in Professor Newton's copy adds: "From Tristan d'Acunha." Lord Stanley bought this lot for £6.

Lot 54, Spotted Shag, is entered twice. [See No. 64.]

Lot 59. A Harlequin Duck, A. Histrionica. A MS. note in Professor Newton's copy adds: "Killed in Orkneys." It was bought by Dr. Adams for Edinburgh for a guinea.

Lot 79. Grey-headed Woodpecker, P. Canus. The locality is entered in Professor Newton's copy as "Siberia." Swainson gave 16s. for the specimen.

Lot 88. A "Pair of Brown Woodpeckers; undescribed." Bought by Baron Laugier for 22s.

Lot 90. Unknown [Woodpecker]. Bought by Swainson for 8s.

Lot 91. Ditto. Bought by Molinari for 7s.

Lot 92. Undescribed (11s.). Lot 93. Ditto (20s.). Both bought by Swainson.

Several lots of Honey-eaters follow, the species being described (evidently by Latham) as Gold-winged Bee-eater, etc.

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Lot 104. Blue-cheeked Bee-eater, Merops cyanops. "New Zealand" (according to the MS. note in Professor Newton's copy). Bought by Temminck for 20s. This specimen is Entomyza cyanotis, and formed the subject of Plate 471 of the "Planches Coloriées." Dr. Finsch, writing to Professor Newton in 1900, states that it is still in the Leyden Museum.

No. 109. Yellow-tufted Bee-eater, M. Fæsiculatus, was bought by Lord Stanley for 19s. A MS. note in Professor Newton's copy adds: "Brot by Capt. Cook."

No. 112. Swallow-tailed Bee-eater, Latham MS.; "from Abyssinia" (MS. note in Professor Newton's copy). Bought by Prof. Lichtenstein for 26s.

Lot 120. [Following on several "unknown" and "undescribed" Bee-eaters] Two undescribed species [of Bee-eaters]. Bought by Temminck for 20s. Professor Newton thinks that one of these may have been M. bullocki (cf. Donovan, Nat. Repository, i., p. to pl. cxxxvii). A MS. note in his copy adds that these birds were from New Holland.

Dr. Leach does not seem to have been present at this day's sale.

The SIXTEENTH DAY'S SALE took place on Wednesday, May 26, 1819. Still more birds put up to auction, and Dr. Leach was present, all the other purchasers being there as usual. Many "unknown" Pigeons were bought by Baron Laugier, Professor Temminck, Lord Stanley, Mr. Vigors, Mr. Molinari; and Lot 1 by Mr. Fector.

Lot 22. Dr. Leach bought an "unknown Pigeon," which is said, in a MS. note to Professor Newton's copy, to have come from the "S. S. Voyages" (10s.).

No. 28. Hook-billed Pigeon (female) from Senegal, purchased by Swainson for 8s., may well have been his type of Treron nudirostris.

Lot 30. A Crowned Pigeon, C[olumba] Coronata, purchased by a Mr. Lincoln for 35s., is stated in a MS. note to Professor Newton's copy to have been the "property of late Princess Charlotte."

Lot 40. A magnificent undescribed species of Pigeon, from the north coast of New Holland, "in Flinders' Voyage" (MS. note in Professor Newton's copy). This was bought by Baron Laugier for £4 14s. 6d.

Lot 70. Buff-breasted Partridge, Latham's MS. ["and of his book," MS. note]. Bought by Professor Temminck for 20s.

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Lot 73. Dusky-breasted Partridge (female), Latham MS. Bought by Lord Stanley for £2 4s.

Lot 81. Spotted-necked Quail, Latham MS., also bought by Lord Stanley, for £1 11s. 6d.

Dr. Leach does not seem to have bought more than one lot at this day's sale. Perhaps his money was exhausted and the prices were too high. On this occasion Mr. Ledbrook was bidding for the Marquess of Buckingham, as Professor Newton's copy records that he gave £30 for a pair of cases (Lot 110) with Crocodiles, Lizards, etc.

Lot 119, which concluded the sale, contained a magnificent specimen of the Japan Peacock (male and female) and a Wild Turkey, in the mahogany glass case; the whole of the birds in which were presented by her late Majesty to the Museum. The lot was separated "by desire," and Mr. Warwick bought the male Peacock for £9, and Baron Laugier secured the female Peacock for £3 9s., and the Turkey for 7 guineas.

The SEVENTEENTH DAY'S SALE took place on Thursday, May 27, 1819, and Dr. Leach was not present.

Lot 24. Several species of American Fringillas, "four all different" (MS. note). Purchased by Mr. Vigors for 11s.

Lot 32. Pair of beautiful Goatsuckers; unknown (£2 16s.).

Lot 33. A beautiful Long-tailed Goatsucker, undescribed; from Africa (£3 3s.). These two lots were bought by Colonel Brewer or Bruen.

A pair of Argus Pheasants in a mahogany case fetched £29 18s. 6d. (Warwick).

Lot 46. A Red-legged Partridge, T[etrao] Rufous (sic), "killed in Suffolk on grounds of Lord Rendlesham," fetched 27s., and was bought by Mr. Ledbrook.

Lot 54. Chinese Jacanu, P[arra] Sinensis. Bought by Baron Laugier for 4 guineas. A MS. note in Professor Newton's copy adds: "Sent to B. [i.e. Bullock] from French Museum. Unique in this kingdom."

Lot 60. White Gallinule, F[ulica] alba. New Zealand, rare; brought by Sir J. Banks. Purchased by Lord Stanley for 3 guineas. It is an albino of Porphyrio melanonotus, and of the specimen a full history is given by Dr. H. O. Forbes in the "Bulletin" of the Liverpool Museums for May 1901 (vol. iii., No. 2, pp. 62–68).

Further remarks are to be found in Sir Walter Buller's "Supplement to the 'Birds of New Zealand'" (vol. i., p. 73, note)

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Lot 68*. Pair of Dusky Rails. Purchased by Prof. Temminck for 9s.

Lot 77, containing Birds of Paradise in a case, the most complete collection known. This case was broken up and the birds sold in lots on the nineteenth day of sale.

Lot 85. Pair of great cases of Warblers, Motacilla. This case also was divided and sold on the twenty-fourth day of sale.

Lot 86. The "collection of Buntings, Emberiza," was likewise divided up into lots.

Lot 87. "A magnificent species of Turkey, from the Bay of Honduras, undescribed; it was sent as a present to Sir Henry Halford, and died on its passage: the only one known. Baron Laugier bought it for £34 12s.

Lot 101. Hook-billed Green Creeper, C[erthia] Obscura, was bought by Prof. Temminck (£2 2s.).

Lot 102. Great Hook-billed Creeper, C. Pacifica; also bought by Prof. Temminck (£4 4s.).

Lot 103. Hook-billed Red Creeper, C. Vestiaria. Bought by Mr. Fector for 24s.

Lot 104. Ditto (male and female), bought by Mr. Molinari.

A note informs us that "The last four lots are used by the natives of the Sandwich Islands in the manufacture of their beautiful dresses." There can scarcely be any doubt that some of these specimens were from Capt. Cook's voyages and were doubtless the originals of those figured by Ellis.

The EIGHTEENTH DAY'S SALE, May 28, 1819, was principally devoted to Shells, Corals, etc. Dr. Leach bought several lots, but none of the Birds, of which there were a few.

Lot 66. White-crowned Thrush, new; Latham MS. Lord Stanley (33s.).

Lot 68. A Crimson and Black Thrush, from Mexico; undescribed. Lord Stanley (£5).

Lot 69. Rose-coloured Thrush, Turdus Roseus; rare; a fine male. "Shot in Scotland" (MS. note). Mr. Vigors (£2 3s.).

Lot 91. Pair of Chinese Swallows; very rare; with specimens of their curious Nest, of which the Chinese make soup. "Brot. home by Sr J. Bancks" (MS. note). A Mr. Buckingham bought this lot for £5.

Lot 95, Thrushes, and Lot 96, Grosbeaks, were, by consent of all parties, to be divided into smaller lots.

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In the Museum copy there is a title-page to the next part of the Sale-Catalogue, which is missing in Professor Newton's copy. It is entitled "Part Fourth, containing the 19th, 20th, 21st and 22nd days' sale," etc. etc.

The NINETEENTH DAY'S SALE occurred on June 1, 1819. Dr. Leach bought a few birds, as follows:—
Lot 16. Fine specimen of Mother Carey's Goose (£5 5s.).
Lot 66. Chocolate Falcon, "Amer. Orn." (£1 1s.).
Lot 78. Two Hawks, from North America (12s.).
Lot 79. One Hawk and a Butcher Bird (12s.).

On the TWENTIETH DAY'S SALE, Wednesday, June 2, 1819, more birds were sold, but Dr. Leach does not seem to have put in an appearance; all the other buyers were present, and some new names added to the list.

Lot 94. Fifteen Bird-skins, from Sierra Leone, were bought by Mr. Swainson for £6 18s.

Lot 95. Kingfisher from East Indies, bought by Temminck may be the Dacelo coromandeliana of Schlegel's Catalogue ("Mus. Pays Bas," Alcedines, p. 25) as Professor Newton suggests. Against this lot (p. 124) is a MS. note signed "J. S.," which Professor Newton thinks may have been originally written by James Sowerby, but I am inclined to think it is J. L. (= John Latham), to whose hand-writing all the MS. notes in Professor Newton's copy of the Sale-Catalogue bear a strong resemblance.

Lot 114. Larus Atracilloides, a rare Gull. Bought by Mr. Sabine for 2 guineas.

Lot 115. Undescribed Grosbeak, from Tristan d'Acunha; and the Mosambique Finch. Bought by Professor Lichtenstein for 29s.

Lot 119. Northern Finch (male and female), Latham MS., and the Snow Flake. Bought by Lord Stanley for 17s.

Lot 127. Fourteen various specimens of Birds, from New Holland; collected by Capt. Flinders. Bought by Lord Stanley for £7 17s. 6d.

Lot 128. Ten ditto, ditto. Bought by Mr. Molinari for 35s.

Lot 130. Great Rail, from New York; Blue-necked Rail; and another, unknown. Bought by Professor Temminck for 25s.

The TWENTY-FIRST DAY'S SALE, on Thursday, June 3, 1819, contained some various articles, but there were a goodly

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proportion of birds offered for sale, some of them of great interest. Dr. Leach bought only a few lots of no great importance.

Lot 6. An "undescribed Barbet, of the new genus Pogonius." Purchased by Baron Laugier for 30s.

Lot 16. Larus Atraciloides; rare. Bought by Lord Stanley for 20s.

Lot 23. White-winged Crossbill; rare, and the Snow Flake. A MS. note in Professor Newton's copy adds for the first-named, "shot several times in New Forest lately." This lot was purchased by Lord Valentia for 10s.

Lot 31. Beautiful small Plover, from the River Gambia. Prof. Temminck (16s.).

No. 32. A ditto, from the River Gambia. Mr. Swainson (17s.).

Lot 33. Pair of small Plovers, from New Zealand. Prof. Temminck, for 30s.

Lot 34. Chestnut-breasted Plover of Latham MS., and another. Lord Stanley (16s.).

Lot 36. Curious small Plover of New Holland, and a Cream-coloured Plover. Baron Laugier (£3 3s.).

Lot 37. Rail, undescribed; from the voyage of Captain Cook. Bought by Prof. Temminck for 35s., apparently Pennula sandwichensis.

Lot 39. Two fine specimens (various) of the Spur-winged Plover; unknown. Prof. Temminck (29s.).

Lot 40. Black-breasted Plover of Latham MS., and Chestnut-breasted of ditto. Prof. Temminck (31s.).

Lot 44. The Yellow Shank, Norfolk Plover, and a Sandpiper. Capt. Laskey (7s.). The Museum copy of the Catalogue says that the purchaser was Dr. Leach.

Lot 45. Black-throated Plover of Latham MS., pair of Ring Dottrels; Capt. Laskey (7s.). This lot is also booked to Dr. Leach in the Museum copy.

Lot 46. A "Singular undescribed Lizard, from the north coast of New Holland." "Flinders Voyage" (MS. note in Professor Newton's copy, where the specimen is said to have been bought by Leach for 22s.). The Museum copy agrees with the price fetched, but gives the purchaser as Dr. Adams, who bought for the Edinburgh Museum.

Lot 48. Shear Water Petrel and Stormy Petrel. Prof. Temminck (£4 10s.).

Lot 50. Woodcock, and curious variety of the Lark. Dr. Leach (11s.).

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Lot 52. Little Owl, shot in Yorkshire; rare. Professor Newton's copy adds a MS. note, "By Mr. Fothergill." The lot was bought by Mr. Ryall for 12s.

Lot 54. Common Gallinule from Tristan D'Ancunha, and the Red-necked Grebe. Also bought by Mr. Ryall, for 7s.

Lot 56. Carrier Pigeon, Wild Stock-Dove, and a Blackbird. Bought by Dr. Leach for £1.

Lot 57. Two rare Sandpipers, and the Turnstone. Bought by Dr. Leach for 30s.

Lot 58. Dusky Sandpiper, nest and eggs, taken in Scotland. Bought by Dr. Leach for 10s. 6d.

In Professor Newton's copy the word "Sandpiper" has been erased, and the word "Lark" substituted by the scribe who annotated the catalogue. Professor Newton adds a note: "On the origin of Yarrel's mistake, Br. B., vol. i, ii, p. 666."

At this day's sale Dr. Leach bought some Quadrupeds and Insects, and among the "Fossils" were some eggs.

Lot 123. Egg of the Great Auk, Alca impennia; and other rare British eggs. Purchased by Dr. Leach for 17s.!

Lots 124, 126. Boxes, "containing a quantity of the Eggs of British Birds," were also purchased by him for a guinea each.

It is of interest to note that several curios were purchased by "Walter Scott, Esq." Such were a "large dish of Persian ware," etc. It would be interesting to know if these are still at Abbotsford. He also purchased most of the armour offered for sale on this day.

The TWENTY-SECOND DAY'S SALE, Friday, June 4, 1819, commenced with a number of ethnographical curios, many of them evidently from Cook's voyages, and it is sad reading to see how many of these were bought by Professor Lichenstein for Berlin. Swainson purchased a few lots, as did Colonel "Bruen" or "Brewin."

"Walter Scott, Esq.," bought Lots 36, 37, 38, and 40, consisting of "Two very curious ancient Reading Desks, and a Lady's Head-dress of Elizabeth's time; pair of velvet shoes which belonged to Addison, the Poet, and his wig-case; two ancient Leather Bottles, and a Lochabar Axe, etc."

Then followed a sale of the British Birds, with a few Foreign Birds (beautifully displayed under Bell-Glass). Some of the most interesting lots sold as follows:—

Lot 44. The Black Eagle, "shot in Ireland" (MS. note in Professor Newton's copy). Mr. Ryall (14s).

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Lot 46*. The Lanner, Falco Lannarius. Colonel Bullock (19s.).

Lot 52. Rose-coloured Ouzle. Mr. Swainson (22s.).

Lot 54. The Crested Titmouse; rare. Mr. Vigors (11s.).

Lot 54*. The White-winged Crossbill (male and female); very rare. Lord Stanley (22s.).

Lot 64. The Mountain Partridge; "a pair of them were lately killed in Cheshire by J. Davenport, Esq., M.P." Mr. Bates (£4 10s.). A MS. note in Professor Newton's copy adds:—"This specimen from France."

Lot 65. A pair of the curious small variety of the Common Partridge, which rarely occurs in France. Lord Stanley (£4 4s.).

Lot 66. Curious variety of the Arctic Gull; killed in the Orkneys "by Mr. Sands" (MS. note in Professor Newton's copy). Baron Laugier (34s.).

Lot 68. Larus Glaucus; killed on Loch Lomond; very rare as a British bird. "Shot by Dr. Stuart of Lugs" (MS. note in Professor Newton's copy). Lord Stanley (19s.).

Lot 113. A case containing Twenty Birds, from Sierra Leone; nearly the whole of which are undescribed; a most interesting lot to the naturalist. Professor Temminck (£16 10s.).

Lot 125. Doubtful Barbet; very rare and fine. Professor Temminck (£2 4s.).

Lot 128. Yellow-pinioned Finch, Latham MS., not described. Mr. Molinari (24s.).

Lot 128. Two beautiful Pigeons, supposed male and female; shot by Sir Joseph Banks, in his voyage with Capt. Cook; the only ones known. Mr. Ledbetter (£7 7s.).

Dr. Leach did not appear at this stage of the sale, and the principal British buyers were Lord Stanley, Mr. Vigors, Mr. Swainson, Mr. Molinari [or Molinaire, as the Museum copy has the name], Colonel Bullock, Mr. Sabine, Mr. Riddell, Captain Laskey, Mr. Ryall, Mr. Ashmead. Many specimens went abroad with Professor Temminck, Baron Laugier making only a few purchases. The Marquis of Buckingham bought, for £47 5s., Lot 111, "The Great Boa Constrictor, thirty-two feet long, in the act of seizing a Deer; most beautifully set up, and considered as the finest subject in the Museum." A MS. note in Professor Newton's copy declares that "the Boa was only 20 feet long, but much thicker."

The TWENTY-THIRD DAY'S SALE took place on the 8th of June, 1819, and commenced with "foreign birds."

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Lot 1. Black Cuckow of Africa, "brot. by Sr J. Banks" (MS. note in Professor Newton's copy). Captain Laskey (5s.).

Lot 10. Manakin unknown (3s.).

Lot 11. Beautiful Manakin, unknown (19s.). Both lots bought by Mr. Swainson.

Lot 13. Manakin, unknown. Lord Stanley (12s.).

Lot 14. White-crowned Manakin, unknown; very rare. Mr. Riddle (11s.).

Lot 15. Olive Manakin; rare (male and female) (14s.).

Lot 16. A beautiful Manakin, undescribed (12s.). Both lots bought by Mr. Swainson.

Lot 18. Black-headed Chatterer, Swainson's MS., Brazil; very rare. Lord Stanley (21s.).

Lot 33. A beautiful White-winged Heron, from India; unknown. Lord Stanley (21s.).

Lot 26. Woodpecker, unknown. Prof. Temminck (£2).

Lot 30. A fine specimen of the Blue-vented Bee-eater; very rare. Prof. Lichtenstein (30s.).

Lot 33. Great Ivory-billed Woodpecker. Prof. Temminck (19s.).

Lot 36. Two Green Manakins, unknown. Mr. Swainson (7s.).

Lot 40. Long-tailed Black Grosbeak, from the South Seas; unknown. Lord Stanley (£2).

Lot 42. Great Red Grosbeak of Guiana (male and female). To this and Lot 43 are applied in MS. the name "Tanager Divaricata" in Professor Newton's copy. Prof. Temminck bought Lot 42 for 2 guineas, and Lot 43 cost Prof. Lichtenstein 15s.

Lot 45. Little Bullfinch, from Brazil; rare. Mr. Swainson (9s.).

Lot 50. Large Black Grosbeak, from Guiana; unknown (male and female). Mr. Riddell (21s.).

Lot 58. Large African Grosbeak, unknown (male and female). Lord Stanley (39s.).

Lot 65. Parrot-billed Grosbeak. In both copies of the Catalogue, Professor Lichtenstein is said to have purchased this lot for a guinea. But, as Professor Newton very justly points out, this may have been a mistake for Temminck, as the species is not mentioned by Lichtenstein in his "Nomenclator." Temminck, on the other hand, says that two specimens from the Bullock collection are in the Leyden Museum.

Lot 66. Grosbeak, unknown. Lord Stanley (20s.).

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Lot 67. Grosbeak, from the Cape; unknown. Prof. Temminck (16s.).

Lot 69. Pair of Large Black Grosbeaks, with white throats, from Guiana. Prof. Lichtenstein (29s.).

Lot 70. Gold-back Grosbeak, from the Cape. Lord Stanley (8s.).

Lot 71. Black Grosbeak [said in MS. note in Professor Newton's copy to be an "Oriole"], unknown. Mr. Molinari (5s.).

Lot 72. A beautiful small Grosbeak, unknown, from Africa. Mr. Riddell (9s.).

Lot 73. Ditto. Mr. Molinari (10s. 6d.).

Lot 74. Red-rumped Grosbeak from New Holland. Prof. Lichtenstein (6s.).

Lot 75. Pair of small Black-and-white Grosbeaks, from Africa. Prof. Temminck (10s.).

Lot 76. Ditto. Mr. Molinari (6s. 6d.).

Lot 77. Unknown. Lord Stanley (16s.).

Lot 78. Another Black-and-white Grosbeak; new. Lord Stanley (8s.).

Lot 79. Pair of Fine Grosbeaks, from Canada (male and female). Unknown. Lord Stanley (£2 12s. 6d.).

Lot 83. Grosbeak, unknown. Molinari (3s.).

Lot 84. Two Grosbeaks, unknown. (15s.)

Lot 87. Two small Grosbeaks, from Africa. Prof. Temminck (15s.).

Lot 88. Grosbeak, from the Brazils; unknown. Prof. Temminck (22s.).

The rest of the twenty-third day's sale consists of Flycatchers and Thrushes, apparently those which it was agreed to sell in separate lots on May 28th.

No. 89. Orange-breasted Flycatcher, from New Holland. Lord Stanley (22s.).

Lot 90. Scarlet-breasted ditto, from ditto. Prof. Lichtenstein (14s.).

Lot 91. Flycatcher, from the Cape (24s.).

Lot 92. Ditto. Lord Stanley (8s.).

Lot 94. Crested Flycatcher, from America. Prof. Lichtenstein (22s.).

Lot 96. White-eyed Flycatcher, from America; rare. Mr. Swainson (12s.).

Lot 97. Yellow Flycatcher; unknown. Prof. Lichtenstein (10s.).

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Lot 98. Blue Flycatcher, from America. Prof. Temminck (10s.).

Lot 99. Unknown. Prof. Temminck (9s.).

Lot 100. Beautiful White Flycatcher, from the Cape ("River Plata," MS. note in Professor Newton's copy). Lord Stanley (£2 10s.).

Lot 101. Fan-tailed Flycatcher, from New Holland (male and female). Prof. Temminck (15s.).

Lot 102. Long-tailed Flycatcher, from Madagascar (male and female). Prof. Lichtenstein (38s.).

Lot 103. Ditto. Professor Newton's copy has a MS. note, "the fem. another species." Mr. Swainson (£2 4s.).

Lot 104. A ditto; "the male bird" (MS. note). Prof. Temminck (26s.).

Lot 105. Round-crested Flycatcher, from Peru. Lord Stanley (£4). Probably a Muscivora.

Lot 106. Red-cyed Flycatcher, from Africa. Mr. Riddell (9s.).

Lot 107. Ditto. Mr. Molinari (12s.) Probably a species of Platystira.

Lot 108. Curious Short-tailed Fly-catcher, unknown. Lord Stanley (17s.).

Lot 109. Yellow-breasted Flycatcher from the Cape (male and female). Prof. Temminck (32s.). Professor Newton's copy has the word female erased, and a MS. note, "another species."

Lot 110. Flat-crowned Flycatcher from New Zealand (male and female). Prof. Temminck (28s.)

Lot 112. A beautiful specimen of the Pied Flycatcher; a very rare British specimen (sic). Mr. Taylor (21s.).

Lot 113. Flycatcher, unknown. Mr. Swainson (6s.).

Lot 117. Two Flycatchers. Prof. Temminck (9s.).

Lot 118. White-crowned Thrush. Prof. Temminck (17s.).

Lot 119. Red-bellied Thrush, Latham MS. (male and female). Prof. Temminck (15s.).

Lot 120. Round-tailed Thrush, Latham MS. Mr. Riddell (19s.).

Lot 121. Rufus-bellied Thrush. Corrected in a MS. note in Professor Newton's copy to "Ditto" (i.e. the preceding species). Prof. Temminck (21s.).

Lot 122. Red-breasted Thrush; Cook's voyages (male and female); "from Sr J. Banks" (MS. note in Professor Newton's copy). Mr. Swainson (15s.).

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Lot 123. The Rust-bellied Glossy Thrush, Latham. Professor Lichtenstein (20s.).

Lot 124. Sky-blue Thrush, L'Echénilleur gris of Le Vaillant, Ois. d'Afrique. Professor Temminck (19s.).

Lot 125. Glossy Thrush. Lord Stanley (£4 14s. 6d.).

Lot 128. Tetuan Thrush, Latham MS. Mr. Molinari (6s. 6d.).

Lot 129. Blue Thrush (in Professor Newton's copy altered to "Blue-tailed Thrush"). Lord Stanley (32s.).

Lot 136. Embroidered Thrush, from the Cape, L'Echénilleur jaune of Le Vaillant. Mr. Fector (20s.).

Lot 131. Sooty Thrush. Lord Stanley (10s.).

Lot 137. Unknown. Lord Stanley (22s.).

Lot 138. Red-vented Thrush. Lord Stanley (16s.).

Lot 139. Male and female Thrush, unknown. Mr. Molinari (12s.).

Lots 140 to 145 were all unknown species, and were purchased by Lord Stanley, Mr. Molinari, and Mr. Swainson. The latter bought three lots, one being Lot 143, unknown Thrush, from Tristran D'Ancunha, for 18s. He also bought two large cases (£5 8s. 6d.).

The TWENTY-FOURTH DAY'S SALE took place on Wednesday, June 9, 1819. The Thrushes were continued, and Mr. Swainson bought several lots.

Lot 1. Gutteral Thrush, new (in Professor Newton's copy the word "Holland" is added in MS. to "new"). Mr. Swainson (4s.).

Lot 3. Pensive ditto (male and female). Prof. Lichtenstein (10s.).

Lot 4. Ferruginous Thrush. Prof. Temminck (8s.).

Lot 5. Unknown Thrush. Prof. Temminck (33s.).

Lot 6. Olive-backed Thrush. Mr. Swainson (7s.).

Lot 7. Black-breasted Thrush. Prof. Temminck (19s.).

Lot 8. Black-eyed Thrush, New Holland. Prof. Temminck (8s.).

Lot 9. Black-browed Thrush, New Holland (male and female). Mr. Swainson (8s.).

Lot 10. White-cheeked Thrush, New Holland. Prof. Temminck (9s.).

Lot 11. Chiming Thrush. Mr. Swainson (6s.).

Lot 12. Senegal Thrush. Prof. Temminck (9s.).

Lot 13. Ditto. Mr. Swainson (6s.).

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Lot 14. A Rufus Thrush, unknown. Mr. Molinari (8s.).

Lot 15. Pair of Rufus-headed ditto. Mr. Fector (13s.).

Lot 16. Black-cheeked ditto, "Latham MSS." (note in Prof. Newton's copy). Mr. Swainson (12s.).

Lot 19. Red-vented Thrush, of the Cape. Mr. Swaynson (sic) (11s.).

Lot 20. Rufous-bellied Thrush, Latham MS. Mr. Warwick (5s. 6d.).

Lot 21. Ditto, a very fine specimen. Mr. Artis (14s. 6d.).

Lot 22. Long-tailed Glossy Thrush, a noble specimen. Prof. Lichtenstein (£4 10s.).

Lot 23. Shining Thrush, of Senegal. Mr. Fector (30s.).

Lot 24. Ditto. Mr. Molinari (22s.).

Lot 25. Another species of ditto. Mr. Molinari (18s.).

Lot 26. Another, quite distinct. Lord Stanley (15s.).

Lot 27. A Cinereous Thrush, of New Holland. Mr. Swainson. (5s.).

Lot 28. A pair of the Spotted-shouldered Thrush, of New Holland. Professor Lichtenstein (17s.).

Lot 29. Pair of the Red-breasted Thrush. Professor Temminck (14s.).

Lot 30. Mocking Bird or Mimic Thrush, of North America (male and female), with nest and eggs. Mr. Vigors (22s.).

Lot 31. Golden-crowned Thrush (male and female). Mr. Swainson (9s.).

Lot 34. Golden Thrush [altered in a MS. note to Professor Newton's copy to "Oriole"]. East Indies. Mr. Molinari (15s.).

Lot 35. White-backed Black Thrush; rare. Mr. Fector (6s.).

Lot 36. Ditto. Professor Temminck (8s.).

Lot 37. Pectoral Thrush, Latham MS. Professor Temminck (9s.).

Lot 38. Scarlet-throated Thrush, from the Cape; rare. Professor Temminck (30s.).

Lot 39. Brown-headed Thrush, unknown; "New Holland" (MS. note in Professor Newton's copy). Mr. Molinari (5s.).

Then followed the sale of the "Warblers, Motacilla."

Lot 40. Yellow Red-pole Warbler. Professor Lichtenstein (11s.).

Lot 41. Hooded Warbler ("fig. in Amer. Ornith.," MSS. note in Professor Newton's copy). Professor Lichtenstein (15s.).

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Lot 42. Black-throated Blue Warbler (male and female). Professor Temminck (13s.).

Lot 43. Bar-tailed Warbler. Lord Stanley (10s.).

Lot 45. Blue Warbler, or Blue Robin of America (male and female). Professor Temminck (28s.).

Lot 46. Yellow-breasted Warbler (male and female); "fig. in Amer. Orn." (MS. note in Professor Newton's copy). Professor Lichtenstein (11s.).

Lot 47. Olive Warbler (male and female). Professor Temminck (9s.).

Lot 48. Worm-eating Warbler. Mr. Swainson (6s.).

Lot 49. Æquatorial Warbler. Mr. Swainson (15s.).

Lot 50. Ruby-crowned Warbler (male and female). Mr. Swainson (10s. 6d.).

Lot 51. Grey-pole Warbler. Mr. Warwick (7s. 6d.).

Lot 52. Æquinoctial Warbler (male and female). Lord Stanley (19s.).

Lots 53 (10s.) and 54 (16s.). Soldier Warbler, of New Holland. Professor Lichtenstein.

Lot 55. Black-and-green Warbler (male and female). Mr. Vigors (16s.).

Lot 57 [56 omitted]. A ditto, different from the last ("Black and Blue," MS. note in Professor Newton's copy). Mr. Vigors (16s.).

Lot 58. Blue-breasted Warbler. Mr. Molinari (10s.).

Lot 59. Crested Olive Warbler (male and female). Professor Temminck (7s.).

Lot 60. Rufus-tailed Warbler. Mr. Swainson (5s.).

Lot 61. Three different species of Wren from America. Mr. Swainson (10s.).

Lot 62. Pair of Buff-headed Warblers, of New Holland. Professor Temminck (20s.).

Lot 63. Thick-bellied (sic) Warblers, and another. Professor Temminck (8s.).

Lot 64. Two different Warblers, unknown. Professor Temminck (15s.).

Lot 65. Two ditto. Professor Temminck (35s.).

Lot 67. Yellow-rumped Warbler (male and female). Mr. Swainson (9s.).

Lot 68. Rufus-vented Black Warbler, unknown. Mr. Swainson (7s. 6d.).

Lot 69. Pair, unknown. Mr. Swainson (10s.).

VOL. II. R

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Lot 70. Buff-rumped Warbler (male and female). Mr. Swainson (10s.).

Lot 71. Two Warblers, unknown. Mr. Swainson (7s.).

Lot 72. Undescribed. Professor Lichtenstein (14s.).

Lot 73. Yellow-breasted Warbler, and another. Professor Temminck (10s.).

Lot 74. Three Warblers, unknown. Mr. Molinari (12s.).

Lot 75. Two ditto. Mr. Swainson (4s.).

Lot 76. Spotted-winged Warbler, and another. Mr. Swainson (16s.).

Lot 77. Two ["Three," MS. note in Professor Newton's copy]. Captain Laskey (7s.).

Lot 78. Tyrant Flycatcher (male and female). Mr. Swainson. (18s.).

Lot 79. Male ditto. Mr. Vigors (6s. 6d.).

Lot 80. Pair of Flycatchers, unknown. Professor Temminck. (13s.).

Lot 93. Red-winged Flycatcher; rare. Lord Stanley (18s.).

Lot 95. Pair of African Larks. Mr. Swainson. (5s.).

Lot 96. Pair of White-throated Larks, from Africa. Lord Stanley (13s.).

Lot 97. Two Larks, unknown. Mr. Molinari (9s.).

Lot 98. Two Black Larks ("var. of the Common Sky Lark." MS. note in Professor Newton's copy). Mr. Riddell (6s.).

Lot 99. Grasshopper Lark; rare. Mr. Molinari (6s.).

Lot 100. Titlark and Grey Wagtail. (In Professor Newton's copy, the word "Grey" is erased, and "fem. of the Yellow" inserted in MS.) Mr. Swainson (5s.).

Lot 101. Black-breasted Lark (male and female). Mr. Vigors (9s.).

Lot 102. Three various Larks. Mr. Swainson (8s.).

Lot 103. Purple-rumped Creeper; very rare and fine. Mr. Swainson (£2 4s.).

Lot 104. Wall Creeper; rare and fine. Mr. Hall (28s.).

Lot 105. Coloured ["Collared"; MS. note in Professor Newton's copy] Creeper; very fine. Mr. Swainson (30s.).

Lot 106. Pair of Common Creepers. Mr. Swainson (6s.).

Lot 107. Purple-breasted Creeper; undescribed, "from Java" (MS. note in Professor Newton's copy). Mr. Swainson (14s.).

Lot 108. Purple Creeper, unknown. Mr. Swainson (10s.).

Lot 110. A Blue-headed Creeper, unknown. Mr. Hall (17s.).

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Lot 110*. A large Creeper from Africa, and its curious nest Mr. Swainson (30s.).

Lot 112. Three various Creepers. Mr. Swainson (12s.).

Lot 114. The Yew Tanager, from New Holland. Mr. Swainson (10s.).

Lot 117. Senegal Coly. Mr. Molinari (14s.).

Lot 118. Ditto. Mr. Swainson (21s.).

Lot 119. White-backed Coly. Lord Stanley (32s.).

Several species of Whidah Birds follow:—(Lots 121–124), purchased by Mr. Swainson and Lord Stanley. Lot 124, undescribed Whidah Bird, is said in a MS. note to Professor Newton's "Catalogue" to have been "a young bird." Professor Temminck bought it for 12s., as also the next, Lot 125, Curious White-headed Bunting, unknown (12s.).

Lot 126. Green Bunting (male and female); a very rare British bird. In Professor Newton's copy it is said to have been purchased by Mr. Vigors for 18s., a MS. note being added, "The Ortolan in change of plumage." In the Museum copy, the purchaser is given as "Mr. Molinaire."

No. 130. Golden-shouldered Bunting, and another. Lord Stanley (20s.).

Lot 131. Ortolan (male and female). Mr. Hall [in the Museum copy, Mr. Swainson] (9s.) In Professor Newton's copy is a MS. note, "Not the Ortolan from the Alpes."

Lot 133. Red-browed Bunting (male and female), "New Holland" (MS. note in Professor Newton's copy). Molinari (9s.).

Lot 134. Orange-crowned Yellow Bunting (male and female). Professor Temminck (31s.).

Lot 135. Beautiful small Bunting, undescribed. Professor Temminck (14s.).

Lot 136. Two Yellow Buntings, different species; unknown. Professor Temminck (22s.).

Lot 137. Pair of Grey Buntings, "from America. See Wilson's Ornith." (MS. note in Professor Newton's copy). Mr. Vigors (5s.).

On the 10th of June, 1819, commenced the TWENTY-FIFTH DAY'S SALE, with some more birds, Ducks, Warblers, and other miscellaneous lots of lesser animals. A Mr. Morgan bought a Buffel-headed Duck (Lot 2) for 6s., and Lot 6, two Ducks, from America, unknown (17s.).

R 2

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Lot 1. Small Blue-winged Shoveller Duck of South America. Professor Temminck (18s.).

Lot 3. Whistling Duck of New Holland. Professor Temminck (£1).

Lot 4. Great-billed Shoveller of ditto. Lord Stanley (5s.).

Lot 5. White-fronted Duck of Hudson's Bay. Mr. Ryall (5s.).

Lot 6. Two Ducks from America, unknown. Mr. Morgan (17s.).

Lot 7. Two ditto. Professor Temminck (£2 8s.).

No. 11. Grasshopper Warbler. Mr. Swainson (8s.).

Lot 12. Alpine Warbler (male and female). Mr. Swainson (12s.).

Lot 13. Fantail Warbler, Latham MS.; and the Grey-throated Warbler. Mr. Swainson (11s.).

Lot 14. Guira Warbler (male and female). Professor Temminck (16s.).

Lot 15. Great Brazilian Wren. Professor Temminck (12s.).

Lot 16. Rufus-throated Warbler, Latham MS., from Jamaica. Mr. Swainson (13s.).

Lot 17. Little Flycatcher, and Tawny-breasted Warbler, Latham MS. Mr. Swainson (11s.).

Lot 18. Bearded Warbler; very rare. Professor Temminck (17s.).

Lot 22. Unknown Warbler of New Holland, and the Virescent Warbler, Latham MS. Professor Temminck (12s.).

Lot 23. Tawney-rumped Warbler, Latham MS., and Yellow Warbler. Mr. Molinari (11s.).

Dr. Leach was at this day's sale, as he purchased Lot 25, a very fine Cancer from Tristan d'Acunha, but he bought no birds.

The "Birds in glass cases" were chiefly bought by a Mr. Lincoln, and by Mr. Molinari, though Mr. Swainson and Mr. Vigors secured a few. Swainson also bought some insects, and a skin of the Boquetaire, or Mountain Goat; very rare (30s.). Miss Bullock bought Lot 99, a Black-winged Parrot, for 16s.; it may have been a family pet. Mr. Vigors bought a "Beautiful specimen of the Blossom-headed Parrot" for £2. Swainson bought several of the cases; and one "elegant" case (Lot 118), "the ornaments taken from rails of Notre Dame" (MS. note in Professor Newton's copy) was bought by a Mr. Hailes for £7 17s. 6d.

The TWENTY-SIXTH DAY'S SALE, Friday, June 11, was devoted to Napolconic relies. It included "the Emperor's carriage, taken

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on the eve of Waterloo, and sent, with the officer who took it, by Marshal Blücher, to the Prince Regent, from whom it was purchased by its present proprietor for the sum of three thousand guineas." The carriage was bought by Mr. Hopkinson, coach maker, Holborn, for £168.

Mr. Riddell and Mr. Molinari again appear as purchasers for some of the Napoleonic relies, and Mr. Vigors bought a linen towel. Lot 103, a silver helmet, taken at Waterloo, and Lot 104, a trophy of French arms and colours, from Waterloo, were purchased by "Walter Scott, Esq.," for £5 15s. and £3 13s. 6d. respectively.

Colonel Birch's "small but very fine collection of ORGANISED FOSSILS, from the Blue Lias formation at Lyme and Charmouth in Dorsetshire, consisting principally of bones, illustrating the osteology of the Ichthio-saurus, or Proteo-saurus, etc.," was sold by Bullock, "at his Egyptian Hall in Piccadilly" on Monday, the 15th day of May, 1820, so that it would seem that, after the dispersal of his private Museum, he still continued his business as an auctioneer. Dr. Leach bought some of the lots, but Lot 102, "a skeleton of the Ichthio-saurus," was, according to a MS. note in Professor Newton's copy of the Catalogue, "Bot in; wants £300 for it." A further MS. note says: "since purchased for £100 for the Surgeon's Museum, London."

We take up once more the authentic record of the bird collections in the year

1816.

In this year the Montagu collection was purchased. It consisted of the most complete series of British birds of the time, but, as I have stated before, owing to the defective preparation of the specimens, many of them have fallen to pieces. Colonel Montagu was the author of the "Ornithological Dictionary," an excellent work in its day, and the specimens purchased by the Museum were doubtless the ones which had served for the descriptions in his work.

The Montagu collection, as it existed in 1816, when Dr. Leach was the Keeper of the Zoological Department, may be determined by his "Systematic Catalogue of the specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds that are preserved in the British Museum, with their localities and authorities" (8vo, pp. 1–42). This little pamphlet was printed (no doubt for the Trustees) by Richard

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and Arthur Taylor, Shoe Lane, who in 1818 printed the "Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum" (antea, p. 155). A reprint of Leach's "Systematic Catalogue" was published in 1882 by the Willughby Society, and was edited by the late Osbert Salvin. The editor points out that, as the catalogue was printed on one side of the paper only, it was probably intended as a label-catalogue for the specimens, and of this, I think, there can be no doubt. It is very useful as a catalogue of the Montagu collection of birds, which was obtained from "G. Montagu, Esq., Jun." The "Solitary Stare," represented by a specimen from Yorkshire given by the Rev. James Dalton, was found to be merely the young of the Common Stare. (Cf. Leach, t.c., Errata.) Of Leach's "Catalogue," Mr. Salvin says:—"It is also a question if it was ever actually published in the ordinary sense, for though the printer's name is given at the foot of the title page, no publisher is mentioned. (The same may be said of the Guide-book to the Museum, printed by Messrs. R. and A. Taylor, who were then evidently employed by the Trustees, whose name did not appear.) It is impossible to overlook Leach's Catalogue, as his names have been constantly referred to by subsequent authors, and, for good or bad, must take their place in nomenclature."

Sir E. Maunde Thompson has very kindly supplied me with the following memoranda from the archives of the British Museum. On the 14th June, 1816, Leach recommended the purchase of the Montagu collection for £1,200. The purchase was approved by the Trustees, Sir Joseph Banks recommending it, and on the 1st of October, 1816, Leach reported the safe arrival of the collection.

1837.

This was the first year in which a serious attempt was made to keep an official register of the acquisitions. 668 specimens presented; 591 purchased. Total, 1259.

John Gould presented 172 specimens of birds to the Museum, and 111 more were purchased from him. They were from various localities, but included a few Australian species, showing that, even at this early date, he was receiving specimens from someone in that continent.

310 birds were purchased in Paris from the collection of the late Baron Laugier de Chartrouse, who had collaborated with Temminck in the production of the "Planches Coloriées."

187 birds presented by Sir W. Burnett and Captain Fitzroy.

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The latter officer had been the commander of the Beagle, and this collection was probably made during that expedition.

126 birds from British Guiana, collected by Sir R. Schomburgk, and presented by the Royal Geographical Society.

1838.

434 specimens presented; 245 purchased. Total number of additions, 679.

Of special interest are the following:—

158 birds from Tasmania; presented by Ronald Gunn, Esq. For a long time the only collection of Tasmanian birds in the Museum, and of great value at the time of its presentation, but from being mounted for many years in the Gallery, the specimens were ruined by light and dust, and but few now remain.

82 specimens of birds from India and China; presented by John Russell Reeves, Esq.

111 specimens purchased at the sale of the South African Museum. Dr. J. E. Gray records the fact that they were all "stuffed by Messrs. Verreaux" and were collected during Sir A. Smith's expeditions into the interior of South Africa. Many types were included in the series.

1839.

225 specimens presented; 238 purchased. Total number of acquisitions, 463.

No addition of any importance took place this year, but an effort was evidently being made to replenish the collection of British Birds, since 114 young birds of various species were presented by Mr. J. Baker.

1840.

136 specimens presented; 141 purchased. Total number of additions, 277.

Nothing added of any great importance.

47 British birds, presented by Mr. J. Baker.

52 birds from West Australia. Presented by Capt. [afterwards Sir George] Grey.

These specimens were obtained by John Gould, and doubtless given to Governor George Grey, with whom Gould was on terms of great friendship.

1841.

385 specimens presented; 583 purchased. Total number of additions, 968.

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Only two acquisitions of any note, viz.:—

332 birds from South Australia. Purchased from Mr. Gould.

78 birds from Kerguelen Land, collected by the naturalists of the Antarctic Expedition. Presented by the Lords of the Admiralty.

1842.

492 specimens presented; 870 purchased; 92 received in exchange. Total, 1454.

Of special importance were:—

120 birds from Port Essington, North Australia. Presented by Captain Chambers, R.N.

160 birds from the Philippine Islands, including several types of new species. Purchased of Mr. Hugh Cuming.

49 birds from Abyssinia and Shoa, including several co-types of his new species, collected by Dr. E. Rüppell.

119 birds from New Zealand and adjacent islands, collected by the naturalists of the Antarctic Expedition. Presented by the Lords of the Admiralty.

1843.

2027 specimens, presented; 799 purchased. Total, 2826.

The most important additions were:—

1302 birds from Nepal, including numbers of types. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

This is the first instalment of the great Hodgson donation.

302 birds from South Australia. Presented by Captain [afterwards Sir George] Grey.

43 nests of Australian birds. Presented by John Gould, Esq.

50 birds collected in Chili by Mr. T. Bridges.

83 birds from various localities. Presented by Sir E. Belcher.

1844.

969 specimens presented; 368 purchased. Total, 1337.

Important additions were:—

222 birds from the Antarctic Ocean, the Falkland Islands, Cape of Good Hope, etc., obtained by the naturalists of the Antarctic Expedition. Presented by the Lords of the Admiralty.

139 birds from Tenasserim. Presented by J. D. C. Packman, Esq.

This collection was never worked out by George Robert Gray, the specimens having been somewhat roughly preserved.

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With the donation of Mr. Allan Hume's splendid series of Tenasserim birds, many specimens from the old Packman collection have been disposed of as duplicates.

107 birds, mostly from North Australia, collected by Dr. J. Beete Jukes, during the voyage of H.M.S. Fly.

222 specimens from Brazil. Presented by M. Claussen.

8 specimens purchased of Leadbeater, duplicates from the Leyden Museum.

1845.

2203 specimens presented; 371 purchased; 10 received in exchange. Total, 2584.

Among the notable accessions were:—

1391 birds from Nepal, and 301 from Behar, being the second and third instalments of the collections presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

57 birds from the Madras Presidency, including several types of new species figured in the "Illustrations of Indian Ornithology." Presented by T. C. Jerdon, Esq.

30 specimens from New Zealand, including the type of Ocydromus earli and other rare species. Presented by Percy Earl, Esq.

52 specimens from Cayenne. Presented by H. C. Rothery, Esq.

35 birds from Port Essington. Presented by Dr. Sibbald.

54 birds from Shoa, duplicates from the collection made by Sir W. Cornwallis Harris. Presented by the Hon. East India Company.

296 specimens from South Africa and Madagascar. Presented by Sir Andrew Smith.

91 specimens from Para. Presented by R. Graham, Esq.

1846.

849 specimens presented; 1072 purchased. Total, 1921.

Among the principal acquisitions were:—

124 birds from Central Australia. Presented by Capt. Sturt.

270 birds from various localities. Presented by Edward Wilson, Esq.

271 birds from Bolivia. Collected by Mr. T. Bridges.

147 birds and eggs from Tunis. Collected by Mr. Louis Fraser.

59 birds from New Zealand, Tasmania, and the Pacific Islands. Presented by Sir Everard Home, Bart.

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1847.

563 specimens presented; 604 purchased. Total, 1167.

The principal additions were:—

44 birds from New Zealand. Presented by Sir George Grey.

134 birds from Jamaica. Collected by P. H. Gosse, Esq. This collection contains the types of the species described in his "Birds of Jamaica."

171 birds from Australia. Presented by Sir T. Mitchell.

1848.

340 specimens presented; 185 purchased. Total, 525.

135 birds and eggs from Repulse Bay. Presented by Dr. J. Rae.

307 birds from Sikhim. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. The fourth instalment of the great Hodgson donation.

1849.

93 specimens presented; 399 purchased. Total, 492.

147 birds from New Zealand. Presented by Capt. Stokes, R.N., of H.M.S. Acheron. Collected by Dr. Lyall.

173 specimens from various parts of the British Islands. Purchased of Mr. J. Baker.

1850.

671 specimens presented; 532 purchased. Total, 1203.

230 birds from the Pacific coast of America, Galapagos Islands, etc. Presented by Capt. Kellett, H.M.S. Herald, and Lieut. Wood, H.M.S. Pandora.

204 birds from the Islands of Torres Straits and adjacent parts of Australia. Presented by Capt. Owen Stanley (Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake).

36 eggs from Greenland. Collected by Governor Holboell.

37 birds from San Domingo. Collected by Mr. Auguste Sallé. Purchased from Mr. Hugh Cuming.

1851.

284 specimens presented; 637 purchased. Total, 921.

44 birds from the Falkland Islands and from islands off the Australian coast, the Louisiades, etc. Presented by John Macgillivray, Esq. (Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake).

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1852.

307 specimens presented; 419 purchased. Total, 726.

115 eggs, presented by H. F. Walter, Esq.

106 birds from New Zealand. Presented by Captain Stokes, R.N.

29 birds from Damara Land, collected by C. J. Andersson.

1853.

158 specimens presented; 488 purchased. Total, 646.

104 birds from Bagdad. Presented by Kenneth Loftus, Esq.

55 Humming Birds, and 86 Toucans. Purchased of Mr. Gould.

1854.

84 specimens presented; 540 purchased. Total, 624.

127 specimens from Bogotà. Purchased of Mr. Samuel Stevens.

1855.

150 specimens presented; 742 purchased. Total, 892.

403 birds from various localities. Purchased from the Zoological Society.

On the determination of the Zoological Society to give up its Museum, the first choice of acquiring the specimens was offered to the British Museum, which thus regained the typical examples described from the voyage of the Beagle, and other exploring vessels, the collections of which should by rights have gone into the national museum. A few seem to have been overlooked by Mr. G. R. Gray and passed into the hands of private collectors, but within the past few years some of these have likewise been regained by the Museum, on the death of the owners, whose collections have been dispersed.

1855.

101 birds from South America. Purchased of Mr. J. Gould.

88 birds from N.W. America. Presented by Captain Collinson, R.N. (H.M.SS. Enterprise and Eudeavour).

1856.

319 birds presented; 160 purchased. Total, 429.

36 birds from Teheran, Persia, collected by the Hom. C. Murray. Presented by Charles Darwin, Esq.

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5 birds from New Zealand. Purchased of Mr. W. Mantell (through Mr. Gould). Among these were the type-specimens of Nestor notabilis and Spatula variegata, as well as the first perfect specimen of Notornis mantelli.

46 birds from the Fiji Islands, Norfolk Island, etc. Collected by Dr. F. M. Rayner (H.M.S. Herald). Presented by the Lords of the Admiralty.

23 birds and eggs from Candahar. Presented by Capt. Hutton.

Includes the types of several species described by the donor.

1857.

268 specimens presented; 660 purchased. Total, 928.

66 birds from Lombok, collected by Dr. A. R. Wallace.

This was the commencement of the long series of collections made by Dr. A. R. Wallace during his celebrated expedition to the Malay Archipelago. Dr. Wallace kept the first set for himself, and only duplicates were sold; but the collections were submitted in their entirety to Mr. George Robert Gray for description, the actual types of new species being returned, with the first set, to Dr. Wallace's agent, Mr. Samuel Stevens.

25 birds, with 12 types of new species, collected in Cordova, S. Mexico, by M. Auguste Sallè.

249 birds from N.W. Australia, collected by Dr. J. R. Elsey.

347 birds from various localities. Purchased of Mr. John Gould.

1858.

114 specimens presented; 1112 purchased. Total, 1226.

Specially interesting are the following items:—

38 birds from the Amazons (Rio Javari, etc.), collected by H. W. Bates.

150 birds, obtained by Dr. A. R. Wallace in the Key and Aru Islands.

58 birds from Celebes, collected by Dr. A. R. Wallace.

49 eggs of British birds. Presented by Frederic Bond, Esq.

32 birds purchased at the sale of Dr. Van Lidth de Jeude's Museum.

This was one of the most celebrated private collections in Europe at the time. In addition to many specimens of interest to the Museum, a second specimen of the Great Auk (Plautus impennis) was acquired for the National Collection.

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A specimen of the Whale-headed Stork (Balæniceps rex) was acquired by purchase.

1859.

785 specimens presented; 638 purchased. Total, 1423.

41 birds from the Fiji Islands and other localities in the Pacific Ocean, collected Dr. F. M. Rayner (Voyage of H.M.S. Herald). Presented by the Lords of the Admiralty.

91 birds from Vancouver Island. Presented by Dr. Lyall (Voyage of H.M.S. Plumper).

598 birds from Nepal. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. Fifth instalment of the great Hodgson Collection.

132 birds and eggs, including Capt. Abbott's series of eggs from the Falkland Islands. Purchased of Mr. Gould.

6 birds and 15 nests from St. Croix and St. Thomas, W.I. Presented by Professor Newton.

83 birds from Batchian, Amboina, and N.W. New Guinea (Dorey), from Dr. A. R. Wallace's collection.

41 birds from New Caledonia and the New Hebrides, collected by John Maegillivray, including types of several new species.

33 nests with eggs of birds from Natal, collected by Mr. Thomas Ayres.

88 birds from various localities, including types of several species. Purchased of M. Parzudaki.

94 birds from various localities. Purchased of Mr. John Gould.

1860.

1029 specimens presented; 956 purchased. Total, 1985.

54 birds and 36 eggs from Natal, collected by Dr. Gueinzius.

255 specimens from Dr. Wallace's collections, from Batchian, Halmahéra, Ternate, Celebes, Timor, Ceram, containing many new species.

106 birds from Vancouver Island and 131 birds from British Columbia, collected by Mr. J. K. Lord, the naturalist to the British North American Boundary Commission, and presented by the Foreign Office.

48 birds from Guatemala. Presented by Osbert Salvin, Esq.

These specimens were duplicates from Mr. Salvin's expedition to Guatemala.

193 birds from Zambesia, obtained during the Livingstone

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expedition, and preserved by Sir (then Dr.) John Kirk. Presented by the Foreign Office.

92 birds from Ecuador. Purchased of Mr. John Gould.

584 birds from various parts of the Indian Empire, and 34 birds from Shoa. Presented by the Secretary of State for India.

1861.

336 specimens presented; 407 purchased. Total, 743.

172 birds from Shoa. Collected by Sir W. Cornwallis Harris. Presented by the Secretary of State for India.

40 birds from Fort Simpson in N.W. British America. Presented by B. R. Ross, Esq.

116 birds from Dr. A. R. Wallace's Malayan expedition, from Mysol, Ceram, and Waigiu.

26 birds from Gaboon. Purchased of Mr. P. B. Du Chaillu.

17 birds from Upper Burma and Sikhim, with types of 6 new species. Presented by Dr. T. C. Jerdon.

1862.

133 specimens presented; 328 purchased. Total, 461.

221 birds from Dr. A. R. Wallace's Malayan expedition, from New Guinea, Mysol, Morotai, Timor, Sula Islands, and Bourn.

16 specimens from Camaroons, W. Africa, with the types of 4 new species, obtained by Sir Richard Burton; presented by Lady Burton.

1863.

874 specimens presented; 141 purchased. Total, 1015.

398 birds from British Columbia. Presented by J. K. Lord, Esq.

After Mr. Lord had finished his work as naturalist to the British North American Boundary Commission, he remained for some time in British Columbia, and made a considerable collection of birds.

40 birds from Dr. A. R. Wallace's Malayan expedition, from Flores and Buru.

139 birds, 16 nests, and 38 eggs, from the Mackenzie River district. Presented by B. R. Ross, Esq.

84 birds from Pegu. Presented by Dr. W. T. Blanford, F.R.S.

87 birds, presented by the Linnean Society. The Linnean

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Society determined in this year to hand over its collection of birds to the British Museum. It was a very important donation, containing the types of the Australian birds described by Vigors and Horsfield (Tr. Linn. Soc., xv., pp. 180–330), and the Parrots described by Temminck (Tr. Linn. Soc., xiii., pp. 111–129).

39 birds collected by Sir John Kirk during the Livingstone expedition. Presented by the Foreign Office.

44 birds from the Zambesi and Shiré Rivers. Collected and presented by the Rev. Charles Livingstone, including the type of the Livingstone Touraco (Turacus livingstonei).

An adult specimen of the Whale-headed Stork (Balæniceps rex), obtained by Consul Petherick.

1864.

79 specimens presented; 394 purchased. Total, 473.

265 birds from Palestine. Collected by the Rev. Canon Tristram.

1865.

216 specimens presented; 323 purchased. Total, 539.

88 birds from Guatemala, duplicates from Mr. Osbert Salvin's collection.

115 sets of eggs. Purchased of Mr. John Gould.

160 birds from Malacca. Presented by W. Harvey, Esq.

At this time the Museum had very few specimens from the Malay Archipelago, and the collection was of great use. By the presentation of the Hume and Tweeddale collections, Mr. Harvey's series, which had no exact localities or dates, was superseded, and most of the specimens have been given away to other Museums.

29 birds from Halmahéra, and other islands in the Malay Archipelago, collected by Dr. A. R. Wallace.

1866.

122 specimens presented; 336 purchased. Total, 458.

In this year were acquired:—

66 birds from Upper Amazonia, from Mr. Edward Bartlett's expedition to the River Amazon, being the first set of his collection [cf. Scl. and Salv., P.Z.S., 1867, pp. 748–759].

68 nests from North America. Presented by Osbert Salvin, Esq.

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1867.

Specimens presented, 95; purchased, 266. Total, 361.

66 Domestic Pigeons and Ducks. Presented by Charles Darwin, Esq.

These specimens were valuable, as having served the celebrated author as evidence for his work on the "Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication."

1868.

Specimens presented, 18; purchased, 274. Total, 292.

The only noteworthy acquisition in this year was that of 126 birds, duplicates from Mr. Osbert Salvin's expedition to Central America.

1869.

628 specimens presented; 217 purchased. Total, 845.

476 birds from Abyssinia, collected by Dr. W. T. Blanford. Presented by the Government of India.

This was the second set of specimens from the collection made by Dr. Blanford, the naturalist appointed to the Abyssinian expedition. After the storming of Magdala he visited the Anseba Valley in Bogos Land accompanied by Mr. W. Jesse. The first series resulting from this expedition was retained by the Indian Museum in Calcutta, but a very generous selection was presented by the latter institution to the National Collection.

106 eggs of South African birds. Presented by E. L. Layard, Esq., at that time the Director of the South African Museum at Cape Town.

1870.

261 specimens presented; 184 purchased. Total, 445.

135 birds from the Pacific Islands. Presented by Julius Brenchley, Esq.

Mr. Brenchley accompanied Sir William Wiseman on the cruise of the Curacao in the Pacific. The vessel visited several islands hitherto unexplored, and many new species were procured.

66 birds from the West Indian Islands. Presented by Mrs. Bryant.

Dr. Bryant was a celebrated American naturalist, who travelled throughout the West Indies, and, on his death, be-

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queathed his collection to be divided between certain museums and well-known ornithologists, in order that these should benefit by his labours. In England, the British Museum, Dr. Sclater, Mr. Salvin and Dr. F. D. Godman were selected, and thus a full series from Dr. Bryant's collection is now in the Natural History Museum.

1871.

14 specimens presented; 94 purchased. Total, 108.

23 birds from Hainan, collected by Consul Robert Swinhoe.

These were duplicate specimens from Consul Swinhoe's Hainan collection, recorded by him in the "Ibis" for 1870 (pp. 77–97, 230–256, 342–367). The full collection was bequeathed by Mr. Henry Seebohm in 1897.

40 birds from Central Chili, collected by Mr. E. C. Reed.

1872.

368 presented; 596 purchased. Total, 964.

In September of this year I was appointed Assistant in the Zoological Department of the British Museum, in charge of the ornithological collection, in succession to Mr. George Robert Gray, who died in May, 1872. My first care was to enlist the aid of all my personal friends for the increase of the national collection, with the results recorded in the succeeding years.

44 birds from Southern Spain. Presented by Colonel L. H. Irby.

68 birds from South Africa. Bequeathed by the late Sir Andrew Smith.

178 birds from Archangel, and other localities. Presented by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe.

22 Gyr-falcons and Peregrine Falcons. Purchased of Mr. John Gould.

23 birds from Accra, W. Africa, and 17 birds from Avington, Hampshire. Presented by Capt. G. E. Shelley.

1873.

1571 specimens presented; 4707 purchased. Total, 6278.

This year was celebrated for the acquisition of the Wallace and Monteiro collections, and for several other donations from my personal friends, Captain Shelley, Mr. A. Swanzy, Colonel J. Hayes Lloyd, Commander Sperling, and Dr. Blanford, all of

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them contributing towards the accomplishment of the "Catalogue of Birds," which Dr. Günther had then inaugurated.

2474 specimens from the Malay Archipelago, collected by Dr. A. R. Wallace, and containing the types of all the new species described by Mr. G. R. Gray and Dr. A. R. Wallace himself.

27 Hawks and Owls from the River Amazon, collected by Dr. A. R. Wallace (cf. Sclater and Salvin, P.Z.S., 1867, pp. 589, 590).

Dr. Wallace allowed the Museum to acquire his Amazonian collection of Accipitres for the purposes of the "Catalogue of Birds." The remainder of his South American collection passed into the possession of Dr. F. D. Godman, and was afterwards presented by him with the rest of his great collection.

671 birds from various localities. Presented by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe.

33 birds from Avington, Hants, and 117 from Egypt, etc. Presented by Captain G. E. Shelley.

18 specimens from the Fanti country in Western Africa. Presented by Andrew Swanzy, Esq.

41 specimens from Bogos Land, collected by Mr. Esler. Purchased.

97 specimens from various localities. Presented by John Gould, Esq.

107 birds from Kattiawar. Presented by Colonel J. Hayes Lloyd. This collection was described by the donor in the "Ibis" for 1873 (pp. 397–421), and his memoir is still the only detailed account of the ornithology of this part of India.

62 birds from Belgium. Presented by the Brussels Museum.

42 birds from Bahia (Wucherer), S. Ural (Strader), and other localities. Purchased of Mr. Gerrard.

39 birds from the Lower Congo. Presented by Commander R. M. Sperling. This collection was described by me in the "Proceedings of the Zoological Society" for 1873 (pp. 716–717). A new Goatsucker was named Macrodipteryx sperlingi, but it afterwards proved to be only the female of Cosmetornis vexillarins.

179 birds from Angola and Bengucla, collected by Mr. J. J. Montciro. This collection contained types of the new species, described by the late Dr. G. Hartlaub and myself.

18 specimens from various localities, including the type of a new species of Owlet, Glaucidium tephronotum. Presented by W. Wilson Saunders, Esq.

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1874.

1227 specimens presented; 1084 purchased; 325 received in exchange. Total, 2636.

The most important accessions were:—

683 birds from various localities. Presented by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe.

321 specimens from Baluchistan and Persia, collected by Dr. W. T. Blanford. Presented by the Indian Museum, Calcutta.

603 specimens of African birds. Purchased.

These were the first and second instalments of my collection of African birds, which I had to dispose of on entering the Government service, no officer of the British Museum being allowed to keep a private collection of the group of animals of which he is in charge in the Museum.

99 birds from Sweden, collected by Mr. Meves. Purchased.

35 specimens of Accipitres from the collection of Consul Robert Swinhoe. Purchased.

11 birds from Zambesia. Presented by Sir John Kirk.

59 birds from Peru and Siberia. Received in exchange from the Warsaw Museum.

25 birds from Egypt and the Egyptian Sudan. Presented by Sir Samuel Baker.

The types of a new species of Raven from Morocco (Corvus tingitanus, Irby). Presented by Colonel L. H. Irby.

45 birds from the Cape Verde Islands, Gaboon, and Senegambia. Purchased of Mr. A. Bouvier.

62 specimens in spirits from Gaboon. Presented by H. T. Ansell, Esq.

1875.

Specimens presented, 908; purchased, 1194. Total, 2102.

440 birds from various localities. Presented by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe.

156 birds from Kamptee, Central India. Presented by Dr. R. B. Hinde.

81 birds from New Zealand. Received in exchange from the Colonial Museum, Wellington.

180 birds from the Transvaal and Orange River Colony. Collected by F. A. Barratt, Esq.

591 African birds from Dr. Bowdler Sharpe's collection. Purchased.

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1876.

Specimens presented, 2372; purchased, 1656. Total, 4028.

100 specimens from Europe and Asia. Purchased of Mr. John Gould.

1246 birds from the North-Western Himalayas and Malacea. Presented by Capt. Stackhouse Pinwill.

110 specimens of birds, nests, and eggs, collected in the Island of Rodriguez during the Transit of Venus expedition by the Rev. H. H. Slater and Mr. G. Gulliver. Presented by the Royal Society.

200 birds from Upper Burma, collected by Dr. John Anderson during the Yun-nan expedition. Presented by the Indian Museum, Calcutta.

300 birds from Western North America, collected during the North American Boundary Commission (49th parallel), by Professor G. Dawson. Presented by the Foreign Office.

151 birds from British North Borneo, and the Island of Labuan, collected by Sir Hugh Low.

750 African birds, being the fourth instalment of Dr. Bowdler Sharpe's collection. Purchased.

22 birds and 114 eggs collected in Kerguelen Island by the Rev. A. E. Eaton during the Transit of Venus expedition. Presented by the Royal Society.

77 birds from the Philippine Islands. Collected by Professor J. B. Steere.

1877.

Specimens presented, 845; purchased, 1006. Total, 1851.

Of special interest were:—

138 birds from Kingwilliamstown, East Cape Colony. Presented by Major H. Trevelyan.

53 birds from China. Presented by the Shanghai Museum.

25 birds from British New Guinea, collected by O. C. Stone, Esq.

12 birds from British New Guinea, collected by Dr. James.

3 birds, all new to the collection. Received in exchange from the Darmstadt Museum.

600 African birds, being the fourth instalment of Dr. Bowdler Sharpe's collection. Purchased.

144 birds from Labuan and North West Borneo, collected by Governor Ussher.

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265 birds from various localities. Presented by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe.

87 birds from the Pacific Islands. Purchased from the Godeffroy Museum.

87 birds from Queensland and Abeokuta, West Africa. Presented by Francis Nicholson, Esq.

54 birds collected by Colonel H. W. Feilden, C.B., during the voyage of the Alert and Discovery to the Arctic Regions. Presented by the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury.

1878.

Specimens presented, 989; purchased, 1936. Total, 2925.

The acquisitions of special interest were:—

163 birds from the Ellice Islands, Fiji Islands, and Samoa. Purchased of the Rev. S. J. Whitmee.

115 birds from various localities. Presented by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe.

108 birds from Uruguay and Argentina, collected by Mr. Alan Peel.

82 birds from the Congo River, West Africa, and from Kessang, Malay Peninsula. Purchased of M. A. Bouvier.

308 birds from Cochin China. Presented by M. E. Pierre.

46 birds from the Arctic Regions, collected by Colonel H. W. Feilden, C.B. (H.M.S. Alert). Presented by the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury.

82 birds and eggs from Discovery Bay, collected by Mr. H. Chichester Hart (H.M.S. Discovery). Presented by the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury.

88 birds from Ceylon. Presented by Colonel Vincent Legge

121 birds from West Java. Presented by Francis Nicholson, Esq.

12 birds from the interior of Viti Levu, collected by Dr. Kleinschmidt. Purchased from the Godeffroy Museum.

1038 African birds, being the fifth instalment of Dr. Bowdler Sharpe's collection. Purchased.

200 birds from Western Siberia and Turkestan, being the first set of the specimens obtained by Dr. Finsch on his expedition into Siberia.

1879.

Specimens presented, 3128; purchased, 332. Total, 3460.

Of special interest were the following items:—

52 birds from East Africa, collected by Dr. Hildebrandt.

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68 birds from South Eastern New Guinea, collected by Mr. Kendal Broadbent. Purchased of Mr. Gerrard.

1858 birds from various localities in the Old World. Presented by Dr. F. Du Cane Godman, F.R.S., and Mr. Osbert Salvin, F.R.S.

360 birds from Matabeleland and the Zambesi, collected by the late Mr. Frank Oates. Presented by his brothers, W. E. and C. G. Oates, Esqrs.

700 birds from the British Indian Empire, including several types from the Indian Museum. Presented by the Secretary of State for India.

65 birds from the Straits of Magellan, collected by Dr. Coppinger (Voy. H.M.S. Alert). Presented by the Lords of the Admiralty.

1880.

Specimens presented, 6002; purchased, 1080. Total, 7082.

4731 birds from the British Indian Empire, including 112 types of species from the Indian Museum. Presented by the Secretary of State for India.

201 birds from Travancore, collected by Mr. Frank Bourdillon.

91 skins and skeletons of birds from the Straits of Magellan, collected by Dr. Coppinger (Voy. H.M.S. Alert). Presented by the Lords of the Admiralty.

43 birds collected by Carl Hunstein in South East New Guinea. Purchased of Mr. Gerrard.

1021 birds and eggs, collected during the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger. Presented by the Lords of the Treasury.

318 nests and eggs of birds from North West Borneo. Presented by Sir Hugh Low.

12 birds from Duke of York Island, New Britain, New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands, including 9 species new to the Museum, collected by E. L. and L. C. Layard, Esqrs.

1881.

Specimens presented, 3032; purchased, 7102. Total, 10,134.

108 skeletons and 205 skins of birds from the collection of the late T. C. Eyton, Esq.

56 specimens of Thrushes. Presented by Henry Seebohm, Esq.

123 birds from Nepal and Gilgit. Presented by Dr. J. Scully.

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83 birds from various localities. Presented by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe.

66 birds from the Island of Socotra, collected by Professor I. Bayley Balfour. Presented by the British Association.

97 birds from Duke of York Island, collected by the Rev. G. Brown.

6315 skins of birds, being the private collection of the late John Gould.

The mounted series of Humming Birds from the collection of the late John Gould.

The collection of skins of Humming Birds from the collection of the late John Gould.

9 specimens from the Eastern Narra, Sind. Presented by Scrope Doig, Esq.

68 birds from various parts of Great Britain. Presented by Theodore Walker, Esq.

17 specimens of Timeliidæ from Burma, collected by Colonel R. G. Wardlaw Ramsay.

260 additional specimens from the North West Himalayas and Malacca. Presented by Capt. Stackhouse Pinwill.

85 birds from the North West Provinces, India. Presented by Colonel Way.

19 birds from various localities. Presented by Dr. Coppinger.

48 birds from Egypt and Algeria. Presented by J. H. Gurney, Esq., jun.

1394 birds from Queensland, collected by Mr. T. J. Cockerell. Presented by Dr. F. Du Cane Godman, Esq., F.R.S.

21 birds from the Solomon Islands and Seychelles, collected by Lieut. G. H. Richards, R.N.

11 birds from the New Hebrides. Purchased from the Godeffroy Museum.

341 birds from Kandahar. Presented by Colonel Charles Swinhoe.

106 birds from California. Presented by Lord Walsingham.

200 birds from Gilgit. Presented by Colonel John Biddulph.

1882.

Specimens presented, 1293; purchased, 2593. Total, 3886.

Of special interest were the following accessions:—

31 nests, 392 eggs, and 31 sterna of birds from Pegu. Presented by Eugene W. Oates, Esq.

1544 birds from Pegu, including 32 new species to the Museum, collected by Eugene W. Oates, Esq.

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127 birds from the Islands of Torres Straits and Queensland, collected by Dr. Coppinger (Voy. H.M.S. Alert). Presented by the Lords of the Admiralty.

546 birds, eggs, and skeletons from Madagascar, collected by the Rev. Deans Cowan.

190 birds from various localities. Presented by Henry Seebohm, Esq.

1883.

Specimens presented, 622; purchased, 327; exchanged, 107. Total, 1056.

Specially important were:—

13 specimens of Timcliidæ from the Philippine Islands and Burma. Presented by Colonel R. G. Wardlaw Ramsay.

28 birds from South East New Guinea, collected by Mr. A. Goldie.

95 birds from Tenasserim, collected by Colonel C. T. Bingham.

103 birds from the Tenimber Islands, with types of 21 new species, collected by Dr. H. O. Forbes. Presented by the British Association.

40 birds from the Nilghiri Hills. Presented by W. Davison, Esq.

77 birds from the Lawas River in North West Borneo, collected by Mr. F. Burbidge. Presented by Harry Veitch, Esq.

13 specimens of Malayan birds, including 8 species new to the collection. Presented by the Leyden Museum.

64 birds from various localities. Presented by Dr. R. Bowdler Sharpe.

44 birds from Brighton. Purchased of Mr. Henry Swaysland.

23 birds from the Gold Coast. Presented by Sir Alfred Moloney.

74 specimens of British birds, chiefly Limicolæ, from the collection of Mr. J. Edmund Harting.

107 specimens from New South Wales. Received in exchange from the Australian Museum, Sydney.

32 birds from Japan. Presented by Captain Blakiston.

1884.

Specimens presented, 3954; purchased, 1320. Total, 5274.

426 birds from Nigeria, and a collection of Weaver-Birds (Ploccidæ) and Finches (Fringillidæ). Bequeathed by the late W. A. Forbes, Esq.

19 birds from Ashanti, West Africa. Presented by Sir Godfrey Lagden.

254 birds from Nagasaki, Japan. Presented by F. Ringer, Esq.

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13 birds from the Solomon Islands, including 7 species new to the collection. Purchased from Mr. Cockerell.

27 birds from Japan. Presented by Captain Blakiston.

795 birds from various localities. Presented by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe.

64 birds from Zambesia. Presented by Sir John Kirk.

31 skeletons of Petrels, collected by the naturalists of H.M.S. Challenger. Presented by the Lords of the Treasury.

128 birds from the Niam-niam country in Equatorial Africa, collected by Mr. F. Bohndorff.

27 birds from Bouru and other islands in the Moluccas, collected by Dr. H. O. Forbes.

731 specimens of American Passeres from the collection of Dr. P. L. Sclater (Hirundinidæ, Mniotiltidæ, Cærebidæ), including 34 types and 56 species new to the Museum. The first and second instalments of the Sclater collection.

38 eggs from Tenasserim. Presented by Colonel C. T. Bingham.

25 birds from Italy. Presented by Professor H. H. Giglioli.

69 birds and eggs from Corsica, including the type of a new species of Nuthatch (Sitta whiteheadi). Presented by John Whitehead, Esq.

90 birds from the Nilghiri Hills. Presented by W. R. Davison, Esq.

826 eggs from various localities. Presented by Osbert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S., and Dr. F. Du Cane Godman, F.R.S.

8 birds from Aden. Presented by Colonel Yerbury.

198 eggs from Pegu. Presented by Eugene W. Oates, Esq.

332 birds from Mhow, C. India. Presented by Colonel Charles Swinhoe.

138 specimens of Swallows (Hirundinidæ) and American Warblers (Mniotiltidæ) from various parts of North America. Presented by the U. S. National Museum.

579 eggs from various localities. From the collection of the late John Gould, Esq.

1885.

Specimens presented, 87,827; purchased, 3024. Total, 90,551.

The chief event of this year was the presentation by Mr. Allan O. Hume, C.B., of his famous collection (59,612) of Indian birds, and their eggs (15,965). This was the largest private collection at that time in the world.

Other accessions of great interest were:—

2365 eggs from various localities. Presented by Osbert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S., and Dr. F. Du Cane Godman, F.R.S.

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910 birds from various localities. Presented by Dr. R. Bowdler Sharpe.

36 birds from France. Presented by Edward Hargitt, Esq., R.I.

183 eggs from Betsileo in Madagascar. Presented by the Rev. Deans Cowan.

227 specimens of Finches (Fringillidæ) and Hang-nests (Icteridæ). Presented by the U. S. National Museum.

24 birds from Aden and Lahej. Presented by Colonel Yerbury.

2281 specimens of American Passeres—(Icteridæ, Tanagridæ, Fringillidæ), the third, fourth and fifth instalments of the Sclater collection.

189 birds from Fao in the Persian Gulf. Presented by W. D. Cumming, Esq.

31 birds from the island of Palawan in the Philippines, collected by E. Lemprière, Esq.

75 birds from Mt. Kilimanjaro in German East Africa, collected by Sir Harry Johnston, G.C.B., G.C.M.G. Presented by the British Association.

66 birds from Muscat. Presented by Colonel Miles.

31 birds from Ceylon. Presented by Colonel Vincent Legge.

354 birds from Argentina, collected by the late Henry Durnford, Esq.

1157 eggs from various localities; continuation of the collection of the late John Gould, Esq.

6895 birds (Turdidæ and Fringillidæ), being the first twelve instalments of their Neotropical collection. Presented by Osbert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S., and Dr. F. Du Cane Godman, Esq., F.R.S.

1886.

Specimens presented, 2524; purchased, 1496. Total, 4020.

Of special interest were the following:—

480 birds, principally Hawks and Owls. Presented by Henry Seebohm, Esq.

516 birds from various localities, purchased from the collection of the late Sir William Jardine.

802 American birds (Turdidæ, Mimidæ, Troglodytidæ), being the sixth, seventh, and eighth instalments of the Sclater collection.

143 birds from various localities. Presented by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe.

35 birds from the South Atlantic, principally from the island of S. Trinidad. Presented by the Earl of Crawford, K.T., F.R.S.

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84 birds from Bushire, S. Persia. Presented by A. J. V. Palmer, Esq.

230 birds from Afghanistan, collected by Dr. Aitchison. Presented by the Afghan Delimitation Commission.

45 birds from S. Manchuria. Presented by Sir Evan James.

33 birds from the mountains of Perak. Presented by L. Wray, Esq., jun.

1073 birds from Yucatan and the adjacent islands, collected by Dr. G. F. Ganmer, and presented by Osbert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S., and Dr. F. Du Cane Godman, F.R.S. (thirteenth instalment).

1887.

Specimens presented, 25,206; purchased, 703; received in exchange, 60. Total, 25,969.

The year 1887 was memorable for the presentation by Colonel R. G. Wardlaw Ramsay of the splendid collection of Asiatic birds bequeathed to him by his uncle, the 9th Marquess of Tweeddale.

Other notable additions were:—

24 birds from the Solomon Islands, including the types of 3 species. Presented by Dr. P. L. Sclater.

35 birds from the Solomon Islands, including 8 species new to the Museum and the type of Macrocorax woodfordi, collected by C. M. Woodford, Esq.

241 birds from various localities. Presented by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe.

75 birds from S.E. New Guinea, collected by the Hon. Hugh Romilly. Presented by the Exhibition Commissioners of Queensland.

35 birds from the mountains of Camaroons, W. Africa, collected by Sir Harry Johnston, G.C.B., G.C.M.G. Presented by the British Association.

82 birds from California and Arizona. Presented by G. Frean Morcom, Esq.

23 birds from China, including types of two species described by the donor. Presented by F. W. Styan, Esq.

485 Humming Birds, being the ninth instalment of the Sclater collection.

19 birds from the mountains of Perak in the Malay Peninsula. Presented by L. Wray, Esq., jun.

192 birds from Derby, N. W. Australia. Presented by Captain Bowyer-Bower. Collected by his son, the late T. H. Bowyer-Bower, Esq.

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6 birds from New Ireland, including the types of three new species, collected by Dr. Otto Finsch.

37 birds from S. Manchuria. Presented by Sir Evan James.

17 birds from the Congo, collected by Mr. F. Bohndorff.

342 birds from Equatorial Africa. Presented by Emin Pasha.

5 birds from Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, collected during the voyage of the Flying Fish. Presented by the Lords of the Admiralty.

60 birds from the Caucasus and other parts of the Russian Empire. Received in exchange from the Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg.

539 Cuckoos and 36 Petrels from various localities, including the type of Cymochorea monorhis. Presented by Henry Seebohm, Esq.

25 birds from the Sudan. Presented by Colonel Willughby Verner.

183 birds from East Africa, including the types of Ploceus jacksoni, Sylviella minima, and Campothera pallida. Presented by F. J. Jackson, Esq., C.B., C.M.G.

3335 specimens of American Corvidæ, Trochilidæ, and Accipitres, being the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth instalments of their Neotropical collection. Presented by Osbert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S., and Dr. Du Cane Godman, F.R.S.

1888.

Specimens presented, 20,392; purchased, 1986; received in exchange, 30. Total, 22,408.

Special mention may be made of the following accessions:

1718 specimens of Tyrannidæ, Cotingidæ, and Pipridæ, including no less than 117 types of species, being the tenth instalment of the Sclater collection.

44 birds from East Africa. Presented by F. J. Jackson, Esq., C.B., C.M.G.

57 birds from the island of Guadalcanar, Solomon Archipelago, including the types of 13 new species. Collected by C. M. Woodford, Esq.

68 birds from Guadalcanar. Presented by C. M. Woodford, Esq.

5408 specimens of Tyrannidæ, Pipridæ, Cotingidæ, Striges, Picariæ, etc., being the seventeenth to twenty-ninth instalments of their Neotropical collection. Presented by Osbert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S., and Dr. F. Du Cane Godman, F.R.S.

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13,326 specimens of skins and eggs of North American birds, forming the Hanshaw collection. Presented by Dr. F. Du Cane Godman, F.R.S.

13 birds from Muscat. Presented by Surgeon-Colonel Jayakar.

198 birds from various localities. Presented by Henry Seebohm, Esq.

26 birds from Dominica, collected by Mr. Ramage. Presented by the West Indian Committee of the Royal Society.

19 Cormorants and Shags from Fowey, Cornwall. Presented by Dr. A. Günther.

76 birds from the mountains of Perak. Presented by A. Wray, Esq., jun.

52 birds from South East New Guinea, including the types of four new species, collected by Dr. H. O. Forbes.

35 birds, collected by M. Humblot in the Comoro Islands. Purchased of Mr. G. A. Frank.

30 birds and 5 eggs from the Island of Fernando Noronha, including the types of two new species, collected by H. M. Ridley, Esq. Presented by the Royal Society.

85 birds from various localities. Presented by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe.

231 birds from the Island of Cyprus. Presented by Lord Lilford.

23 birds from Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, including the types of five new species. Presented by J. J. Lister, Esq.

54 birds from North West Borneo, and the neighbouring islands, collected by Alfred Everett, Esq.

8 birds from the Comoro Islands, with four species new to the collection. Presented by the Paris Museum.

69 birds from Ichang in Western China, collected by Mr. A. E. Pratt.

44 birds from Benguela, including twenty species new to the Museum collection. Presented by the Lisbon Museum.

195 birds from Fao, Persian Gulf. Presented by W. D. Cumming, Esq.

1889.

Specimens presented, 6936; purchased, 4093; received in exchange, 76. Total, 11,105.

364 specimens of Pigeons, Barbets, Cuckoos, Weaver-birds, Woodpeckers, including types of four species new to the Museum. Presented by Henry Seebohm, Esq.

4947 specimens of Accipitres, Psittaci, Columbiformes, Cracidæ,

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etc., being the thirtieth to thirty-ninth instalments of their Neotropical collection. Presented by Osbert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S., and Dr. F. Du Cane Godman, F.R.S.

48 birds from the Baram district of Sarawak, Borneo, collected by Dr. Charles Hose.

275 birds (mostly Starlings and Larks) from various localities. Presented by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe.

70 birds from Mount Aboo, North West India, collected by Colonel A. E. Butler. Received in exchange.

36 birds from the Island of Palawan, Philippine Archipelago, collected by Mr. John Whitehead.

1952 specimens of Woodpeckers, Cuckoos, Toucans, Barbets, Dendrocoloptidæ, Formicariidæ, being the eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth instalments of the Sclater collection, including 112 types.

1681 specimens of African birds, Alaudidæ, Ploceidæ, Picariæ, etc., being the first to the eighth instalments of the Shelley collection, including thirteen types of species described by Captain G. E. Shelley.

186 birds from the Kilimanjaro district and Teita in East Africa, including seven types of new species. Presented by H. C. V. Hunter, Esq.

44 birds from Kansu in North West China, collected by Mr. Berezowski, including seventeen species new to the collection.

59 birds from the Lower Congo, collected by Mr. L. Petit.

98 Ducks from various localities. Presented by H. J. Elwes, Esq., F.R.S.

11 Gulls from the collection of the late Mr. Vingoe, from Cornwall. Purchased at the Vingoe sale.

148 birds from the collection of the Conte de Riocour, including an example of the extinct Starling (Fregilupus varius), of Réunion.

105 birds from Dominica, collected by Mr. Ramage. Presented by the West India Committee of the Royal Society.

121 birds from Tasmania. Presented by C. G. H. Lloyd, Esq.

63 birds and 17 eggs from China, from Mount Kina Balu and North Western Borneo. Presented by John Whitehead, Esq.

40 birds from Yarkand, collected by the Rev. Dr. Lansdell.

57 birds from South Wales. Presented by the Hon. W. Edwardes (afterwards Lord Kensington).

33 Starlings from the vicinity of Lucknow. Presented by George Reid, Esq., Director of the Lucknow Museum.

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1890.

Specimens presented, 5055; purchased, 1955; received in exchange, 136. Total, 7147.

A variety of the Snipe and a Reeve's Pheasant. Presented by His Majesty King Edward VII. (then H.R.H. the Prince of Wales).

2835 specimens of American birds, Accipitres (Birds of Prey), Corvidæ (Crows), Turdidæ (Thrushes), Troglodytidæ (Wrens), etc., being the fortieth to forty-fifth instalments of the Salvin-Godman collection. Presented by Dr. F. Du Cane Godman, F.R.S., and Osbert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S.

834 specimens of Picarian birds, being the final instalment of the Sclater collection.

761 specimens of African birds, being the ninth to nineteenth instalments of the Shelley collection.

405 specimens of Larks, Hoopoes, and Kingfishers, mostly from the Swinhoe collection. Presented by Henry Seebohm, Esq.

216 eggs from Fao, Persian Gulf. Presented by W. D. Cumming, Esq.

The only known British specimen of the Siberian Thrush (Cichloselys sibirica). Frederic Bond Bequest.

47 birds from the Altai Mountains. Presented by St. George Littledale, Esq.

82 birds from Madeira and the Desertas Islands, including the type of a new Sparrow-hawk (Accipiter granti). Presented by W. R. Ogilvie Grant, Esq.

Young birds and eggs of the Cream-coloured Courser (Cursorius gallicus). Presented by E. G. B. Meade-Waldo, Esq.

17 birds from the Aruwhimi River, collected by the late J. S. Jameson. Presented by Mrs. Jameson.

543 birds from Africa. Presented by J. H. Gurney, jun. This collection was formed by the donor's father, John Henry Gurney, and was a most valuable addition to the National Collection; consisting, as it did, of much of the material on which Mr. Gurney and Mr. Thomas Ayres had founded their memoirs on the Ornithology of Natal and the Transvaal.

168 birds from Turkestan, collected by the late Dr. Severtzow.

100 birds from Labuan and Sarawak. Collected by A. H. Everett, Esq.

28 birds from Equatorial Africa. Presented by Emin Pasha.

240 birds from the Philippine Islands. Received in exchange from E. L. Moseley, Esq.

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38 birds from the Bellenden-Ker Range, North East Queensland. Presented by the Australian Museum, Sydney.

136 eggs from Southern Spain. Presented by Lord Lilford.

101 birds from Northern Italy. Presented by Count T. Salvadori.

216 eggs from Fao, Persian Gulf. Presented by W. D. Cumming, Esq.

77 birds and eggs from the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans. Bequeathed by Dr. Robert McCormick.

42 birds from Kiukiang, S. China. Presented by F. W. Styan, Esq.

19 birds from the Sandwich Islands, collected by Mr. Knudsen. Presented by Professor Collett, Director of the University Museum, Christiania.

1891.

Specimens presented, 5095; purchased, 507; received in exchange, 2771. Total, 12,883.

56 birds from Muscat. Presented by Surgeon-Colonel A. S. G. Jayakar.

418 specimens collected during the second Yarkand Mission. In exchange with the Indian Museum, Calcutta.

37 birds and nests from the Pamir. Presented by St. George Littledale, Esq.

97 specimens from Corea, including the Black Woodpecker, Thriponax kalinowskii, new to the collection. Presented by C. W. Campbell, Esq.

13 specimens from the Shan States. Presented by E. W. Oates, Esq.

186 specimens from the Philippine Islands, obtained during the Steere expedition, with 20 species new to the Museum. Purchased and exchanged with E. L. Moseley, Esq.

32 specimens from the islands of the Bight of Benin, including six species new to the collection. Presented by the Lisbon Museum.

16 birds from East Africa. Received in exchange from the Berlin Museum.

10 birds from the Phœnix Islands, with two species of Petrels new to the collection. Presented by J. J. Lister, Esq.

22 birds from Montana and Dakota, including some time examples of North American Buzzards. Presented by E. S. Cameron, Esq.

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263 specimens from Central Chili and Tarapacá, including many species new to the collection, among them the rare Avocet of the Andes (Recurvirostra andina). Presented by H. Berkeley James, Esq.

34 nests and eggs from Barbados. Presented by Colonel W. H. Feilden, C.B.

65 Arctic and Antarctic birds. Bequeathed by the late Dr. Robert McCormick.

501 eggs of Gulls and Terns (Laridæ). Presented by Howard Saunders, Esq. This was a very valuable present, the donor being our greatest authority on the Laridæ, which family he described in the twenty-fifth volume of the "Catalogue of Birds."

The first instalment of his collection of bird's eggs, comprising 5017 examples. Presented by H. Seebohm, Esq.

In this year Mr. Seebohm commenced the arrangement of the Museum series of eggs in cabinets.

4787 specimens of American birds, being the forty-sixth to fifty-sixth instalments of the Salvin-Godman collection. Presented by Dr. F. Du Cane Godman, F.R.S., and Osbert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S.

451 specimens of African Galliformes (Game-birds), Ralliformes (Rails), and Charadriiformes (Plovers, etc.), being the twentieth to the twenty-second instalments of the Shelley collection.

1892.

Specimens presented, 10,024; purchased, 1013; received in exchange, 119. Total, 11,156.

4013 eggs and specimens of Charadriiformes (Wading Birds), Lariformes (Gulls and Terns), Ralliformes (Rails). Presented by Henry Seebohm, Esq.

4534 specimens, being the fifty-sixth to sixty-sixth instalments of their collection of Neotropical birds. Presented by Dr. F. Du Cane Godman and Osbert Salvin, Esq.

A pair of Newton's Gardener Bower-bird (Prionodura newtoniana). Presented by the Queensland Museum.

1042 birds from Central Chili and Tarapacá. Presented by H. Berkeley James, Esq.

19 birds and eggs from the River Gambia. Presented by Dr. Rendall.

16 birds from the island of Engaño, collected by Mr. Modigliani.

98 birds from Eastern Prussia and other parts of Germany. Received in exchange from Dr. E. Hartert.

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101 birds from Mount Dulit, Sarawak, including 24 species new to the collection and 13 types. Collected by Dr. C. Hose.

447 birds from Natal and the Bermudas, collected by Capt. Savile G. Reid.

3 rare birds from Benguela and St. Thomas' Island, W. Africa, including the type of a new genus and species, Amaurocichla bocagei. Presented by the Lisbon Museum.

58 birds from the neighbourhood of Buenos Aires, collected by F. Withington, Esq.

A pair of the Flightless Rail of Laysan Island, Porzanula palmeri. Presented by the Hon. Walter Rothschild, Ph.D., M.P.

180 Columbiformes (Pigeons), being the twenty-third instalment of the Shelley collection.

11 birds from the Malay Peninsula. Presented by W. R. Davison, Esq.

145 birds from Mt. Kina Balu and N.W. Borneo, collected by A. H. Everett, Esq.

21 birds from New Zealand and the Chatham Islands, collected by Dr. H. O. Forbes.

27 birds from Anguilla Island, W.I. Presented by the West Indian Committee of the Royal Society.

32 birds, mostly from Peru, with several new to the collection. Presented by Count Branicki.

78 birds from North Australia and the island of Dammar in the Moluccas, collected by Dr. Bassett-Smith during the voyage of H.M.S. Penguin. Presented by the Lords of the Admiralty.

477 birds from Hungary. Presented by the Hungarian National Museum, Budapest.

257 birds from Nyasa Land, containing twelve types and fifteen species new to the collection. Presented by Sir Harry H. Johnston, K.C.B., G.C.M.G.

1893.

Specimens presented, 11,062; purchased, 202; received in exchange, 162. Total, 11,426.

Among the important accessions were:—

502 specimens from Nyasa Land. Presented by Sir Harry Johnston, K.C.B., G.C.M.G.

882 specimens of Neotropical birds. Presented by Dr. F. D. Godman, F.R.S., and Osbert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S.

44 types of new species of birds discovered by him in Uganda and on Mount Elgon. Presented by F. J. Jackson, Esq., C.B., C.M.G.

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289 specimens of Herons (Ardeiformes) and Limicoline birds (Charadriiformes). Presented by Henry Seebohm, Esq.

54 birds from Suakin. Presented by Surgeon-Major R. H. Penton.

83 birds from Mt. Kalulong and the Baram district of Sarawak. Presented by Dr. Charles Hose.

A third instalment of 8273 eggs was presented by Mr. Henry Seebohm, making, with those previously given by him, a donation of 16,290 specimens.

109 eggs of Australian birds from Gippsland, Victoria. Presented by Judge Philbrick, K.C.

229 birds from various parts of Australia. Presented by Lord Leigh.

Specimens of Tetraophasis szechenyi, from Tibet, and Grus nigricollis, from Mongolia, both species new to the Museum collection. Presented by Henry Seebohm, Esq.

32 birds from Mt. Kina Balu. Presented by Dr. H. A. Haviland and Dr. D. G. Haviland.

22 birds and eggs from the Chatham Islands, collected by Dr. H. O. Forbes.

63 birds from Chili. Bequeathed by the late H. Berkeley James, Esq.

27 birds from Antigua, Santa Lucia, collected by Mr. Ramage. Presented by the West Indian Committee of the Royal Society.

44 specimens of Pheasants and Grouse from various parts of the Russian Empire. Received in exchange from the St. Petersburg Museum.

95 Herons, being the twenty-fourth instalment of the Shelley collection.

60 birds from Shoa. Received in exchange from the Turin Museum.

24 specimens from Sarawak and N. W. Borneo, collected by Mr. A. W. Everett, including the rare Partridge of Kina Balu (Hæmatortyx sanguiniceps, Sharpe), and the type-specimen of Everett's Spider-hunter (Arachnothera everetti).

86 specimens from Mount Kalulong and the Baram province of Sarawak, collected by Dr. Charles Hose, including the types of Glaucidium borneense, Turdinus kalulongæ, and T. tephrops.

32 birds from the Lower Congo and other localities. Presented by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe.

31 Neotropical birds. Received in exchange from Graf Hans von Berlepsch.

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1894.

Specimens presented, 4505; purchased, 1525; received in exchange, 243. Total, 6273.

1482 specimens of Tanagridæ, presented by Dr. F. D. Godman, F.R.S., and Osbert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S.

690 birds, viz. 354 Anseriformes (Ducks and Geese), 58 Colymbiformes (Grebes and Divers), 81 Ardeiformes (Herons), 57 Lariformes (Gulls), 122 Charadriiformes (Waders), 18 Strigiformes (Owls). Presented by Henry Seebohm, Esq.

183 birds from Nyasa Land. Presented by Sir Harry Johnston, G.C.B., K.C.M.G.

86 birds from the Shan States, Burma, including the types of two new species. Presented by Eugene W. Oates, Esq.

55 birds and 61 eggs from Foochow, S. China. Presented by C. B. Riekett, Esq.

65 birds from the Sulu Islands, including types of four new species, and nine new to the Museum. Collected by A. H. Everett, Esq.

173 birds from N.W. Borneo. Received in exchange from A. H. Everett, Esq.

171 specimens from the island of Palawan. Presented by A. H. Everett, Esq.

A specimen of the Seychelles Tufted Owl (Gymnoscops insularis). Presented by Chevalier Brooks.

A pair of the Flightless Duck of the Auckland Islands (Nesonetta aucklandica); a pair of Mantell's Apteryx (A. mantelli) from North Island, N.Z.; and a pair of the Emperor of Germany's Bird of Paradise (Trichoparadisea gulielmi) from the Finisterre Mts., New Guinea. Presented by the Hon. Walter Rothschild, D.Sc., M.P.

496 skins of Gulls (Laridæ) from Mr. Howard Saunders's collection.

15 specimens from Central Asia. Presented by St. George Littledale, Esq.

124 birds from Kashmir and the Salt Range. Presented by Dr. J. Aitchison.

86 specimens from the Shan States. Presented by E. W. Oates, Esq.

60 bones of birds from the Chatham Islands, including those of Aphanapteryx and other extinct species, with types of seven new species. Collected by Dr. H. O. Forbes.

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67 birds from Ecuador. Presented by W. H. D. Haggard, Esq.

63 birds from China. Presented by F. W. Styan, Esq.

669 specimens of Phalacrocoracidæ (Cormorants), Anatidæ (Ducks), Accipitres (birds of prey), Striges (Owls), and Crows (Corvidæ), etc., being the twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth instalments of the Shelley collection.

1895.

Specimens presented, 2687; purchased, 7856; received in exchange, 18. Total 10,561.

Of special interest are:—

2 Little Auks (Alle alle) found dead at Sandringham. Presented by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales (King Edward VII.).

247 birds and eggs, from Madeira, Porto Santo, and the Salvage Islands. Presented by the Hon. Cecil Baring, and W. R. Ogilvie-Grant, Esq.

46 Petrels (Procellariiformes) and Gulls (Lariformes). Presented by Henry Seebohm, Esq.

924 birds with nests and eggs from Rio de Janeiro Presented by Alexander Fry, Esq.

3124 specimens of African birds, being the twenty-seventh to the thirty-fifth instalment of the Shelley Collection of African Birds.

23 types of new species of birds discovered during his expedition to Lake Rudolf. Presented by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith.

179 birds from Somali Land, including nine types and twelve species new to the Museum, collected by E. Lort Phillips, Esq.

71 birds and eggs from Aden. Presented by Colonel Yerbury.

4426 birds from Assam and Manipur, including many types and species new to the Museum, collected by Colonel H. H. Godwin-Austen, F.R.S.

104 birds from the Philippine Islands, the Sulu Archipelago, and Mt. Kina Balu in N.W. Borneo, collected by A. H. Everett, Esq.

22 birds from the islands of Luzon and Mindoro, in the Philippine Archipelago, collected by A. H. Everett, Esq.

58 birds from New Zealand. Presented by Sir Samuel Scott, Bart.

175 birds from the Hawaiian Archipelago, including twenty-six species new to the Museum, collected by R. C. L. Perkins, Esq. Presented by the Joint Committees of the Royal Society and the British Association.

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178 birds from the Rio Pilcomayo, collected by J. Graham Kerr, Esq. Presented by Capt. Juan Page.

13 birds, including nine species new to the collection. Received in exchange from the Hon. Walter Rothschild, Ph.D., M.P.

64 birds and eggs from Fao, Persian Gulf, collected by W D. Cumming, Esq.

19 birds from the Solomon Islands, including types of four new species. Presented by Dr. E. P. Ramsay, Director of the Australian Museum.

109 eggs of Cuckoo, with sets of the eggs of the foster-parents, and the nests. From the collection of Leopold Field, Esq.

1896.

Specimens presented, 19,604; purchased, 2210; received in exchange, 56. Total, 21,900.

The most important additions were:—

The Seebohm bequest of 16,950 skins and skeletons of birds, being the remainder of the collection formed by the late Henry Seebohm, Esq. During the preceding years, Mr. Seebohm had presented to the Museum his collection of eggs and many of his birds for the purpose of aiding the preparation of the 'Catalogue of Birds' and the 'Catalogue of Eggs.'

420 birds from the Savana of British Guiana. Presented by F. V. McConnell, Esq., and J. J. Quelch, Esq.

35 birds from Mashona Land. Presented by Guy A. K. Marshall, Esq.

77 birds from South Australia. Presented by H. Munt, Esq.

1650 specimens from the Steere expedition to the Philippines, including 44 types and 15 species new to the Museum, collected by Professor J. B. Steere.

97 mounted Humming Birds. Presented by the Hon. Walter Rothschild.

66 specimens from Zulu Land, collected by Messrs. R. B. and J. D. S. Woodward.

104 birds, chiefly from Celebes, collected by A. H. Everett, Esq.

32 birds from Machakos, British East Africa, collected by Dr. S. J. Hinde.

20 birds from Matabele Land. Presented by F. C. Selous, Esq.

1807 birds from the Palæarctic Region, from the collection of the late Edward Hargitt, Esq., R.I.

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53 birds from Aden and Somali Land. Received in exchange from Capt. Nurse.

41 birds from Luzon, Philippine Islands, including eighteen species new to the Museum, collected by John Whitehead, Esq.

45 birds from Andros Island, Bahamas. Presented by Neville Chamberlain, Esq.

66 specimens of Eider Ducks (Somateria mollissima) and Black Guillemots (Uria grylle) from the neighbourhood of Christiansund, N. Norway: illustrating the various moults and changes of plumage. Collected by Nikolai Hanson.

72 birds from Nyasa Land, including the types of three new species. Presented by Sir Harry H. Johnston, K.C.B., G.C.M.G.

37 birds from Nyasa Land. Presented by Sir Alfred Sharpe, K.C.M.G.

49 specimens from the Marianne Islands, including nine species new to the collection. Received in exchange from the Hon. Walter Rothschild, D.Sc., M.P.

98 birds from Somali Land, and 31 from Persia. Collected and presented by F. Gillett, Esq.

1897.

Specimens presented, 6293; purchased, 6359; received in exchange, 131. Total, 12,783.

The following were of special interest:—

972 birds. Presented by Dr. F. D. Godman, F.R.S., and Osbert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S.

3045 birds from Gilgit in High Kashmir, Kashgar, Yarkand, etc. This collection, formed by Colonel John Biddulph and presented by him to the Museum, contained also a fine series of skins of Finches (Fringillidæ).

28 birds from the Southern Shan States. Presented by Colonel G. Rippon.

81 birds from the Sandwich Islands, collected by R. C. L. Perkins, Esq. Presented by the Joint Committees of the Royal Society and the British Association.

17 specimens from the Cape Verde Islands, including the types of two new species. Presented by Boyd Alexander, Esq.

47 birds from Foochow. Presented by C. B. Rickett, Esq. and J. D. La Touche, Esq.

25 Geese and Ducks from Walcheren, Holland. Presented by T. M. Pike, Esq., and H. L. Popham, Esq.

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34 birds and eggs from Spitzbergen. Presented by A. Trevor-Battye, Esq.

614 specimens from the Philippine Islands, including 67 types and 68 species new to the Museum; collected by John Whitehead, Esq. Presented by the subscribers to the Whitehead expedition.

428 birds from Northern Nyasa Land, collected by Mr. Alexander White. Presented by Sir Alfred Sharpe, K.C.M.G.

61 birds from the islands off Lower California. Presented by A. W. Anthony, Esq.

10 types of new species from Equatorial Africa. Presented by F. J. Jackson, Esq., C.B., C.M.G.

224 specimens from Argentina, collected by A. N. Holland, Esq.

36 birds from Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, collected by Dr. C. W. Andrews. Presented by Sir John Murray, K.C.B.

14 specimens, including seven species new to the collection. Received in exchange from the Hon. Walter Rothschild, Ph.D., M.P.

116 specimens from the islands of Luzon, Philippine Archipelago, collected by John Whitehead, Esq.

157 specimens, mostly Humming Birds, from Ecuador. Presented by L. Söderström, Esq.

111 birds from the neighbourhood of Christiansund, N. Norway, collected by Nikolai Hanson.

26 specimens from S.E. New Guinea, including nine species new to the Museum, collected by Dr. L. Loria.

72 birds from the neighbourhood of Bangkok, collected by Capt. Stanley Flower. Received in exchange from the Royal Siamese Museum.

218 birds from Uruguay, collected by O. V. Aplin, Esq.

136 birds from the islands of Savu and Lombok, collected by A. H. Everett, Esq.

135 birds from Northern Celcbes, collected by Dr. Charles Hose.

72 eggs of Philippine birds, collected by John Whitehead, Esq.

42 specimens from New Zealand and the neighbouring islands. Received in exchange from the Otago Museum.

5479 specimens of Palæarctic birds and the collection of Woodpeckers formed by the late Edward Hargitt, Esq., R.I.

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1898.

Specimens presented, 4130; purchased, 2227; received in exchange, 485. Total, 6842.

Of special interest were the following:—

678 eggs of Chilian birds. Bequeathed by the late H. Berkeley James, Esq.

1344 birds from various parts of the Indian Empire. Presented by Dr. W. T. Blanford, F.R.S.

186 birds from Somali Land and South Arabia, including seven types and nine species new to the Museum. Presented by R. McD. Hawker, Esq.

232 birds from Bering Sea. Presented by Capt. G. E. H. Barrett-Hamilton.

40 specimens of Larks (Alaudidæ) and other rare species from Morocco and Tunis. Presented by J. I. S. Whitaker, Esq.

116 birds from N. W. Foh-Kien, China, including the types of seven new species. Presented by C. B. Rickett, Esq., and J. D. La Touche, Esq.

77 skeletons and birds in spirit. Presented by Dan Meinertz-hagen, Esq.

Types of two new Pigeons from Alligator River, N.W. Australia. Received in exchange from the Christiania Museum.

26 birds from Nyasa Land. Presented by General Manning.

42 birds from Somali Land. Presented by J. Benet Stanford, Esq.

14 birds and eggs from New Zealand. Presented by Capt. R. Snow.

75 birds from Muscat. Presented by Surgeon-Colonel Jayakar.

64 eggs of Gulls and Ducks from the Smölen Islands, N. Norway. Presented by Dr. Bowdler Sharpe.

61 birds from Somali Land and the Lake Rudolf district. Presented by Lord Delamere.

118 birds from British Guiana. Presented by F. M. McConnell, Esq., and J. J. Quelch, Esq.

72 birds from N.W. Borneo, collected by J. B. Bell, Esq.

A nest with eggs of Prince Albert's Rifle-Bird (Craspedophora alberti). Received in exchange from D. Le Souef, Esq.

93 birds from the Louisiade Archipelago, collected by Albert S. Meek, Esq.

66 birds from Mashona Land, collected by J. L. Sowerby, Esq.

[page] 282

21 birds from Mount Albert Edward, British New Guinea, containing several species new to the collection. Purchased.

33 birds from Franz Josef Land, collected during the Jackson-Harmsworth Expedition. Presented by Capt. F. G. Jackson.

74 birds from the Khin-gan Mountains, Mongolia. Presented by Dr. D. Donaldson Smith, J. E. Farnum, Esq., and G. L. Farnum, Esq.

53 birds from Mozambique, including the type of a new species. Presented by H. S. H. Cavendish, Esq.

28 birds from New Guinea, including 5 species new to the collection. Received in exchange from the Hon. Walter Rothschild, Ph.D., M.P.

238 birds from Nyasa Land. Presented by Sir Alfred Sharpe, K.C.M.G.

95 birds from Machakos, British East Africa. Presented by S. L. Hinde, Esq.

18 birds from Central Australia, obtained during the Horn Expedition. Presented by W. A. Horn, Esq.

565 eggs from Argentina, collected by A. H. Holland, Esq.

76 specimens from the Philippine Islands, collected by John Whitehead, Esq.

348 birds and eggs from the Lesser Sunda Islands and North Western Borneo. Collected by A. H. Everett, Esq.

257 birds from Somali Land, including 7 types and 8 species new to the Museum. Collected by E. Lort Phillips, Esq.

443 birds from Canada. Received in exchange from J. H. Fleming, Esq.

65 birds from Christiansund, N. Norway. Collected by Nikolai Hanson.

1899.

Specimens presented, 13,290; purchased, 2018; received in exchange, 121. Total, 15,429.

Of special interest are:—

9802 specimens of Mexican birds. Presented by Dr. F. D. Godman, F.R.S., and Osbert Salvin, Esq., F.R.S.

1192 birds from Southern China. Presented by C. B. Rickett, Esq.

174 birds from Nyasa Land. Presented by General Manning.

40 birds from Ascension Island and Diego Garcia. Presented by Dr. Frank Penrose.

[page] 283

114 birds, 6 nests, and 11 eggs from the Chilian Andes. Presented by E. A. Fitzgerald, Esq.

242 birds from Argentina and Patagonia. Presented by Dr. F. Moreno.

146 birds from Australia and Canada. Presented by Capt. G. E. Shelley.

30 birds from Muscat. Presented by Surgeon-Colonel Jayakar.

9 birds, 29 eggs, and 76 nests from China. Presented by J. D. La Touche, Esq.

16 birds from the Transvaal. Presented by F. C. Selous, Esq.

18 birds from Yarkand. Presented by Capt. P. Deasy.

27 birds and eggs from Nigeria. Presented by Dr. Cuthbert Christy.

209 birds and 12 eggs from the Islands of Sokotra and Abd-el-Kuri, including the types of 8 new species, collected by W. R. Ogilvie-Grant, Esq., and Dr. H. O. Forbes. Presented by the Royal Society.

100 birds from various parts of Italy. Presented by Count E. Arrigoni degli Oddi.

20 birds from Bolivia. Presented by Count H. von Berlepsch.

63 birds and 16 eggs of birds from the Smölen Islands, North Norway. Presented by Dr. R. Bowdler Sharpe.

8 types of new species from Uganda. Presented by F. J. Jackson, Esq., C.B., C.M.G.

664 birds and 53 eggs from the Galapagos Archipelago, collected by the Webster-Harris Expedition.

18 birds from Coruña, Spain. Presented by Dr. Lopez Seoane.

103 birds from Canada. Received in exchange from J. H. Fleming, Esq.

21 birds from the island of Basilan, Philippine Archipelago. Collected by Mr. J. Waterstradt.

177 skins and specimens in spirit from Liberia, collected by A. Demery. Purchased of Mr. G. A. Frank.

55 birds from the Hinterland of the Gold Coast. Presented by the late Colonel H. P. Northcott.

23 birds from Bolivia. Presented by Sir Martin Conway.

41 birds from Mount Moari, New Guinea. Collected by Mr. Dumas.

[page] 284

4 specimens of a new species of Bunting (Zonotrichia macconnelli), from Mount Roraima, British Guinea. Presented by F. V. McConnell, Esq.

77 birds from the Louisiade Archipelago. Collected by Mr. A. S. Meek.

45 birds from Cape York. Collected by Mr. A. S. Meek.

90 birds from Ecuador and Puna Island. Collected by the late Mr. Perry O. Simons.

1900.

Specimens presented, 4629; purchased, 1209; received in exchange, 609. Total, 6447.

The principal accessions were:—

953 birds from the Shan States, including the types of seven new species. Presented by Colonel G. Rippon.

90 birds from Equatorial Africa. Presented by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith.

121 birds from the New Hebrides, including the types of twelve new species. Presented by Captain A. M. Farquhar, R.N.

87 birds from Nyasa Land. Presented by Sir Alfred Sharpe, K.C.B.

1360 birds from Southern China. Presented by C. B. Rickett, Esq.

307 birds collected by the late J. S. Jameson, Esq., in Mashona Land and the Upper Congo. Presented by Mrs. Jameson.

18 birds from Hainan, including three types of species new to the Museum, collected by the late John Whitehead. Presented by J. T. Thomasson, Esq.

222 birds from Nyasa Land. Presented by General Manning.

149 birds from Sarawak, collected by Dr. Charles Hose.

7 types of new species from Equatorial Africa. Presented by F. J. Jackson, Esq., C.B., C.M.G.

95 birds from the Zambesi River. Presented by Boyd Alexander, Esq.

213 birds and 40 nests and eggs from Sarawak. Presented by Dr. Charles Hose.

23 specimens of rare species of Birds of Paradise and other valuable birds from British New Guinea. Presented by Sir R. G. Le Hunte, K.C.M.G.

[page] 285

215 birds and 14 eggs from Australia. Presented by Donald McIntosh, Esq.

82 birds from the Zeraf River. Presented by Surgeon-Captain H. N. Dunn.

35 birds from North Queensland. Presented by Herbert C. Robinson, Esq.

568 eggs of North American birds. Received in exchange from the Princeton University Museum, N.J.

12 birds, including six species new to the Museum, collected by Heinrich Kühn.

190 birds from Yun-nan and South Western China, including the types of three new species. Presented by Captain A. W. S. Wingate.

417 birds from Southern Abyssinia, including the types of sixteen new species and examples of ten other species new to the Museum. Presented by H. Weld-Blundell, Esq., and Lord Lovat.

64 birds from Shen-si, North China. Collected by Father Hugh.

243 birds from South Arabia. Collected during the Percival-Dodson expedition.

22 birds from the Egyptian Sudan. Presented by Captain Stanley S. Flower.

200 birds from Ecuador and Peru. Collected by Perry O. Simons, Esq.

1364 birds from South China. Presented by C. B. Rickett, Esq.

307 birds from Mashoua Land and the Aruwhimi River, Upper Congo, collected by the late J. S. Jameson, Esq. Presented by Mrs. Jameson.

53 birds from Northern New Guinea, collected by J. M. Dumas.

144 birds and eggs from the island of Hainan. Collected by the late John Whitehead.

85 birds from Mount Kenya, collected during the Mackinder expedition to British East Africa, including the types of four new species.

A collection of mummified birds from Egypt. Presented by the Committee of the Egyptian Exploration Fund.

41 birds from British New Guinea, collected by A. S. Meek.

45 birds from Morotai Island, collected by A. H. Everett, Esq.

[page] 286

102 birds from Mashona Land, collected by Mr. Edward Clarke.

32 birds from the French Congo, collected by G. L. Bates, Esq.

33 birds and 37 eggs from the Rio Ruo, Zambesia; collected by A. Blayney Percival, Esq.

45 birds from the island of Obi Major in the Moluccas, collected by Mr. W. Lucas.

11 birds from the island of Buru, collected by A. H. Everett, Esq.

1901.

Specimens presented, 17,595; purchased, 1165; received in exchange, 298. Total, 19,358.

Some of the most important accessions were the following:—

52 birds from Somali Land. Presented by H. H. the Gaekwar of Baroda.

15,150 eggs, bequeathed by the late Philip Crowley, Esq.

150 birds, 660 eggs, and 20 nests of birds, from Fohkien, South China. Presented by C. B. Rickett, Esq.

122 birds and 64 eggs, collected during the Southern Cross expedition to the Antarctic seas by Nikolai Hanson. Presented by Sir George Newnes, Bart.

33 birds from the Persian Gulf. Presented by C. T. Ffinch, Esq.

970 birds from the interior of British East Africa. Presented by Lord Delamere.

100 birds from Equatorial Africa. Presented by Dr. A. Donaldson Smith.

59 birds from the Lawas River, N. W. Borneo, collected by the late J. S. Jameson. Presented by Mrs. Jameson.

100 birds from Somali Land. Presented by Dr. Donaldson Smith.

226 birds, nests, and eggs from Victoria. Presented by the Government of Victoria.

47 birds from Nyasa Land. Presented by General Manning.

41 birds from Somali Land. Presented by Colonel J. J. Harrison.

107 birds from Queensland. Presented by Herbert C. Robinson, Esq.

103 birds from San Paulo, Brazil, collected by Mr. A. Robert. Presented by Sir William Ingram, Bart.

[page] 287

54 birds from the Shan States, Burma. Presented by Colonel G. Rippon.

81 birds from Deelfontein, Cape Colony, collected by E. Seimund. Presented by Colonel A. T. Sloggett, C.M.G.

4 types of new species from Equatorial Africa. Presented by F. J. Jackson, Esq., C.B., C.M.G.

179 birds from British East Africa, including 4 types of new species and 6 other species new to the Museum. Presented by Sir Harry Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B.

67 birds from New Zealand and the adjacent islands, including the type of a new Cormorant. Presented by the Earl of Ranfurly, Governor of New Zealand.

294 birds and 76 eggs from the White Nile. Presented by R. McD. Hawker, Esq.

37 birds from the Egyptian Sudan. Presented by H. F. Witherby, Esq.

52 birds from North China. Presented by C. W. Campbell, Esq.

66 birds from the Egyptian Sudan, including 3 species new to the Museum. Presented by the Hon. N. Charles Rothschild and A. F. R. Wollaston, Esq.

89 birds from the Camaroons, W. Africa, including 6 species new to the Museum and the types of 5 new species. Collected by G. L. Bates, Esq.

48 birds from Batchian Island, Moluccas, collected by Mr. Heinrich Kühn.

211 birds from Ecuador and Peru, collected by Perry O. Simons.

47 birds and 78 nests and eggs from S.E. New Guinea, collected by Mr. Weiske, containing 23 species new to the Museum, with types of 9 new species.

529 specimens of Paridæ, being the collection of Tits formed by Professor M. Menzbier.

41 birds from the Solomon Islands, collected by A. S. Meek.

1902.

Specimens presented, 4812; purchased, 3356; received in exchange, 460. Total, 8628.

The most important accessions were:—

2220 eggs of Palæarctic and Nearctic birds. Presented by W. Radcliffe Saunders, Esq.

[page] 288

17 types of new species from Ruwenzori and Toro. Presented by F. J. Jackson, Esq., C.B., C.M.G.

617 birds from Western Yun-nan. Presented by Colonel G. Rippon.

58 birds from New Zealand and the adjacent islands. Presented by the Earl of Ranfurly.

212 birds from Nyasa Land. Presented by Sir Alfred Sharpe, K.C.B.

485 birds and 138 eggs from Foh-kien, South China. Presented by C. B. Rickett, Esq.

385 birds from Somali Land and Southern Abyssinia, including the types of three new species. Presented by Sir Alfred E. Pease, Bart.

402 birds from the Upper Nile. Presented by R. McD. Hawker, Esq.

68 birds from S.E. New Guinea. Presented by H.E. Capt. F. R. Barton, Governor of British New Guinea.

2300 birds from Peru and Bolivia, collected by the late Mr. Perry O. Simons.

231 birds from the Camaroons, collected by G. L. Bates, Esq.

160 birds from the frontier of Yemen, S. Arabia, collected by G. W. Bury, Esq.

32 birds of prey from Western Australia. Presented by the West Australian Museum, Perth.

407 eggs of North American birds. Received in exchange from the Princeton University Museum, N.J.

31 birds from the Aruwhimi River, Upper Congo, collected by Capt. Guy Burrows.

71 birds from Ecuador and Colombia, collected by Messrs. Miketta and Flemming.

48 birds from the Egyptian Sudan. Presented by R. McD. Hawker, Esq.

48 birds from Mashona Land. Presented by J. Ffolliot Darling, Esq.

16 birds from Bosnia. Presented by Dr. Othmar Reiser.

20 birds from the Liu Kiu Islands. Presented by the Hon. N. Charles Rothschild.

20 birds from Shensi Province, N. China, collected by Father Hugh.

43 birds from Surinam. Presented by F. P. and A. P. Penard, Esqrs.

[page] 289

15 Pheasants from Burma, including the type of Gennæus nisbetti. Presented by Capt. W. G. Nisbett.

59 birds from the Egyptian Sudan. Presented by Surgeon-Capt. H. N. Dunn.

91 birds from Cyprus, collected by Mr. C. Glazner.

60 birds from the Caucasus, collected by Mr. Schultze.

1903.

Specimens presented, 5583; purchased, 3693. Total, 9576.

The most important accessions were as follows:—

973 birds, skeletons, eggs, and nests from Deelfontein, Cape Colony. Presented by Colonel A. P. Sloggett, C.M.G.

260 birds from the islands of the South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, collected by Mr. M. J. Nicoll during the voyage of the R.Y.S. Valhalla. Presented by the Earl of Crawford, K.T., F.R.S.

351 eggs from various localities. Presented by W. Radcliffe Saunders, Esq.

75 birds, 16 eggs, and 3 nests from the Sudan. Presented by Surgeon-Capt. H. N. Dunn.

351 eggs from North Queensland. Presented by W. Radcliffe Saunders, Esq.

457 birds from Namaqua Land, collected by Mr. H. C. B. Grant. Presented by C. D. Rudd, Esq.

64 birds and eggs from Uganda. Presented by Dr. Cuthbert Christy.

260 birds and nests from British East Africa. Presented by A. Blayney Perceval, Esq.

31 birds from the Sudan. Presented by R. McD. Hawker, Esq.

582 birds from Western Yunnan. Presented by Colonel George Rippon.

72 birds from Sierra Leone. Presented by Robin Kemp, Esq.

34 birds from Central Asia. Presented by Capt. H. H. P. Deasy.

22 birds from Fernando Po, including 15 species new to the collection. Presented by Lieut. Boyd Alexander.

286 birds from North Nyasa Land. Presented by Sir Alfred Sharpe, C.B., K.C.M.G.

61 birds, 40 eggs, and 5 nests from Southern Persia. Presented by H. F. Witherby, Esq.

VOL. II. U

[page] 290

96 birds from New Zealand and the adjacent islands. Presented by the Earl of Ranfurly.

989 birds from Foh-Kien, South China. Presented by C. B. Rickett, Esq.

114 birds from Buenos Aires. Presented by Ernest Gibson, Esq.

46 eggs and 2 nests from the Azores, collected by W. R. Ogilvie-Grant, Esq. Presented by the Hon. Walter Rothschild, Ph.D., M.P.

80 birds from British New Guinea. Presented by H.E. Capt. F. R. Barton, Governor of British New Guinea.

116 birds from Upper Burma. Presented by Capt. A. Mears.

443 birds and 192 skeletons from Matogrosso, collected by Mr. A. Robert. Presented by Mrs. Percy Sladen.

245 birds from South Arabia, collected by Mr. G. W. Bury.

466 birds from Abyssinia, collected by Mr. E. Degen.

420 birds from Patagonia, collected by Mr. J. Koslowsky.

275 birds from Pernambuco, etc., collected by Mr. A. Robert.

254 birds from Paraguay, collected by Mr. W. T. Foster.

25 birds from the Persian Gulf. Presented by W. D. Cumming, Esq.

56 from Batchian and the Obi Islands, Moluccas, collected by Mr. J. Waterstradt.

29 birds from Cyprus, collected by Mr. A. Glazner.

102 birds from Cyprus, collected by Miss Dorothea M. A. Bate.

302 birds from the Camaroons, West Africa, collected by G. L. Bates, Esq.

130 eggs of birds from North Cachar, collected by E. C. Stuart Baker, Esq., and Dr. Coltart.

420 birds and eggs from the Southern Shan States, collected by H. N. Thompson, and W. H. Craddock, Esqrs.

1904.

Specimens presented, 14,880; purchased, 3005; received in exchange, 18. Total, 17,903.

The following are of especial interest and value:—

9948 eggs and 165 nests of Palæarctic birds. Presented by W. Radcliffe Saunders, Esq.

34 birds and 51 eggs from Darjiling. Presented by B. B. Osmaston, Esq.

[page] 291

333 birds from the Chindwin River in Upper Burma. Presented by Captain A. Mears.

498 birds from the interior of the Malay Peninsula, collected by Mr. H. C. Robinson. Presented by the Royal Society and the Universities of Edinburgh and Liverpool.

154 eggs from the province of Foh-kien in Southern China. Presented by C. B. Rickett, Esq.

59 birds from Victoria. Presented by the Government of Victoria.

45 birds from Entebbe, Uganda. Presented by J. F. Cunninghame, Esq.

60 birds from the Atlas Mountains in Morocco, with types of three new species. Presented by E. G. B. Meade-Waldo, Esq.

43 birds from the Egyptian Sudan. Presented by the Hon. N. Charles Rothschild.

316 birds from the Azores, collected by W. R. Ogilvie-Grant, Esq. Presented by the Hon. Walter Rothschild, Ph.D., M.P.

402 birds and skeletons, nests and eggs, from Fernando Po, collected by Mr. E. Seimund. Presented by Mrs. Percy Sladen, H.G. the Duke of Bedford, K.G., and the Hon. Walter Rothschild, Ph.D., M.P.

65 birds from the Vaal River, collected by R. B. Woosnam, Esq.

630 birds from the Baro River, collected by Mr. P. Zaphiro. Presented by W. N. Macmillan, Esq.

442 skins and skeletons of birds from Uganda, collected during the Anglo-German Boundary Commission. Presented by Colonel C. Delmé-Radcliffe.

11 types of species from British East Africa and the Ruwenzori Mountains. Presented by F. J. Jackson, Esq., C.B., C.M.G.

41 birds from British East Africa. Presented by Surgeon-Capt. R. E. Drake-Brockman.

592 birds from British East Africa and Uganda, collected by F. J. Jackson, Esq., C.B., C.M.G.

102 birds from British East Africa and from Florida. Presented by C. B. Storey, Esq.

483 birds from the West Indies and Venezuela, collected by Dr. R. Bowdler Sharpe. Presented by Sir Frederic Johnstone, Bart., and Laura, Countess of Wilton.

87 eggs from Scotland, St. Kilda, etc. Presented by J. Steel Elliot, Esq.

427 birds and eggs from Bechuana Land and the Orange

U 2

[page] 292

River Colony, collected by R. B. Woosnam, Esq., and R. E. Dent, Esq.

44 birds from China. Presented by Charles Nix, Esq.

11 birds from New Zealand, the Kermadecs and other islands in the New Zealand Seas. Presented by the Earl of Ranfurly.

472 birds from the Azores, West Indian Islands and Florida, collected by Mr. M. J. Nicoll during the voyage of the R.Y.S. Valhalla. Presented by the Earl of Crawford, K.T., F.R.S.

28 birds from Alaska. Presented by Capt. C. E. Radeliffe.

122 eggs of Costa-Rican birds, collected by Mr. C. F. Underwood.

745 nests and eggs from Paraguay, collected by Mr. W. Foster.

472 birds from Sierra Leone, collected by Robin Kemp, Esq.

83 birds from Batchian and the S. W. Islands in the Moluccas, collected by Mr. Heinrich Kühn.

116 birds from S. New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, collected by Mr. A. S. Meek.

61 birds from the islands of Mindanao and Waigiou, collected by Mr. John Waterstradt.

627 birds from the Camaroons, collected by G. L. Bates, Esq.

1905.

322 birds from Japan, collected by Mr. M. P. Anderson. Presented by H.G. the Duke of Bedford, K.G.

4 types of species from Equatorial Africa, viz. Apalis ruwenzori, Sylviella toruensis, Megabias æquatorialis, Batis diops. Presented by F. J. Jackson, Esq., C.B., C.M.G.

46 birds from the West Indies. Presented by D. A. Bannerman, Esq.

162 birds from Nyasa Land. Presented by Sir Alfred Sharpe, K.C.B.

265 birds from the Camaroons, W. Africa, collected by G. L. Bates, Esq. Purchased.

Includes the types of Smithornis camerunensis, Chloropeta batesi.

52 birds from N. W. Australia. Presented by Dr. Bernard Woodward, Director of the West Australian Museum, Perth, W. A. Several species new to the collection.

18 Pheasants from Upper Burma. Received in exchange from the Bombay Natural History Society.

[page] 293

49 birds from Colorado. Received in exchange from W. Cross, Esq.

43 birds from the Azores. Presented by Major Chaves, Director of the Ponta Delgada Museum, Azores.

745 birds from Argentina, Matto Grosso, Bolivia, etc. From Dr. P. L. Sclater's collection.

498 birds from the Mountains of the Malay Peninsula, collected by Mr. H. C. Robinson and Mr. Annandale. Presented by the Royal Society and the Universities of Edinburgh and Liverpool.

41 birds from the Kermadec Islands, the Snares and Macquarie Islands. Presented by the Earl of Ranfurly.

45 birds from Equatorial Africa. Presented by J. J. Harrison, Esq.

30 birds from Chile. Purchased of D. S. Bullock, Esq.

98 eggs of Australian birds. Presented by A. J. North, Esq.

22 birds from Egypt. Presented by L. Loat, Esq.

60 British birds. Presented by W. B. Ogilvie-Grant, Esq.

1297 birds from Egypt and other countries bordering the Mediterranean, as well as Central America and the West Indies. Bequeathed by the late Edward Cavendish-Taylor.

61 birds from the Camaroons. Collected by G. L. Bates, Esq.

22 birds and 1 nest from California, collected by J. W. Maillard. Presented by Miss Nixon.

14 birds from the Transvaal. Presented by Sir A. E. Pease, Bart.

277 birds from the Kauri Kachin district, Upper Burma. Presented by Colonel G. Rippon.

72 birds from Karakol, Tian Shan Mts., collected by A. A. Kutzenko. Presented by A. B. Bayley Worthington, Esq.

47 nests and eggs of Costa Rican birds, collected by Mr. C. J. Underwood.

1162 birds from Mt. Victoria, Chin Hills, Burma, including 11 types of the new species. Presented by Col. Rippon.

427 eggs of birds from Equatorial Africa. Purchased.

208 birds from the Chindwin Valley, Upper Burma. Presented by Capt. A. Mears.

88 birds from the Syrian Desert, containing the type of Emberiza citriniventris. Collected by Douglas Carruthers, Esq.

906 birds and 745 eggs from Paraguay, collected by William Foster, Esq.

63 birds from Jamaica. Presented by D. A. Bannerman, Esq.

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954 mounted birds. Presented by Lord Tweedmouth.

232 birds from Benguela, collected by Dr. W. J. Ansorge.

236 birds from Mindanao, collected by Walter Goodfellow.

450 birds from Somali Land, collected by G. W. Bury.

3 nestling Geese and a nestling Swan. Presented by F. E. Blaauw, Esq.

450 birds from the Canary Islands and other localities. Presented by E. G. B. Meade-Waldo, Esq.

1000 birds from Southern China. Presented by C. B. Rickett, Esq.

430 birds from the Baro and Sobat Rivers and the White Nile, collected by Mr. Zaphiro. Presented by W. N. Macmillan, Esq.

200 birds from the Upper Chindwin River, Burma. Presented by Capt. A. Mears.

374 birds from S. W. Australia, collected by G. C. Shortridge. Presented by W. E. Balston, Esq.

396 birds and eggs from Persia, collected by R. B. Woosnam. Presented by Colonel R. C. Bailward.

328 birds from Sikhim and Tibet. Presented by Capt. H. J. Walton. [1905. 12. 31, 1–328.]

248 birds and eggs from the Antarctic, Auckland Islands, Macquarie Island and S. Trinidad Island. Collected by the ship Discovery during the National Antarctic Expedition.

32 birds, collected by the relief ship Morning during the National Antarctic Expedition.

1952 birds from Cape Colony, Zulu Land and E. Transvaal, collected by H. C. B. Grant. Presented by C. D. Rudd, Esq.

[page] 295

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL DONORS, COLLECTORS AND AGENTS, FROM WHOM THE SPECIMENS OF BIRDS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM HAVE BEEN RECEIVED.

Edward VII. (His Majesty, King).

A specimen of Reeve's Pheasant from Norfolk. Presented. [90. 3. 16, 1.]

Two specimens of the Little Auk (Alle alle) picked up dead at Sandringham. Presented. [95. 6. 12, 1, 2.]

Abadie (Capt. G. FANSHAWE), C.M.G.

31 birds from Upper Nigeria. Presented. [1900. 8. 4, 1–31.]

Capt. Abadie was a son of General Abadie, himself a keen student of Natural History. His official duties prevented Capt. Abadie from making large collections, but this small series from the Nigerian Sudan was of distinct interest, especially the eggs of the Ostrich (Struthio camelus). His early death in Upper Nigeria in 1901 can never be too much regretted.

Abrahams (J.).

2 Weaver-finches (Munia ferruginea, var.), cage birds. Presented. [1904. 5. 9, 1–2.]

Adams (Dr. A. LEITH).

33 birds from "N.E. Africa" (i.e. Egypt and Nubia). [64. 3. 30, 1–33.]

An active collector in the middle of the nineteenth century, and a great friend of the late Sir William Jardine, to whom his early collections were sent. He was a good observer, as is shown by his papers on the birds of Kashmir and Ladak (P.Z.S., 1859, pp. 169–190, with a coloured plate of Montifringilla adamsi), and especially by his short essay on the birds noticed by him in Egypt and Nubia ("Ibis," 1864, pp. 233–243).

Adeane (HARRY R. A.).

A specimen of Coccyzus americanus, shot on Colonsay Island, Argyllshire. Presented. [1904. 11. 28, 1.]

Admiralty, The Lords of the.

By the Admiralty have been presented the collections made by various exploring expeditions fitted out by Great Britain. In recent years the co-operation of the Royal Society has been sought, and many collections have been presented through the latter medium. The results of the earlier Antarctic Expeditions seem to have reached the Museum through the Admiralty, and the various collections are noticed under their special headings.

[See Antarctic Expedition; Voyages of H.M.SS. Alert and Discovery, Challenger, Erebus and Terror, Flying Fish, Herald, Penguin, Plumper, and Rattlesnake.]

Afghan Delimitation Commission.

See AITCHISON.

[page] 296

Aitchison (Dr. J. E. T.).

230 birds. Presented. [86. 9. 16, 1–230.]

This collection, formed in 1884–85 by Dr. Aitchison, the naturalist appointed to the Delimitation Commission, was fully described by me in 1889 (Trans. Linn. Soc., new series, Zoology, vol. v., part 3, pp. 66–93, pls. vi., vii.), with notes on the habits and distribution of the birds by Dr. Aitchison. Two new species, Gecinus gorei, Hargitt, and Passer yatei, Sharpe, were described and figured, as was also a beautiful new Pheasant (Phasianus principalis, Sclater).

Alert, H.M.S.

One of the exploring ships on Sir George Nares' arctic voyage (1875–1876).

See FEILDEN, H. W.

Alexander (Lieut. BOYD), Rifle Brigade.

17 specimens from the Cape Verde Islands. [97. 7. 30, 1–17.]

95 specimens from Zambesia. [1900. 5. 26, 1–95.]

22 specimens from Fernando Po. [1903. 2. 14, 1–22.]

One of the most energetic and capable traveller-naturalists of the present day. His first expedition was to the Cape Verde Archipelago, where he discovered some new species (see "Ibis," 1898, pp. 74–114, 277–85). He presented seventeen specimens to the Museum, adding to our collection two species, Spizocorys razæ and Puffinus edwardsi. [97. 7. 30. 1–17.] He next made a large collection of birds on the Zambesi; this was described by him in the "Ibis" for 1900 (pp. 71–109, 424–458, pl. i.). On this occasion he presented 95 specimens to the Museum. Passing through the Ashanti campaign, he did not neglect his scientific pursuits when the fighting was over, and he made considerable collections of birds in the forests and in the hinterland of the Gold Coast. 1100 skins of birds were obtained on this trip, and the collection was described by him in the "Ibis" for 1902 (pp. 278–333, 335–377, pls. vii.–ix.); and he has presented to the Museum 95 specimens from this expedition. Obtaining leave from the War Office, he next visited the Island of Fernando Po, and having organised a supply of native carriers from the Gold Coast, he cut his way through the virgin forests of the island, and attained an altitude of 10,800 feet. The result of this plucky achievement was the discovery of no less than 39 species of birds. Lieut. Alexander has presented to the Museum 22 specimens from his last expedition, adding thereby 17 species which were not before represented in the National Collection.

Alexander (Sir J. E.).

22 birds from Damara Land. Presented. [38. 4. 16, 1, 89–110.]

Captain (afterwards Sir) James Edward Alexander was one of the early pioneers of travel in Damara Land, and his journey is described in his little work, "An Expedition of Discovery into the interior of Africa" (2 vols. Svo., 1838). For this expedition he was knighted (Dict. Nat. Biogr. Suppl. vol. i. p. 31). The new species of birds were named by Mr. G. R. Waterhouse, and consisted of a new Rock Thrush (Petrocinela brevipes), a new Francolin (Francolinus adspersus), and a new form of Flycatcher (Lanioturdus torquatus). The register is marked by Dr. J. E. Gray as "Purchased at Stevens's Sale Rooms chiefly from Captain Alexander's collection." The above-mentioned types do not seem to have been acquired, and doubtless went into the Zoological Society's Museum.

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Anderson (A.).

Made valuable collections of birds in the N.W. Provinces of India. After his death, the collections were purchased by Mr. Henry Seebohm, who exchanged away a good many specimens, but a fair number were contained in the Seebohm Bequest.

Anderson (Dr. JOHN).

200 birds collected during the Expedition through Burma towards Yun-nau in 1867, 1875–6. [1876. 4. 7, 1–200.]

These collections were described by Dr. Anderson in his large work (2 vols. 4to) entitled "Anatomical and Zoological Researches, comprising an Account of the Zoological Results of the two Expeditions to Western Yun-nan in 1868 and 1875." The first set of specimens went to the Calcutta Museum, of which he was then Director, and the second set of 200 birds passed into the hands of the British Museum, which had up to that time no extensive series from Burma: 13 species were new to the collection, and there were three co-types of new species described by Dr. Anderson.

Andersson (C. J.). [1827–1867.]

See BARTLETT, A. D.; SHARPE, R. BOWDLER; STEVENS, S.

Swedish naturalist, born in Wermeland in 1827. Joined Galton's expedition to Damara Land in 1850. His collections were sent to Mr. A. D. Bartlett, afterwards Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, but at that time a dealer in natural history objects. Many of the birds obtained on this first expedition were dispersed before any catalogue of them was made, and a portion of this collection was purchased by Mr. G. A. Frank, the well-known dealer of Amsterdam; but about 100 specimens passed into the hands of Mr. H. E. Strickland, and are now in the Cambridge Museum.

Dr. P. L. Sclater, who commenced his zoological career under the ægis of Strickland, joined the latter in a description of this remnant of Andersson's first consignment. A memoir, which was entitled a "List of a Collection of Birds procured by C. J. Andersson in the Damara country, with notes," was published in Jardine's "Contributions to Ornithology" for 1852, and the following new species were described:—Caprimulgus damarensis (= C. rufigena, Smith), cf. Hartert, Cat. xvii. p. 532; Platystira albicauda (= Lanioturdus torquatus), cf. Sharpe, Cat. iv. p. 237; Enneoctonus anderssoni (= L. collusio) Grant, Nov. Zool. ix., p. 484; Erythropygia galtoni (= Saxicola familiaris, Steph.), cf. Sharpe, Handl. iv. p. 175; Drymœca flavida (= Euprinodes flavidus) cf. Sharpe, Handl. iv. p. 224; Sphenæacus pycnopygius (= Chætops pycnopygius), cf. Sharpe, Handl. iv. p. 5; Spreo bispecularis (= Lamprocolius bispecularis), cf. Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 181; Alauda erythrochlamys (= Ammomanes erythrochlamys), cf. Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 648; Alauda spleniata (= Tephrocorys spleniata), cf. Sharpe, Cat. xiii. p. 563; Alauda nævia (= Mirafra nævia), cf. Sharpe, t.c. p. 617; Nectarinia anderssoni (= Cinnyris leucogaster), cf. Shelley, Monogr. Nect. p. 39; Halcyon damarensis (= H. chelicuti, Stanl.), cf. Sharpe, Cat. xvii. p. 239; Campothera capricorni; Charadrius damarensis (= Octhodromus asiaticus), cf. Sharpe, Cat. xxiv. p. 230; Charadrius pallidus (= Ægialitis pallida), cf. Sharpe, t.c. p. 284; Sternula balænarum (= Sterna balænarum), cf. Saunders, Cat. xxv. p. 111.

Andersson made several expeditions to Damara Land, discovered the Okavango River, and penetrated to Lake N'gami and the Cunene

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River, making large collections of birds. He also obtained a considerable number of specimens during his visits to Cape Town and in the Knysna district. These collections were sent to Mr. Stevens, the celebrated London agent, and after his retirement to Mr. Higgins in Bloomsbury Street. The late Mr. John Henry Gurney, who was a close friend of Andersson's for many years, editing and publishing the posthumous "Birds of Damara Land" from the MSS. left by the traveller, secured the majority of the Birds of Prey from the latter's collections for the Norwich Museum. The Wading-birds were in the same manner purchased by Mr. J. Edmund Harting, who was working out the Limicolæ, and possessed a fine collection of these birds, which was afterwards acquired by the late Mr. Henry Seebohm. Andersson's specimens of Limicolæ have, therefore, passed by the bequest of that gentleman into the British Museum.

A few specimens were purchased from Andersson's agents for the Museum, and by myself before I entered the service of the Trustees. The latter are duly recorded in the "Catalogue" of African Passeres in my collection (1871), and are now in the Museum. Before Mr. Higgins retired from business, to settle in Tasmania, he came across a considerable collection of birds, from Andersson's later travels, stowed away in a box. These I purchased and presented to the Museum, which now possesses a fairly complete series representing Andersson's indefatigable labours. In his later years he became a trader, and settled at Otjimbinque, being ultimately wounded in a fight between the Namaquas and Damaras, having espoused the cause of the latter, with whom he lived. His knee was shattered by a bullet, and he was crippled ever afterwards, finally succumbing from the effects of this wound and the terrible privations he had undergone during his expeditions through the deserts of South West Africa. I have named some species of birds after him, since his death, but he is best known to ornithologists by the wonderful Bird of Prey called Andersson's Pern, Machærhamphus anderssoni (Gurney), a night-flying bat-eating Hawk, the representative in Africa of a genus before supposed to be confined to the Indian region and the Papuan sub-region.

Andrews (C. W.), D.Sc., Assistant in the Department of Geology, British Museum.

Dr. Andrews was sent by Sir John Murray, with the permission of the Trustees, to study the natural history of Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean. The results of his stay there and a full account of the collections made by him have been published by the Trustees in the "Monograph of Christmas Island."

[See MURRAY, Sir JOHN.] [1898. 9. 16, 1–88; 1898. 9. 27, 1–18; 1899. 5. 1, 6–11.]

During his geological explorations in Egypt Dr. Andrews has found time to collect a few birds, sending 20 specimens from Helouan in 1902. [1902. 10. 9, 1–20.]

Andrews (H. D.).

26 birds from Argentina. Presented. [1901. 2. 10, 1–26].

Annandale (NELSON) and Robinson (H. C.).

See ROBINSON, p. 154.

Ansell (H. F.).

106 birds from Gaboon. [73. 9. 10, 1–8; 73. 12. 26, 1–11; 74. 2. 16, 1–28; 74. 2. 17, 1–11; 74. 2. 20, 1–24; 74. 9. 11, 1–13; 74. 10. 1, 2–12.]

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Mr. Ansell was a personal friend of my own, whom I requested to send any specimens of birds he might be able to procure. He was a merchant on the River Danger or Ogowé, in Gaboon, and was first introduced to me by Mr. J. J. Monteiro. In the years 1873–1874 the Museum received seven small consignments from him, comprising 106 specimens. He managed to obtain several rare species, one being a remarkable Larkheeled Cuckoo (Centropus anselli, Sharpe), and an interesting Bush-Shrike (Dryoscopus lühderi, Reichenow), which had been procured about the same time by Dr. Lühder in the Camaroons, and described by Dr. Reichenow a few weeks before my description of Dryoscopus ruficeps, of which the type was sent by Mr. Ansell, appeared.

Ansorge (Dr. W. J.).

26 specimens from Uganda. Purchased. [96. 7. 14, 1–26.]

232 specimens from Benguela. Purchased. [1905. 11. 22, 1–232.]

Dr. Ansorge is an excellent naturalist, and his collections from Equatorial Africa and Angola are in the Hon. Walter Rothschild's Museum at Tring. He has sent some large collections from Benguela to the British Museum. (See his book "Under the African Sun," 1899.)

Anstey (Lieut.).

33 birds from Kingwilliamstown, S. E. Africa. Presented. [77. 8. 1, 1–33.]

This was the only collection received from this gallant young officer, who was associated with Major Trevelyan in his efforts to procure specimens of natural history for the British Museum. A year after the receipt of the above collection, Lieut. Anstey was killed at the battle of Isandhlwana.

Antarctic Expedition.

See ADMIRALTY (LORDS OF THE); ROYAL SOCIETY.

The first collections were received through the Council of the Royal Society.

78 specimens from Kerguelen Land. Presented by the Lords of the Admiralty. [41. 4, 743–791.]

119 specimens from the Antarctic Ocean, New Zealand, Auckland Islands, Tasmania, Campbell Island, St. Paul's Rocks, etc. [42. 12. 16, 1–119.] Presented by the Lords of the Admiralty. Several "duplicates" were "returned," presumably to Dr. McCormick.

224 specimens from the Falkland Islands, Antarctic pack-ice, New Zealand, etc. Presented by the Lords of the Admiralty. [44. 1. 18, 1–218; 44. 3. 20, 1–6.]

No detailed memoir of the birds procured during the Antarctic expedition of the Erebus and Terror was published at the time of its return, but many species were mentioned in the early Museum Catalogues. Sir Joseph Hooker was naturalist to the expedition, and the doctors on board the two ships were also good collectors and observers, viz., Dr. McCormick, Dr. Robertson, and Dr. Lyall. Dr. McCormick's excellent notes appeared in Gould's "Birds of Australia" and "Handbook"; and shortly before his death, which only took place a few years ago, the old veteran, who had accompanied Ross on both his Polar voyages, wrote his memoirs.*

The "Zoology of the Voyage of the Erebus and Terror" gives an account of the birds of New Zealand. It was published in 1844 and

* "Voyages of Discovery in the Arctic and Antarctic Seas." 2 vols. Svo. 1884.

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1845. Thirty-five coloured plates accompanied the memoir, but some of them are not referred to in the letterpress. These plates seem to me to have been drawn by D. W. Mitchell, who was about that date engaged with G. R. Gray in illustrating the "Genera of Birds." Some few are by Wolf. When the "Appendix" was published in 1875 I re-wrote the list of the "Birds of New Zealand" and brought the subject up to date, and was also able to issue some fine plates of Antarctic species. These Dr. J. E. Gray had apparently intended to publish, and they had remained in his room for many years, until Mr. E. W. Janson bought the stock and published the "Appendix."

Antarctic Expedition, British.

See NEWNES, SIR GEORGE.

Antarctic Expedition Committee of the Royal Geographical Society and the Royal Society.

27 birds and eggs from S. Trinidad Island, including the type of Æstralata wilsoni, collected by Dr. E. A. Wilson, of the Discovery. [1905. 12. 30, 130–156.]

78 birds from Macquarie Island, Auckland Islands and Antarctic Ocean. [1905. 12. 30, 157–234.]

124 birds and eggs, including those of the Emperor Penguin, from Victoria Land and other parts of the Antarctic continent, collected by Dr. E. A. Wilson. [1905. 12. 30, 235–358, 393–412.]

33 birds from the Antarctic Seas and Victoria Land, collected by Dr. G. A. Davidson on the relief ship Morning.

Anthony (A. W.).

61 specimens of birds and eggs, mostly from the Revillagigedo Islands. Presented. [97. 11. 10, 1–61.]

This young American naturalist has done very important work among the birds of the Pacific coast of North America, and especially in California and the islands which lie to the south of this portion of the continent.

Aplin (OLIVER V.).

218 birds and eggs from Uruguay. Purchased. [97. 12. 2, 1–218.]

This collection is described by Mr. Aplin in his paper on the "Birds of Uruguay" in the "Ibis" for 1894 (pp. 149–215, pl. v., eggs), and from the excellence of the author's field-notes on the species observed by him, the collection was of considerable value.

Argent.

38 specimens from North America. Purchased. [43. 7. 20, 1–38.]
16 „ „ Italy [43. 12. 1, 1–16.]
24 „ „ Mexico [43. 12. 19, 1–29.]
Type of Chrysotis finschi (Scl.).
36 „ „ Mexico [44. 4. 1, 12–47.]
2 „ „ Shetland Isles [44. 4. 10, 1–2.]
14 „ „ Cape Colony [44. 10. 19, 60–73.]
15 „ „ Bogotá [45. 2. 19, 1–15.]
11 „ „ Africa [45. 3. 27, 1–11.]
19 „ „ Natal [45. 6. 24, 1–19.]
20 „ „ Australia [45. 11. 17, 2–21.]
30 „ „ Brazil [45. 11. 19, 1–30.]
7 „ „ Mexico [46. 1. 16, 1–7.]

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3 specimens from Europe Purchased. [46. 5. 29, 1–3.]
8 „ „ Australia [46. 6. 5, 1–8.]
20 „ „ Mexico [47. 2. 26, 1–20.]
14 „ „ Mexico [47. 3. 10, 1–14.]
22 „ „ India [48. 3. 3, 1–22.]
24 „ „ N. W. America [45. 6. 3, 1–24.]
24 „ „ India [49. 1. 15, 1–24.]
53 „ „ West Africa [50. 11. 18, 1–53.]
11 „ „ Trinidad [52. 2. 3, 1–11.]
The type of Globicera rubricera (Gray). [52. 5. 14, 1.]
14 specimens from Europe Purchased. [52. 11. 27, 1–14.]
12 „ „ South America [54. 2. 2, 1–12.]
57 „ „ Bogota [54. 4. 6, 1–57.]
504

Most of these specimens, from the vagueness of their locality, have been passed into the duplicates and given away to other museums, only those of historical interest being retained.

Argent was a dealer in natural history objects, but was unknown to me personally. His place of business was in Bishopsgate Street, so Mr. Gerrard, sen., tells me, and he was a great collector of tortoises and reptiles, many of which were bought by Dr. J. E. Gray.

The registers enumerate 500 specimens of birds as purchased from Argent, but the localities were not very precise, though they were considered good enough for the days in which he flourished. Thus we read of "North America" in the first purchase made in July 1843, and he continued to supply specimens until April 1854, when the registers know his name for the last time. In 1845 the first examples (15) from Bogotà are recorded, and in 1854 the Museum bought 57 specimens from the same place. These were the commencement of that endless stream of Bogotà birds, now to be reckoned by millions, which have steadily come to Europe as articles of trade down to the present day. These skins are prepared by Indians in a somewhat rough manner, and are easily recognised by their "make." The locality is worthless, as the hunters in the present day have to go some considerable distance into the different valleys to obtain a supply of skins for millinery purposes, so that Bogotá is synonymous for a very large area.

The first paper on the birds of Bogotà was published by Dr. Sclaterlin the "Proceedings" of the Zoological Society for 1855, and the collections in the Museum formed the foundation of the paper which he wrote at this time (p. 132).

Argyll (H.G. the late Duke of), K.G.

7 specimens from Sicily. Presented. [97. 10. 30, 1–7.]

This is apparently the only donation which the late Duke of Argyll made to the collection of Birds; but he was an accomplished ornithologist, and, like the present Duke, an occasional visitor to the Bird room.

Argyll (H.G. the Duke of), K.T.

3 Gannets from Argyllshire. [98. 4. 12, 1–3.]

Armitage (Miss).

24 birds from British Guiana. Presented. [1904. 9. 9, 1–24.]

Arnot (Capt. G. H.).

28 specimens from Demerara. Presented. [1900. 8. 31, 1–28.]

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Arrigoni degli Oddi (Count E.).

100 specimens of Italian Birds. Presented. [99. 8. 12, 1–100.]

Count Arrigoni degli Oddi is one of the most serious students of Palæarctic ornithology of the present day, and his great work, "Atlante Ornitologico; Uccelli Europei con notizie d'Indole generale et particolare," published in 1902 (pp. 166, xxvi., 568, tav. I.–L.), is a monumental volume which deals with the ornithology of the Western Palæarctic Region in a wonderfully complete manner, at once scientific and popular.

Ashmore (G. P.).

21 birds from High Peru. Presented. [99. 10. 3, 1–21.]

Aubinn (ST. THOMAS DAVID).

A native collector on the Gold Coast, who obtained many rare species for Governor Ussher, and also sent collections to the Museum.

Austen (E. E.).

See CAMBRIDGE (F. O. PICKARD).

20 birds from the River Amazon. [96. 5. 12, 1–20.]

Mr. Austen, who is in charge of the section of "Diptera" in the Zoological Department, has made expeditions to the River Amazon and to Sierra Leone, by the permission of the Trustees. On the former occasion he and his companion Mr. Pickard Cambridge obtained a small series of birds.

Australian Museum (Sydney, N.S.W., Professor ROBERT ETHERIDGE, Director).

30 birds from various parts of Australia. Presented. [77. 11. 15, 1–30.]

107 birds from Australia. In exchange. [83. 12. 18, 1–107.]

This last collection formed part of the mounted series in the Australian Court at the International Fisheries Exhibition.

38 birds from N.E. Queensland. Presented. [90. 9. 19, 1–38.]

Several species were new to the Museum, Collyriocincla boweri, Eopsaltria chrysorthoa, Heteromyias cinereifrons, etc.

Ayres (THOMAS).

33 birds from Natal. [59. 5. 16, 1–33.]

Many birds from Mr. Ayres' first collection came to the British Museum; the eggs, obtained at the same time, passed into the hands of Messrs. Salvin and Godman, and are also in the Museum.

The Accipitres obtained by Mr. Ayres were retained by Mr. John Henry Gurney, who was then forming the famous series for which the Norwich Museum is so celebrated. Mr. Gurney presented many specimens to the Museum at King's Lynn, for which town he was then M.P., and described the whole collection in the "Ibis" for 1859, together with notes made on the birds sent to Europe by Dr. Gueinzius. Many of these latter had been purchased by the Museum through Mr. Samuel Stevens. Between 1859 and 1873 Mr. Gurney published no less than eleven lists of the birds sent by Mr. Ayres* from Natal. When the latter moved into the Transvaal, he settled at Potchefstroom and continued his collecting, the papers being written by himself, with

* Cf. Ayres, Ibis, 1869, pp. 286–303; 1871, pp. 147–157, 253–270, pl. 9; 1873, pp. 280–287; 1874, pp. 101–107, pl. 3; 1876, pp. 422–433; 1877, pp. 339–354; 1878, pp. 281–301, 406–411; 1879, pp. 285–300, 389–405; 1880, pp. 99–112, 257–273.

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critical notes by Mr. Gurney. Thirteen in all were published by Mr. Ayres, who in 1881 accompanied the late Mr. J. S. Jameson on his expedition to Mashonaland, and wrote the field-notes on the birds obtained in this country, at that time an untrodden ground for the naturalist. Mr. Ayres' notes on the habits of South African birds are some of the most interesting contributions ever made by an ornithologist, and as an estimate of his integrity as a man, it is only necessary to state that he was allowed to remain in peace at Potchefstroom through both the Boer wars. Cf. Gurney, "Ibis," 1859, pp. 234–252, pl. 7; 1860, pp. 203–221; 1861, pp. 128–136; 1862, pp. 25–39, pl. 3, 149–158, pls. 4–5; 1863, pp. 320–330, pls. 8, 9; 1864, pp. 346–361; 1865, pp. 263–276; 1868, pp. 40–52, pl. 2, 460–471, pl. 10; 1873, pp. 254–259.

Many of Mr. Ayres' specimens have reached the Museum through the acquisition of Capt. Shelley's and my own collections of African birds, and they are remarkable for their fine preservation. After the death of Mr. Gurney, his son John Henry Gurney divided the remaining series bequeathed to him by his father between the British Museum and his old friend, Canon Tristram.

See GURNEY, J. H.; JAMESON, J. S.

Ayres (T. L.).

Son of the foregoing, and an excellent collector. Many of his specimens were in the Shelley and Seebohm Collections, and for some time he occupied himself in procuring a series of birds, in moult, for my especial study; these I gave to the Museum.

Ayscough (Capt. R. F.), H.M.S. Ring-dove.

4 specimens from Campbell Island, etc., including the type of Ocydromus scotti, Grant, Bull. B.O.C., XV., p. 78 (1905).

Baber (Rev. H. H.).

144 specimens from Madras. Presented. [43. 10. 25, 1–144.]

I have never been able to discover whether Mr. Baber was a missionary or an army chaplain. His skins were of the usual Madras or "Coorg" make, with a paper band round their bodies. The collection must have been of great service to the Museum in 1843, as at that time we possessed scarcely any specimens of Indian birds.

Baikie (Dr.).

23 specimens from Nigeria. Presented. [62. 6. 30, 12–34.]

Cf. Mr. Oldfield Thomas's Report on Mammalian Collections.

Bailey (Col. the Hon. J. H. R.).

2 specimens of the Common Magpie from Brecon. Presented. [1904. 6. 8, 2–3.]

Bailward (W. A.).

31 specimens from Taviuni Island, Fiji Archipelago. Presented. [84. 7. 9, 1–16; 86. 7. 10, 1–15.]

Mr. Bailward, on two occasions, presented small collections of birds from the island of Taviuni, and among them were specimens of Chrysœnas victor, Lamprolia victoriæ, and its nest and eggs.

Bailward (Colonel R. C.).

396 birds from Persia. Presented. [1905. 12. 27, 1–396.]

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Colonel Bailward served in the Royal Artillery from 1874 to 1905. He visited Persia in 1886, and again in 1889. In 1904 he made another expedition into Persia, taking with him Mr. R. B. Woosnam, who made an excellent collection of birds, which Colonel Bailward has presented to the Museum.

Baker (E. C. STUART).

22 specimens of eggs from Cachar. Presented. [1902. 8. 23, 1–22.]

87 specimens of eggs from Cachar. Purchased. [1902. 11. 6, 1–79; 1902. 11. 21, 1–8.]

Mr. Stuart Baker is one of the best-known Indian ornithologists of the present day, and has contributed some important articles on the birds of Assam and Cachar to the "Journal" of the Bombay Natural History Society and to the "Ibis." Nearly all the specimens received from him were eggs previously unrepresented in the Museum collection.

Baker (JOSEPH).

114 specimens of young British birds. [39. 8. 3, 1–114.]

73 birds from Cambridgeshire. [40. 6. 23, 5–22; 40. 6. 24, 48–67; 41. 6, 1672–1696; 44. 1. 1, 2–3; 44. 1. 2, 1–6.]

292 birds from England. [49. 12. 24, 2–174; 50. 2. 19, 1–55; 50. 8. 13, 1–57; 50. 8. 21, 1–13; 50. 11. 5, 8–51.]

66 nests of British birds with eggs. [51. 2. 11, 1–28; 51. 11. 25, 1–38.]

15 birds from England. [54. 1. 31, 1–15.]

Joseph Baker was born at Melbourne, Cambridgeshire, and worked for some time for Mr. Gould. Under the direction of the latter the big Giraffe which adorned the Mammal Gallery in the old British Museum was mounted by Joseph Baker, and Mr. Edward Gerrard, sen., lent a hand in completing the work, which was considered a big undertaking in those days. After leaving Mr. Gould, Baker had his workshops in Cardington Street, where my friends the Gerrards, father and son (to whom I am indebted for much information about the naturalists of the middle of the last century), used to visit him.

Towards the end of the forties a determined effort was made by Dr. John Edward Gray to improve the exhibition series of British birds in the public galleries at Bloomsbury, and the task of procuring the specimens was given to Joseph Baker, who collected most of them near his home at Melbourne, where he spent his holidays. The birds were well mounted by him, but in the conventional attitudes of the period, and most of them have been transferred to other Museums, or replaced by more naturally stuffed examples. For many years Baker was employed by Mr. George Robert Gray in mounting birds for the galleries, and as at that time it was considered to be the rôle of a Museum to mount everything, without consideration as to its value, the exhibition series was alone thought of, and priceless specimens were recklessly mounted, with the result that types and other valuable specimens were exposed to the light and dust of the public galleries, where they were very soon bleached out of all recognition.

When I was appointed in 1872, one of my first cares was to unmount and remove from the galleries all specimens of historical value. In many instances this interposition came too late, and irretrievable damage had been done. It will hardly be credited that I have found as many as eleven specimens of an Eagle, all in the same plumage, and all from the same place, mounted in a row on stands, and in one instance the bird had lost

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a leg, and the limb had been replaced by a wire prop. In other instances the wings had been removed and stuck on again with glue. Such were the methods of the Museum taxidermy fifty years ago.

Baker (Sir SAMUEL).

25 specimens from Egypt and the White Nile. Presented. [74. 6. 5, 5–29.]

Balfour (I. BAYLEY).

66 specimens from Sokotra. Presented by the British Association. [81. 3. 21, 1–66.]

Prof. Bayley Balfour, under the auspices of the British Association, made a scientific expedition to the island of Sokotra, and obtained a very interesting series of birds, as the island had not before been visited by a naturalist. Prof. Balfour's work was largely botanical, and his birdskins were obtained during his journeys in search of plants. The ornithological collection was described by Dr. Sclater and Dr. Hartlaub (Proc. Zool. Soc., 1881, pp. 165–175, pls. XV.–XVII.), and seven new species were described, the types of which are in the Museum, viz., Cisticola incana, Drymœca hæsitata, Lanius uncinatus, Cinnyris balfouri, Passer insularis, Rhynchostruthus socotranus, Amydrus frater.

The duplicates passed into Capt. Shelley's collection, and have come with the latter into the hands of the Trustees, so that the entire series obtained by Prof. Balfour is now in the National Collection.

See also BRITISH ASSOCIATION; OGILVIE-GRANT, W. R.; FORBES, Dr. H. O.

Balston (W. E.).

5 nests from S.E. Australia. Presented. [1905. 9. 22, 1–5.]

374 birds from S.W. Australia, collected by G. C. Shortridge. Presented. [1905. 12. 26, 1–374.]

Bannermann (D. H.).

46 birds from the West Indies. Presented. [1905. 1. 14, 1–46.]

63 birds from Jamaica. Presented. [1905. 10. 14, 1 65.]

Barclay (G.).

74 birds from Guayaquil. Presented. [41. 2. 4, 441–513, 516.]

Mr. Barclay was botanical collector on board H.M.S. Sulphur. [See Hist. Coll., i., Botany, p. 132.]

Baring (Hon. CECIL) and Ogilvie-Grant (W. R.).

247 specimens of birds, nests and eggs from Madeira, the Desertas, and the Great Salvage Islands. Presented. [95. 7. 1, 1–247.]

Cf. Grant, "Ibis," 1896, pp. 41–55.

Barnard (CHARLES A.).

48 eggs from N. Australia. Purchased. [1900. 7. 3, 1–48.]

27 nests from British New Guinea and N. Australia. Purchased [1900. 8. 14, 1–13; 1900. 8. 16, 1–14.]

Barnes (Lieut. H. E.).

10 specimens from Aden. Presented. [92. 10. 20. 1–10.]

Lieut. Barnes was a good soldier, who rose from the ranks. He served in Afghanistan, and wrote some papers for Mr. Allan Hume's journal, "Stray Feathers," the principal ones being "Notes on the nidification of

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certain species in the neighbourhood of Chaman, S. Afghanistan" (Str. F., ix., pp. 212–220), and "A list of Birds observed in the neighbourhood of Chaman" (t.c., pp. 449–460). He got together a fine collection of Indian birds' eggs. On being transferred to Aden, he was much interested in the ornithology of that Peninsula, and wrote a noteworthy paper on the results of his studies in that inhospitable spot ("Ibis," 1893, pp. 57–84, 165–181).

He also published a series of articles on the birds of the Bombay Presidency in the "Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society," illustrated by himself [Cf. "Ibis," 1896, p. 162].

Baroda.

See H.H. THE GAEKWAR OF BARODA.

Baron (O. T.).

A German naturalist, who collected in California, and made expeditions to Ecuador and Peru. He mounted all his Humming-birds in the field, and a beautiful set of these birds was presented to the Museum by the Hon. Walter Rothschild. A series from his Peruvian collections was acquired by Dr. F. D. Godman and presented by him to the Museum. Other collections were sent to the Hon. Walter Rothschild. A paper was published on these collections by Mr. Osbert Salvin (Nov. Zool., ii., pp. 1–22), and 16 new species were described. Mr. Baron himself contributed some notes on the localities visited by him in Northern Peru to Mr. Rothschild's "Novitates" (vol. iv., pp. 1–10), and some other new species have been described by Mr. Hellmayr (Nov. Zool., xii., p. 503, 1905).

Baroody (S.).

18 specimens from Mount Lebanon. Purchased. [94. 5. 6, 1–18.]

72 specimens from Mount Lebanon. Presented. [94. 5. 7, 1–72.]

An interesting, but somewhat ill-prepared, series from the mountains of Lebanon.

Barratt (F. A.).

119 birds from the Eastern Transvaal. Presented. [75. 9. 30, 1–7; 75. 10. 1, 1–112.]

61 birds from the Eastern Transvaal. Purchased. [75. 10. 7, 3–63.]

This collection contained the types of two new species (Bradypterus barratti and Andropadus (potius Bleda) flavostriatus. Mr. Barratt was an old schoolfellow of mine, and we met after many years on his return from South Africa. I described the new species in the "Ibis" for 1876 (pp. 52–54), and Mr. Barratt himself described his collection in the same volume (pp. 191–214), where Bradypterus barratti was figured (pl. iv.).

Barrett-Hamilton (Captain G. E. H.).

192 specimens from Bering Island and the North-Western Pacific. Presented. [95. 7. 4, 1–192.]

44 specimens from Bering Island, etc. Presented. [98. 3. 25, 1–3; 98. 11. 11, 1–41.]

21 specimens from Kamtschatka. Presented. [1900. 1. 6, 1–10; 1902. 5. 1, 1–11.]

20 specimens from the Orange River Colony. Presented. [1901. 9. 20, 1–20.]

900 specimens from the Orange River Colony, S.W. Transvaal, Griqualand West, and Cape Colony. Presented. [1905. 12. 28, 1-900.]

Capt. Barrett-Hamilton's early studies were devoted to the Fauna and

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Flora of Ireland, and he has also paid much attention to Mammalia especially those of the Western Palæarctic region. He is particularly interested in the Pinnipedia, on which he has written chapters in the "Antarctic Manual," and in the British Museum "Report" on the Southern Cross collections. He is also a student of the phenomena of colour and sexual dimorphism in the Vertebrata.

In 1896–97 he was selected by the Foreign Office and the Colonial Office to serve on the International Bering-Sea Seal Commission, and obtained some interesting specimens of birds. In April, 1901, he accompanied his regiment, the 5th Battalion Royal Irish Rifles, to South Africa, and remained there till the close of the war. Being in charge of some of the block-houses, he utilised his leisure time in collecting specimens of natural history, and presented to the Museum a fine series of birds.

Bartlett (ABRAHAM DEE).

8 specimens of young Geese. Purchased. [43. 12. 30, 1–8.]

64 eggs of North American birds. Purchased. [51. 6. 12, 1–64.]

29 specimens of birds from Damara Land collected by C. J. Andersson. Purchased. [52. 5. 1, 15–43.]

To this collection reference has already been made (vide supra).

Mr. Bartlett, before he became Superintendent of the Zoological Society's Gardens, had a natural history agency in Little Russell Street, Bloomsbury. My old friend Mr. Edward Gerrard remembers it well, but the house has long ago been pulled down. Mr. Bartlett was an able taxidermist, of the school of John Hancock, and presented a few examples of his art to the British Museum, but they do not seem to have been registered. He was wont to mount some of the rare animals which died in the Zoological Gardens, such as the Ailurus, which are still exhibited in the galleries, and an Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo); these have been the subject of many pictures in popular works on natural history.

He belonged to a little coterie of hard-working field-naturalists, of whom Frank Buckland and Henry Lee were the leading spirits (cf. 'Ibis,' 1897, p. 499).

Bartlett (EDWARD).

259 specimens from Upper Amazonia. Purchased. [66. 5. 8. 1–66; 69. 6. 5, 1–16; 69. 4. 10, 1–10; 69. 6. 25, 1–146; 70. 6. 4, 1–21.]

7 specimens from Egypt and South America. Purchased. [72. 12. 23, 1–7.]

10 specimens from Mexico collected by Mr. Dorman. Purchased. [74. 7. 1, 1–10.]

Eldest son of Mr. A. D. Bartlett. Principally known for his natural history explorations on the Upper Amazon, where he experienced considerable hardships, but discovered many interesting birds. His collections were described by Dr. Sclater and Mr. Salvin [P.Z.S., 1866, pp. 175–201, pl. xviii.], and the first set purchased by the Museum in 1869. He had previously accompanied Canon Tristram on an expedition to Syria and Palestine. He was for some years curator of the Maidstone Museum, and afterwards of the Sarawak Museum at Kuching. He has written the life of his father (vide supra).

Bartlett (Col. H. W.).

12 birds from Sierra Leone. Presented. [1905. 4. 5, 1–12.]

Barton (H.E. Capt. F. B.), Governor of British New Guinea.

68 specimens from the interior of British New Guinea. Presented. [1902. 7. 20, 1–68.]

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22 birds from British New Guinea. [1905. 7. 25, 1–22.]

Capt. Barton, who is the Governor of British New Guinea, has interested himself in the natural history of the colony, and presented to the Museum a valuable collection of birds, including the peculiar Torrent-duck (Salvadorina waigiuensis) and the rare Parotia helenæ, a Bird of Paradise not previously represented in the collection.

Bates (G. L.).

32 birds from French Congo. 1900. 2. 24, 1–32.]

31 „ „ the Como River, Gaboon. [1901. 4. 24, 1–31.]

12 „ „ „ Benito River. [1901. 7. 6, 1–12.]

908 „ „ „ Camaroons. [1901. 10. 29, 1–46; 1902. 5. 15, 1-30; 1902. 7. 15, 1–100; 1902. 12. 5, 1–101; 1903. 2. 16, 1–25; 1903. 7. 16, 1–100; 1903. 10. 23, 1–177; 1904. 7. 18, 1–180; 1905. 1. 24, 1–265; 1905. 7. 30, 1–61.]

The importance of the collections made by Mr. Bates cannot be overestimated. The first series of birds from the Como River in Gaboon was interesting enough, but the very complete collections which he has sent to the Museum from the Benito River, the neighbourhood of Efulen, and the River Ja, have proved of the greatest value to science. I entirely agree with my friend Mr. Oscar Neumann, who has gone over these collections with me, and whose experience in African zoology is derived from personal travel in many parts of Equatorial Africa, that in Camaroons are represented at least three zoo-geographical areas, of which the most northern shows an affinity to the Avifauna of Nigeria and the Gold Coast. The mountainous central region exhibits relations to the equatorial chain included in my Camaroonian sub-region, whilst the more southern districts possess a fauna almost identical with that of Gaboon and the Congo district. It is in the latter province of the Camaroons that Mr. Bates has worked. He has discovered several remarkable new species (Dryotriorchis batesi, Accipiter batesi, Melittophagus batesi, Callene cyornithopsis, etc.), and the interesting series of birds which he has sent to the Museum will always be a record of sound work performed by this industrious naturalist.

Bates (H. W.).

See STEVENS, S.

The great traveller, whose "Naturalist on the River Amazon" has become an English classic. His collections from Ega and the Rio Javarri (a river which had never been previously explored) were described by Dr. Sclater (P.Z.S., 1857, pp. 261–268). Eubucco aurantiicollis was described as new.

Cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., Suppl. i., p. 141.

Battye.

See TREVOR-BATTYE.

Bayne (W. M.).

A specimen of Anas cristata from Argentina. Presented. [1904. 5 5, 1.]

Beavan (Capt. R. C.).

An excellent naturalist, who collected in the sixties in India, and did made good work. He was a friend of Dr. Jerdon, and also of the Marquess of Tweeddale, in whose Museum most of Beavan's collections are to be found. A good notice of his career is given in the "Ibis" for 1870 (p. 301).

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Beck (R. N.).

13 birds from the Galapagos Archipelago. Purchased. [1902. 12. 11, 1–13.]

A well-known American explorer in the Galapagos and other Pacific islands off the coast of Western America.

Beddington (CLAUDE).

26 birds from Ashanti. Presented. [1900. 9. 8, 1–26.]

Bedford (H.G. the Duke of, K.G.), President of the Zoological Society.

2 specimens of the Ypecaha Rail (Aramides ypecaha). Presented. [98. 3. 10, 1, 2.]

A Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) from Woburn Abbey. Presented. [98. 3. 29, 1.]

402 birds, eggs and nests, from Fernando Po, collected by Mr. E. Seimund. Presented. [1904. 6. 22, 1–402.]

322 birds from Japan, collected by Mr. M. P. Anderson. Presented. [1905. 8. 7, 1–66; 1905. 12. 21, 1–256.]

A specimen of the rare Duck (Asarcornio scutulata). Presented. [1906. 2. 24, 1.]

See SLADEN, Mrs. PERCY; ROTHSCHILD, Hon. WALTER.

Belcher (Admiral Sir EDWARD).

333 birds collected in various parts of the Pacific and on the coasts of America [no exact localities seem to have been preserved]. Presented. [42. 12. 2, 2; 42. 12. 10, 2–5; 42. 12. 21, 4–7; 43. 7. 22, 1–83 (type of Calornis nitida); 47. 3. 4, 92–322.]

14 eggs from Mauritius. [47. 3. 2, 1–14.]

Cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr. iv., p. 142.

Bell (J. B.).

73 birds from the Lawas River and other localities in Northern Borneo. Purchased. [98. 11. 24, 1–73.]

Benzon (A.).

A Danish naturalist, who sent many eggs to Mr. Seebohm, in whose collection they are recorded.

Berlepsch (HANS GRAF VON).

3 specimens from the Island of Nias, all species new to the collection. Received in exchange. [93. 12. 11, 1–3.]

31 specimens from Colombia and other countries of Northern South America. Received in exchange. [93. 12. 12, 1–31.]

13 specimens from New Guinea and other localities. Received in exchange. [96. 12. 29, 1–13.]

21 specimens from Bolivia and other States of South America. Presented. [99. 8. 2, 1–20; 1900. 2. 3, 5.]

22 birds from Peru and Bolivia. Purchased. [1901. 8. 2, 1–22.]

Count von Berlepsch is one of the greatest living authorities on South American ornithology. He has frequently presented to the Museum valuable duplicates from his collection.

Berezowsky (M.)

44 specimens from Gan-su, in Western China. [89. 3. 25, 1–44. Purchased.

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Mr. Berezowsky took part in the Potanin expedition to Gan-su, and is an excellent collector. No less than 17 of the species obtained from him were new to the Museum. (Cf. Bianchi and Berezowski, Aves, Exped. Potan. Gan-su, 1884–1887: 1891.)

Berlin Museum.

18 birds from Equatorial Africa. Received in exchange. [91. 6. 25, 1–18.]

2 Francolins (Pternistes boehmi) from German East Africa. [1901. 3. 22, 1–2.]

Betton (C. STEWART).

28 birds from British East Africa. Presented. [97. 12. 9, 1–18; 1901. 4. 17, 1–10.]

Biddulph (Colonel JOHN).

The type-specimens of Podoces biddulphi and Suya obscura. Purchased. [97. 6. 5, 1–2.]

448 birds from Gilgit. Purchased. [81. 4. 29, 1–8; 81. 12. 29, 1–146; 82. 4. 1, 1–294.]

3194 birds from Gilgit, Kashmir, Turkestan and other localities. Presented. [81. 12. 30, 1–154; 97. 12. 10, 1–3040.]

Colonel John Biddulph served during the Indian Mutiny under Lord Clyde, and was afterwards Aide-de-camp to Lord Northbrook, when the latter was Governor-General of India. He accompanied Sir Douglas Forsyth's mission to Yarkand, when the winter was passed in that country, Colonel Biddulph proceeding to Maralbashi, where he discovered a new species of Desert-Chough (Podoces biddulphi). He also crossed the two Pamirs and visited Wakhan. In 1877 he was posted at Gilgit, and here he did splendid work in a practically unknown country, being also the first European to penetrate to Hunza and Chitral. His Central Asian collections have been described by me in the Report on the "Scientific Results of the Second Yarkand Mission." Memoirs on the birds of Gilgit were published by Colonel Biddulph himself in the "Ibis" for 1881 (pp. 35–102), and 1882 (pp. 266–290). He also interested himself in the family of Fringillidæ and made a fine collection of these birds, which he gave to the Museum in 1897 with the rest of his ornithological treasures.

Bingham (Colonel C. T.).

133 birds and eggs from Tenasserim. Presented. [83. 4. 5, 1–30; 83. 8. 20, 1–30; 83. 12. 27, 1–35; 84. 5. 23, 1–38.]

When stationed with his regiment in the N. W. Provinces of India, this indefatigable naturalist made a tine collection of birds from the neighbourhood of Delhi. His specimens, collected and labelled in the most careful manner, formed part of the Hume Collection, and the eggs of birds from the Delhi district are described and enumerated in Hume's "Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds," and in Oates' "Catalogue of the Birds' Eggs in the British Museum." Colonel Bingham's most important work was done when, as an officer in the Forest Department of the Indian Empire, he was in charge of the Thoungyin Valley in Tenasserim (cf. "Stray Feathers," ix., pp. 138–198). Papers on the birds of the latter province and Burma have appeared in Mr. Allan Hume's journal "Stray Feathers" (v., pp. 79–86; vii., pp. 25–33; viii., pp. 190–197, 459–463; ix., pp. 471–475).

Recent contributions to our knowledge of the Avifauna of the Shan

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States and the Upper Mekong Valley have been published by Colonel Bingham in the "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (with Mr. H. N. Thompson) for 1900 (pp. 102–142), and in the "Ibis" for 1903 (pp. 584-606, pls. xi. and xii.).

Blaauw (F. E.).

Eggs of Aramides ypecaha and Ocydromus australis, laid in his menagerie. Presented. [98. 3. 15, 1, 2.]

Nestlings of Chen rossii, C. hyperboreus, Cygnus buccinator, and Cloephaga rubridiceps. Presented. [1905. 12. 8, 1–4.]

Blakiston (Capt. T. A.).

59 birds from Japan. Presented. [83. 12. 29, 1–32; 84. 1. 25, 1–27.]

Capt. Blakiston's early papers were on the birds of the Saskatchewan region in western Canada (Ibis, 1861, p. 314; 1862, p. 3; 1863, pp. 39, 121). He was a captain in the Royal Artillery, and his North American collection appears to have been presented to the Royal Artillery Institution at Woolwich (cf. Whitely, "Catalogue of North American Birds and Eggs arranged in cabinets in the Museum of the R. A. Institution" 1865). In 1862 Capt. Blakiston commenced his papers on Japanese ornithology in the "Ibis," and he became an intimate correspondent of Consul Robert Swinhoe, who described several new and rare species. Ultimately Blakiston summed up the results of his labours in a little pamphlet, "The Birds of Japan, Amended List" (1884), in which he emphasised the fact that the fauna of Yezo was defined from that of Hondo by a line of demarcation at the Strait of Tsugar, the animals found to the south of this strait being Japanese, while the northern islands were more truly Siberian. Thus "Blakiston's Line" has become as important a feature in the zoo-geography of Northern Asia as "Wallace's Line" is to the student of the Avifauna of the Moluccas.

Blancanaux (F.).

A resident in British Honduras, who made some valuable collections of the birds of that country. The results are recorded in the "Biologia Centrali-Americana," by Dr. F. D. Godman and Mr. Osbert Salvin.

Blanford (W. T.), LL.D., F.R.S., C.I.E.

84 birds from Burma. Presented. [63. 5. 15, 1–84.]

476 birds collected by Dr. Blanford during the Abyssinian Expedition. Presented by the Government of India. [69. 10. 16, 1–476.] The first set went to the Calcutta Museum.

72 birds from various localities, Sikhim, Godavery Valley, Sind, etc. Presented. [73. 6. 16, 1–33; 80. 8. 12, 1–3; 80. 9. 29, 1–13; 80. 11. 11, 1–7; 1900. 8. 13, 1–16.]

325 birds from Baluchistan and Persia collected by Dr. Blanford during the visit of the Boundary Commission (vide infra). Received in exchange from the Indian Museum, Calcutta. [74. 4. 23, 1–325.]

1344 birds from various parts of India. Presented. [98. 12. 12, 1–1344.] This was Dr. Blanford's private collection of birds formed during his many years' service in India and Burma. An invaluable present, supplementing the great Hume collection.

This well-known naturalist and traveller was born in London on October 7, 1832, and was educated at private schools. He studied at the Royal School of Mines in 1852, receiving an Associateship, afterwards passing a year at the Mining Academy at Freiburg, in Germany. In October, 1855, he joined the Geological Survey of India in Calcutta, and

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during his term of service worked in various districts of India and Burma, Bengal and Orissa (1855–60), Trichinopoly, Madras (July to September, 1859), Pegu (1860–2). Here it was that Dr. Blanford first began to collect birds (Cf. "Ibis," 1870, p. 462), in the Bombay Presidency (1862–5), and in the Central Provinces (1865–7). In the latter part of 1867 he was attached as Zoologist to the Abyssinian Expedition, and went to Magdala with the army. He afterwards made an excursion into Bogos Land with Mr. W. Jesse, the expedition lasting till August 1868, and for more than a year he was engaged in Calcutta and in London in working out his collections (cf. his "Geology and Zoology of Abyssinia," 1870).

From 1869–71 he was stationed in the Central Provinces, principally in the Godavery Valley (cf. J.A.S.Beng., xxxviii., pp. 164–91, 1869), and in the last-named year and 1872 he was attached to the Perso-Baluch Boundary Commission, and travelled through Persia (cf. "Eastern Persia: An account of Journeys of the Persian Boundary Commission, 1870–71–72"). This book was prepared during furlough from 1872–4 and published in 1876. An expedition to Sikhim with Mr. H. J. Elwes (q.v.) was undertaken in 1872, and an account of it given in the "Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal" (xli., pp. 41–73), when Montifringilla ruficollis and Otocorys elwesi were described as new species. He was at work in Sind and the desert country from 1874–7 (cf. Stray Feathers, vii., pp. 99–101, 526, 527, 1878), and was on duty at the Survey Office in Calcutta from 1877 to 1879. After a furlough till 1881, he visited the North-West frontier, Quetta to Dehra Ghazi Khan, in 1881–2, and retired from the Indian Service at the end of the latter year. After his return to England his principal work was the editing of the "Fauna of British India," of which sixteen volumes have appeared, and of these he himself has written the volume on Mammalia and Vols. III. and IV. of the Birds. He was awarded one of the Royal Society's Medals in 1901.

Blewitt (F. R.).

Collected in Central India. Many birds and eggs are in the Hume collection from Saugor and Raipur.

Blewitt (W.).

His collections of birds and eggs from the Hansi district in the Punjab are in the Hume collection.

Blundell (H. WELD), and Lovat (Lord).

416 birds from South Abyssinia. Presented by the above-named travellers. [1900. 1. 3, 1–416.]

16 new species were described by them and by Mr. Ogilvie-Grant, who has written an account of the collection in the "Ibis" for 1900 (pp. 115–178, 304–387, pl. ii.–vi.).

Blyth (EDWARD).

6 birds from the neighbourhood of Calcutta. Presented. [44. 3. 4, 1–6.]

11 birds from Tenasserim and Burma. Presented. [62. 6. 29, 1–11.]

A man of enormous knowledge, and one of the cleverest all-round naturalists of the Victorian era. His edition of Cuvier's "Règne Animal" is quite one of the best, as is also his edition of White's "Selborne." He was appointed Curator of the Indian Museum in Calcutta in 1841, and worked there incessantly, without any furlough, for nearly twenty-

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two years, raising the position of his Museum to one of the first importance. From 1841 to 1864, his monthly reports published in the "Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal," on the accessions received by the Museum, were of the highest scientific quality, and often contained monographic articles on certain groups of Mammals and Birds. Shortly before retiring from the Calcutta Museum he made a brief excursion to Burma and Tenasserim.

[See Hume's appreciation of his work in 'Stray Feathers,' vii., p. 528 (1878). Biography—'Ibis,' 1874, p. 465; J.A.S.Beng., extra no., 1875, pp. 1–167; Dict. Nat. Biog., v., p. 276.]

Blyth & Co. (Messrs.).

21 birds from British New Guinea. Purchased. [98. 5. 31, 1–21.]

Some rare species were in this collection, including an example of Eulacestoma nigripectus, De Vis.

Boate (A.)

48 birds from Ceylon. Purchased. [76. 5. 31, 1–48.]

Bocage (Prof. BARBOZA DU), Director of the Lisbon Museum [q.v.].

Under the direction of Prof. Barboza du Bocage, a large amount of scientific exploration has been done in the Portuguese possessions in Africa by means of collectors (Anchieta, F. Newton, etc.) Prof. Bocage has always been a good friend to the British Museum, to which he has presented many rare species of birds.

Bock (CARL).

See RAMSAY, Colonel R. G. WARDLAW.

Collected in Sumatra for the late Marquess of Tweeddale. His book on the "Head-hunters of Borneo" is a well-known work.

Bohndorff (F.).

128 specimens from the Niam-Niam country. Purchased. [84. 5. 1 1–128.]

A most important collection, containing five new species and others not previously in the Museum, of great value as showing the extension of the purely West African Avifauna to the western watershed of the Nile. New species described: Crateropus bohndorffi, Sigmodus mentalis, Pionias crassus, Ceuthmochares intermedius, Syrnium bohndorffi (cf. Sharpe, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool., 1884, pp. 419–441). Bohndorff had served in the Sudan with Gordon, and returning from Dr. Junker's expedition to the Niam-Niam country, was nearly cut off by the Mahdi. He met Gordon in the middle of the Korusko desert, as he was hurrying to his fate, and was the last European who spoke to him. See my paper (l.c.).

17 birds from the Congo River, including nine species new to the collection. Purchased. [87. 8. 12, 1–17.]

After his return from the Sudan, Bohndorff collected on the Congo and in East Africa. Some of his skins, subsequently obtained in the Zanzibar district, were presented to the Museum by Emin Pasha.

Bombay Natural History Society.

18 Kalij Pheasants from Upper Burma. Received in exchange. [1905. 1. 25, 231–248.]

A specimen of Podoces pleskei from Kain, Persia. Presented. [1905. 7. 20, 1.]

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Bond (FREDERIC).

49 eggs of British birds. Presented. [58. 12. 3, 1–49.]

18 British birds and nests. Presented. [73. 11. 7, 1–18.]

A hybrid between Dafila acuta and Anas boscas. Bequeathed. [89. 12. 21. 1.]

A Spotted Sandpiper (Tringoides macularius) from Kingsbury Reservoir, and other rare British-killed specimens. [90. 5. 26, 1–11.] Purchased at Mr. Bond's sale at Stevens's.

3 specimens bequeathed. A hybrid between a Pochard (Aythya ferina) and a Scaup Duck (Fuligula marila), a hairy variety of the Moorhen, and the only known British specimen of the Siberian Thrush (Cichloselys sibirica) from Surrey (cf. Howard Saunders, Man. Brit. Birds, 2nd ed., p. 12, 1899). [90. 5. 11, 1–3.]

One of the best known of the British school of naturalists. He had a wonderful collection of British birds and Lepidoptera, some of the latter, obtained by himself in past years, having now become extinct. In 1858 he gave many valuable specimens when Mr. G. R. Gray was trying to renovate the British exhibition series, and at his death left to the Museum his British specimen of the Siberian Thrush and some other rare birds. He had an extraordinary collection of albinos, which was dispersed by auction after his death. [Cf. Harting, Zoologist, 1899, pp. 401–422, with portrait.]

Bone (H. P.).

4 eggs of the Aquatic Warbler (Acrocephalus aquaticus) from the Rhine Provinces. Presented. [1904. 10. 12, 1–4.]

Bonhote (J. LEWIS).

14 embryos of birds in alcohol. Presented. [1900. 8. 11, 1–8; 1901. 4. 1, 1–6]

2 birds from the Bahamas, including the type of Mimus insularis. [99. 6. 20, 1; 99. 8. 9, 68.]

Mr. Bonhote is well known for his explorations in the Bahama Islands, of which he has given an interesting account in the "Avicultural Magazine" (viii., pp. 278–85; (2) i., pp. 19–24, 54–62, 87–95); and the "Ibis," 1903, pp. 273–315.

Another important paper on migration as observed at the Bahama lighthouses was published in the "Auk" (vol. xx., pp. 169–179).

Boucard (ADOLPHE).

35 birds from Guatemala and Senegambia. Purchased. [72. 12. 12, 1–35.]

Some very interesting Accipitrine birds from Guatemala, purchased by Dr. Günther to aid me in the preparation of Vol. I. of the "Catalogue of Birds." The specimens from Senegal were collected by the well-known traveller-naturalist Leon Laglaize, who afterwards did splendid work in New Guinea.

14 birds, chiefly from Laglaize's Senegambian expedition, with a few collected by Olcese in Marocco. Purchased. [73. 4. 5, 1–10, 13–16.]

18 birds, chiefly Accipitres, from Panama. Purchased. [73. 6. 28, 11–16; 74. 5. 19, 58–69.]

29 specimens of Owls from different localities. Purchased. [74. 7. 1, 11–24; 75. 1. 23, 1–15.]

61 birds from various localities (Madagascar, Panama, China,

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Marocco, etc.) Purchased. [74. 10. 12, 1–13; 74. 11. 11, 1–7; 75. 4. 20, 1–10; 75. 6. 24, 1–8; 75. 10. 15, 1–10; 75. 11. 6, 1–13.]

50 birds from Colorado, Central and South America. Purchased. [76. 2. 29, 1–39; 76. 12. 15, 1–11.]

70 birds, 20 new to the collection, from New Guinea, mostly collected by Leon Laglaize, and Bruijn's hunters. Purchased. [76. 12. 17, 1–2; 78. 2. 9, 1–47; 78. 3. 29, 1–5; 80. 6. 8, 7–12; 88. 4. 3, 1–10.]

37 birds from Central America; two species being new to the Collection. Purchased. [80. 12. 15, 1–37.]

40 starlings from Marocco. Purchased. [89. 1. 24, 1–40.]

148 birds from the Riocour collection. Purchased. [89. 5. 30, 1–148.]

Mr. Boucard acquired this celebrated collection, which contained many of Vieillot's types, and we went in company to see it in the museum attached to the Château of the Riocour family at Vitry, near Châlons. All the birds were mounted, and among them were specimens of the Great Auk and the extinct Starling of Mauritius (Fregilupus varius). This, and all the types of Vieillot that I could identify, were added to the National Collection. The Château, which had been occupied by the Germans during the war of 1870, had been but little damaged by them, and was a beautiful place. The old servants were quite overcome with grief at seeing the dismantlement of the museum, which had been valued as a priceless possession by the old Comte de Riocour. I have never seen a collection more carefully protected from the glare of the sun, and the specimens were all in first-rate condition, even though some had been mounted for the best part of a century. The MSS. notes by Vieillot, Bonaparte, Jules Verreaux and the Comte de Riocour himself were most interesting. The transporting of the Fregilupus to England caused me no little anxiety, seeing that it was infinitely more valuable than a Great Auk, and I was glad when I handed it into Dr. Günther's custody, as I had not quitted my hold of the case for some days and nights.

34 birds from Madagascar and the Comoro Islands. Purchased. [90. 1. 30, 1–34.]

75 birds from the Molucca Islands, Australia and South America. Purchased. [91. 2. 12, 1–75.]

Boucard's early collections in Mexico were described by Dr. Sclater (see P.Z.S., 1857, p. 226; 1858, p. 95, 294; 1859, p. 369; 1860, p. 250). He afterwards settled in London, and was a very successful agent, from whom the Museum acquired some valuable collections, especially from Central America, New Guinea, and Madagascar. He made a special study of Humming Birds, and published his own journal, the "Humming Bird," in which he wrote a monograph of the Trochili. Gradually he amassed a fine private collection of birds, all of which he presented to the Paris Museum, where the Boucard Collection is kept separate, and is invaluable for reference. He also prepared a hand-list of birds, which he published as a "Catalogus Avium."

In 1904 he presented to the Paris Museum a second large collection of birds, comprising many species not contained in his first donation, and he was appointed Curator of the Boucard Collection for his life, which unfortunately was then near its close. He gave 10,000 specimens to the U.S. National Museum at Washington, and about 8,000 more to the museums of Lisbon and Madrid. An obituary notice of this excellent naturalist appears in the "Ibis" for 1905, pp. 299, 300.

Boundary Commissions.

Afghan Boundary Commission. See AITCHISON, J. E. T.

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Anglo-German Boundary Commission. See DELMÉ-RADCLIFFE, Colonel.

Perso-Baluch Boundary Commission. See BLANFORD, W. T.

Boundary Commissions, North American.

106 birds from British Columbia, collected by J. Keast Lord, Esq. [60. 2. 23, 1–106.] Presented by the Foreign Office.

Mr. Lord appears to have remained in British Columbia for some time after the Commission had finished its labours, for a fine collection was presented by him in 1862 and 1863; it consisted of more than 400 specimens (cf. his book, "The Naturalist in British Columbia"), and others were presented by him to the Royal Artillery Institution at Woolwich (cf. Whitely's Catalogue, 1865).

300 birds and 77 eggs from the 49th parallel. Presented by the Foreign Office. [76. 4. 15, 1–300; 91. 2. 16, 1–77.]

The late Prof. George Dawson was the naturalist on the British staff of the Commission, and the late Prof. Elliot Coues on the American side. See the Report by the latter (Bull. U.S. Geol. and Geogr. Survey, vol. iv., no. 3, pp. 545–662, 1878). Six species were at that time new to the Museum collection.

Bourdillon (F.).

201 specimens from Travancore. Purchased. [80. 8. 19, 1–201.]

Mr. Bourdillon's first collection made in the then little known province of Travancore was described by Mr. Hume in "Stray Feathers" (vii., pp. 33–9, 172, 524; ix., pp. 299, 300). His second collection was purchased by the Museum, and so the whole results of his ornithological work have passed into the National collection.

Bourgeau (M.).

A collection of 25 eggs from North America. Presented. [60. 2. 6, 1–25.]

Bouvier (A.).

11 specimens from the Cape Verde Islands. Presented. [74. 1. 16, 1–11.]

18 specimens of Accipitres from Gaboon, Senegal, etc. Purchased. [74. 1. 12, 1–18.]

34 specimens from Gaboon and Senegal. Presented. [74. 2. 11, 1–34.]

158 specimens from Gaboon, the Congo, and Kessang in the Malay Peninsula. Purchased. [75. 6. 14, 1–76; 78. 2. 23, 1–82.]

6 types and 22 species new to the Museum were included in these collections.

Bouvier was naturalist to the ill-fated French expedition to Mexico. After visiting the Cape Verde Islands, and making good collections, he settled down in Paris as a natural history agent, and when I first visited him at his house in the Quai des Grands Augustins, in 1876, he had quite a large collection of birds. The idea of founding the Zoological Society of France arose with Bouvier, and the meetings were at first held at his flat. He promoted the expeditions of Marche to Senegambia, and those of the Marquis de Compiègne and Marche to Gaboon, from which country he received several fine specimens of Gorillas, Kooloo-Kambas, and Chimpanzees, all of which I saw mounted in his house, before they passed into the possession of the Museum of Science and Art in Dublin.

He also received the early collections of Dr. Lucan and Louis Petit

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from the Lower Congo; these were described by us conjointly in the "Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France," I., pp. 36–53, 300–14, II., 470–81, III., 73–80. Among the remarkable novelties were Scotopelia bouvieri, Lophotriorchis lucani, Psalidoprocne petiti, etc. Most of the types from these collections are in the British Museum, but my descriptions of a certain number of new species were taken by Bouvier to Paris after one of his visits to London, and published in his own name, a proceeding I should not have resented, if the typical specimens from which the diagnoses were derived had been sold, according to promise, to the British Museum. This unfortunately was not the case, and the types of some of them, such as Cisticola landanæ, exist somewhere to further puzzle ornithologists, until their validity shall be established.

Bower (Capt. T. H. BOWYER).

4 specimens from Queensland. Presented. [85. 11. 19, 1–4.]

192 specimens from N.W. Australia. Presented. [87. 5. 2, 1–192.]

Capt. Bowyer Bower presented the collection made by his son in the Derby district of Northern Australia. Dr. E. P. Ramsay, the Director of the Australian Museum, Sydney, published a list of the Derby collection [Pr. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales (2) II., pp. 165–73.] The young naturalist, whom I knew personally, started in hopes of achieving great ornithological results, and took with him as assistant Mr. Walter Burton, a first-rate taxidermist. After a successful commencement, Mr. Bowyer Bower died from fever, and Mr. Burton had the mournful task of bringing back to his parents the body of the brave young explorer. The collection was beautifully prepared, and, when presented by his father, proved a very valuable acquisition to the Museum. (Cf. Ibis, 1887, p. 479.)

Bowring (Sir J.).

31 birds from Egypt. Presented. [41. 1. 14, 58–88.]

Cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., vi., pp. 76–80.

Bradshaw (Dr.).

14 specimens from the neighbourhood of Upington, Orange River. Presented. [82. 9. 21, 1–14.]

See also DAVIS and SOPER.

During his furlough in England I met Dr. Bradshaw several times. He was then a medical officer in the Frontier Police Force, stationed at Upington in the north of Cape Colony, and he was suffering from some affection of the lower larynx. He had to rejoin in South Africa just as he was beginning to feel better, and died, as he had himself predicted to me, very shortly after.

Not only was Dr. Bradshaw an excellent observer, but no man ever made better skins of birds. He had been through Matabeleland to the Zambesi, and had visited the Victoria Falls. On this expedition he made a fine collection of birds, which he seems to have consigned to a London firm for disposal. Luckily the firm appealed to the Museum, and we were able to acquire a series of Dr. Bradshaw's specimens, and Capt. Shelley bought the remainder, so that the early collections of this excellent naturalist are now in the British Museum. Unfortunately the collection was never labelled, and was sold as from the Zambesi River. Dr. Bradshaw, however, told me that scarcely any specimens were obtained on the river itself, and that his series of birds was almost without exception from the Makalaka country.

He presented some specimens to the Cape Museum, and a few from

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the Orange River were given by him to the British Museum during his stay in England.

Brandt.

33 specimens from various parts of Russia, Siberia, and Central Asia. Purchased. [42. 3. 14, 14–22; 42. 4. 26, 6–9; 44. 3. 14, 5–6; 45. 4. 21, 16–23; 45. 7. 22, 5–14.]

81 skeletons of birds from Chili. Purchased. [50. 11. 14, 1–38; 54. 1. 28, 1–10; 58. 11. 20, 1–33.]

Brandt was a well-known dealer in Hamburg, and (so I have been told) a brother of Prof. Brandt, the Director of the Imperial Museum in St. Petersburg. Through the latter he received for disposal many duplicates from the expeditions of the Russian Government, and thus the Museum was able to acquire many interesting specimens. Who collected the Chilian skeletons of birds I have not been able to discover.

Branicki (Count).

10 specimens from Poland and 22 from Peru, including 9 species new to the collection. Presented. [92. 12. 24, 1–32.]

13 specimens from Peru and Bolivia. Received in exchange. [1903. 10. 12, 1–13.] Contained several species new to the collection.

When Dr. Taczanowski was Director of the Warsaw Museum, the two brothers, Counts Branicki, organised several expeditions to South America, especially to Peru. Hence Taczanowski was able to write his standard work, the "Ornithologie du Pérou," in furtherance of which he visited England and the principal Museums of Europe. Mr. Jelski, who had previously collected on the River Oyapock in Cayenne for the Maison Verreaux, and Dr. Stolzmann were the naturalists selected, and both did splendid work. Many of the duplicates passed into the Sclater and Salvin-Godman collections. Afterwards Count Branicki decided to found the Museum Branicki at Warsaw, of which Dr. Stolzmann is now the Director, and the collections made by Kalinowski in Peru and Ecuador have been described by Count von Berlepsch and Dr. Stolzmann (P.Z.S., 1896, pp. 322–88, pls. xiii. and xiv.; 1902, vol. ii., pp. 18–60).

Brazier (JOHN).

25 eggs from New Britain and the Solomon Islands. Presented. [74. 11. 18, 38–62.]

Mr. Brazier is principally known as a Conchologist, but on his expeditions to the islands now known as the Bismarck Archipelago, he was in the habit of collecting birds in spirits, which he sent to his friend Gerard Krefft, the Director of the Sydney Museum, and the predecessor of Dr. E. P. Ramsay. Mr. Krefft forwarded the collections to Dr. P. L. Sclater at the Zoological Society (cf. P.Z.S., 1865, pp. 620–22, pl. xxxv.).

Breadalbane (Marquess of).

8 specimens of Tetrao urogallus and other Game-birds from Killin and Tyndrum, N.B. Presented. [92. 12. 18, 1–8.]

4 Ptarmigan from Blackmount, Perthshire. Presented. [1905. 8. 10, 1–6.]

Bremen, Geographical Society of.

222 birds from Siberia and Central Asia. Purchased. [78. 12. 31, 20–222.]

This collection was the result of the expedition to Central Asia promoted by the Geographical Society of Bremen.

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The naturalists attached to the expedition were the celebrated German zoologist, the late Dr. A. E. Brehm, Count Karl von Waldburg-Zeil-Trauchburg, and Dr. Otto Finsch. The latter well-known ornithologist has written a memoir on the birds procured during the expedition (Verh. z. b. Ges. Wien, xxix., pp. 128–280).

Brenchley (JULIUS).

135 birds from the islands of the Pacific Ocean. Presented. [70. 3. 31, 1–135.]

Mr. Brenchley accompanied Commodore Sir William Wiseman on his voyage to the Pacific, and has embodied the results of the expedition in the well-known work, "The Cruise of the Curaçoa" ("Birds," pp. 354–94, pls. 1–21). The collection presented by Mr. Brenchley was a truly remarkable one and contained many species new to the Museum, among them being the types of the following species: Astur albogularis, Gray, Eurystomus solomonensis, Sharpe, Glyciphila flavotincta, Gray, Philemon sclateri, Gray, Lalage banksiana, Gray, Ptilopus solomonensis, Gray, Carpophaga brenchleyi, Gray, Rhipidura spilodera, Gray, and Megapodius brenchleyi, Gray.

Brett (Capt.).

20 birds from Valparaiso. Presented. [46. 6. 12, 1–20.]

Brewer (Dr. T. M.).

8 skins and 5 nests of North American birds. Presented. [76. 7. 1, 1–13.]

A celebrated American naturalist, author of "North American Oölogy." He was also joint author, with Professors Baird and Ridgway, of the "History of North American Birds" and the "Water Birds of North America."

Bridges (THOMAS).

See CUMING, H.

60 birds from Chili. Purchased. [43. 7. 21, 1–50; 43. 7. 22, 2–11.]

271 birds from Bolivia. Purchased. [46. 9. 9, 1–271.]

In the early volumes of the "Proceedings" of the Zoological Society the name of Mr. Bridges frequently appears. His collections were subsequently disposed of, and many of his specimens are in the Derby Museum at Liverpool. His first collections from Chile were described by Louis Fraser (P.Z.S. 1843, pp. 108–121), but subsequent work from Panama formed the subject of a paper by Dr. Sclater entitled, "List of Mammals and Birds collected by Mr. Bridges in the vicinity of the town of David, in the province of Chiriqui, in the State of Panama" (P.Z.S., 1856, p. 138). In 1857 Mr. Bridges was a C.M.Z.S., and Dr. Sclater contributes a list of birds collected by him in the Valley of San José, in the State of California (P.Z.S., 1857, p. 125). In the next year Mr. Bridges himself contributed some "Notes on Californian Birds" (P.Z.S., 1858, p. 1).

His important collections in Chili and Bolivia do not seem to have been described in their entirety, though some new species were named after him (Drymornis bridgesi, etc.).

Briggs (WILLIAM), the Cookham Naturalist.

See SHARPE, R. BOWDLER.

Briggs was head-gardener to Mr. De Vitré at Formosa, near Cookham. He was a first-rate observer and taxidermist, and much esteemed by Mr.

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Gould, who mentions his prowess on more than one occasion in his "Birds of Great Britain."

He was my guide, philosopher, and friend in my early days, and mounted all my birds for me. We were planning excursions to different parts of the coast, when he died suddenly of heart disease: he lies buried in Cookham churchyard. When I was appointed to the Museum, one of my first acts was to present my entire collection of British birds in the name of my old friend, so that he should be connected with the national museum of his native country, of which he was certainly one of the best field ornithologists. Among this collection, mounted by Briggs, are all the birds procured by me as a boy, the first specimen ever shot by me being a Wryneck. It would be difficult, under the present altered conditions of the Thames, to find now the birds which were to be met with in the days of Briggs and myself forty years ago.

British Association for the Advancement of Science.

66 birds from Sokotra, collected by Prof. I. Bayley Balfour (q.v.) Presented. [81. 3. 21, 1–66.]

103 birds from the Tenimber Islands, collected by Dr. H. O. Forbes. Presented. [83. 5. 30, 1–103.]

75 birds from Kilimanjaro, collected by Sir Harry Johnston, K.C.B., G.C.M.G. Presented. [85. 6. 14, 1–75.]

35 birds from the Camaroons, collected by Sir Harry Johnston, K.C.B., G.C.M.G. Presented. [87. 3. 7, 1–35.]

The British Association, in conjunction with the Royal Society and the Royal Geographical Society, has often contributed funds for the support of exploration. All the expeditions mentioned above were of the greatest service to zoological science.

Among Professor Balfour's discoveries in Sokotra was the wonderful new genus of Finches (Rhynchostruthus socotranus), and many other novelties described by Dr. Hartlaub and Dr. Sclater (P.Z.S., 1881, pp. 953–9, pl. lxvii.).

Dr. Forbes' expedition to the Tenimber Islands, full of difficulty and danger, shared in the most heroic manner by his wife, resulted in the discovery of 26 species new to the Museum, of which 21 were also new to science. [Cf. Sclater, P.Z.S., 1883, pp. 48–58, pls. xi.–xiv.; Forbes, "Naturalist's Wanderings in the Malay Archipelago."]

Sir Harry Johnston's exploration of Mount Kilimanjaro resulted in the acquisition of eleven species new to the Museum, of which six were previously unknown (Muscicapa johnstoni, Pratincola axillaris, Cinnyris medioeris, Nectarinia johnstoni, N. kilimansis, and Pinarochroa hypospodia). [Cf. Shelley, P.Z.S., 1884, pp. 554–8, pl. li.; 1885, pp. 222–30, pls. xiii. and xiv.]

The exploration of the Camaroons mountains in West Africa by the same naturalist resulted in the discovery of four new species of birds (Poliopicus johnstoni, Laniarius atroflavus, Psalipoproene fuliginosa, Ploceus melanogaster). [Cf. Shelley, P.Z.S., 1887, pp. 122–6, pls. xiii. and xiv.]

Broadbent (KENDAL).

See GERRARD, E.

A well-known Australian collector, who has also visited New Guinea. [Cf. Sharpe, Journ. Linn. Soc. Zool., xiii., pp. 486–505.]

He was the discoverer of Sphenura broadbenti, one of the most interesting of recent discoveries in Australia. Of this the Museum has only recently acquired a specimen presented by Mr. Robert Hall.

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Brooke (BASIL).

See GERRARD, E.; SHARPE, R. BOWDLER.

A younger brother of Sir Victor Brooke. Visited with his wife the island of Sardinia on more than one occasion, and discovered there the small Peregrine Falcon which I named Falco brookei [Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) xi., pp. 20, 222, 1873], and which is now identified with Falco punicus, the Mediterranean Peregrine. An excellent paper on the birds of Sardinia was published by him in the "Ibis" for 1873 (pp. 143–55, 235–48, 335–49). He died young, during a visit to Mexico, and his collection was dispersed. Some of the most interesting birds were purchased from Mr. Gerrard, and others were bought by myself and presented to the Museum.

Brooke (H.H. Sir JAMES), Rajah of Sarawak.

101 specimens from Singapore and Sarawak. Presented. [45. 10. 2, 11–15; 45. 10. 2, 1–25; 50. 10. 24, 1–74.]

Early collections from the Malay Peninsula and Borneo, presented by the first Rajah of Sarawak.

Brooke (H.H. Sir CHARLES J.), Rajah of Sarawak.

2 specimens of Spilornis, one being the type of S. raja, Sharpe. Presented. [1905. 12. 3, 1–2.]

Brown (Rev. G.).

See GERRARD, E.

Mr. Brown was a missionary who collected in New Britain, Duke of York Island, etc. His collections were described by Dr. Sclater. (P.Z.S., 1877, pp. 96–114, pls. xiv.–xvi.; 1878, pp. 289–90, 670–673, pl. xlii.; 1879, pp. 446–451, pl. xxxvii.; 1880, pp. 65–67, pl. viii.; with nineteen new species.)

The early collections were purchased by the Marquis of Tweeddale, and after the death of the latter, the remainder were acquired by the Museum through Mr. Edward Gerrard.

Brown (J. A. HARVIE).

See HARVIE-BROWN.

Brownlow (Earl).

A Peacock (Pavo cristatus var. nigripennis), died in confinement. Presented. [1904. 5. 7, 1.]

Bruijn (J.).

See BOUCARD, A.

Brusina (Professor SPIRIDION).

24 birds from Croatia. Presented. [89. 12. 20, 1–12; 91. 6. 5, 1–12.]

Prof. Brusina is the historian of the birds of his native country. He has presented specimens of his new Croatian Shag (Phalacrocorax croaticus) to the Museum.

Brussels (Royal Museum of Natural History).

62 birds from Belgium. Presented. [73–6. 7, 1–62.]

When preparing my first volume of the "Catalogue of Birds," I made an excursion to various foreign Museums to examine types of rare species

VOL. II. Y

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of Accipitres. At that time the Museum was without any series of continental species, and my amiable and talented colleague, Dr. Dubois, presented an interesting collection of Belgian birds, which I brought home with me.

Bryant (Mrs.).

66 birds from the West Indian Islands. Presented. [70. 4. 12, 1–66.]

Dr. Bryant, who was a well-known American ornithologist, made collections in the Bahamas, Jamaica, Porto Rico, and other West Indian Islands, and at his death his widow distributed his collection between various Museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, the British Museum, and the private collections of Dr. Sclater, Messrs. Salvin and Godman, etc. The specimens received by the British Museum were then, and are still at the present day, extremely valuable, and the intentions of the broad-minded naturalist who gave them have been fully appreciated.

Buck (WALTER J.).

6 specimens of the Great Bustard (Otis tarda) from Andalusia. Presented. [89. 12. 16, 1–6.]

Buckley (T. E.).

20 birds from the Transvaal. Presented. [74. 4. 16, 1–13; 74. 5. 15, 1–7.]

Mr. Buckley accompanied Capt. Shelley on an expedition to the Gold Coast, and discovered a new Lark (Calandrella buckleyi) on that occasion (cf. "Ibis," 1872, pp. 281–93).

He afterwards visited Matabeleland and Swaziland (cf. "Ibis," 1874, pp. 355–91). His Swaziland collection forms still the only foundation of our knowledge of the Avifauna of this part of South Africa.

Mr. Buckley ultimately disposed of his collection to his old friend Captain Shelley, and with the Shelley Collection the whole of it has passed into the British Museum. In conjunction with Mr. Harvie-Brown, he wrote several valuable works on the ornithology of Scotland and its isles, e.g. the 'Vertebrate Fauna of Sutherland, Caithness, and West Cromarty,' Edinburgh, 1887; do. Outer Hebrides, Edinburgh, 1888; do. of Argyll and the Inner Hebrides, Edinburgh, 1892; do. of the Moray Basin, Edinburgh, 1895.

Bugle (Capt.).

36 birds from Demerara. Purchased. [99. 2. 7, 1–36.]

Bullen (Rev. R. ASHINGTON).

2 birds from the Shiré River, Zambesi. Presented. [1904. 9. 5, 1, 2.]

Buller (Sir WALTER LAWRY), D.Sc., F.R.S.

3 specimens (Platycercus alpinus and Larus bulleri) new to the collection. Presented. [72. 11. 22, 1, 2; 72. 12. 21, 1.]

1 young Megapodius pritchardi, Nuia Foou Isl., Tonga group. Presented. [1904. 7. 29, 1.]

5 birds from Axim, W. Africa. Presented. [1905. 1. 22, 1–5.]

Sir Walter Buller is the historian of the Avifauna of New Zealand, his native country, and two editions of his great work have been published by him. The collections on which his history is based are in the Rothschild Museum at Tring.

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Bullock (D. S.).

30 birds from Chile. Purchased. [1905. 4. 12, 1–30.]

Bullock-Webster (Rev. G. R.).

A specimen of Syrnium funereum from British Columbia. Presented. [1905. 6. 27, 1.]

Burbidge (F.).

See VEITCH, H.

Mr. Burbidge was a botanical collector, who travelled in the East for Messrs. Veitch. He was at the same time a good ornithological observer, and when in N.W. Borneo he ascended the slopes of Mount Kina Balu, went up the Lawas River, and visited the Sulu islands, where he discovered a new Parrot (Tanygnathus burbidgei). His collection was described by me (P.Z.S., 1879, pp. 245–9).

Burls (H. T.).

160 birds from Buxton Co., West Virginia. Presented. [1906. 1. 20, 1–168.]

Burmeister (H.).

8 birds from the Argentine Republic. Purchased. [72. 5. 31, 1–8.]

The Director of the Buenos Aires Museum and author of the "Thiere Brasiliens" and the "Reise durch die La Plata-Staaten, mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die physische Beschaffenheit und den Culturzustand der Argentinischen Republik." He discovered a new species of Seriama which has been named after him Chunga burmeisteri.

Burnett (Sir W.) and Fitzroy (Admiral).

188 specimens from various parts of South America. [37. 2. 21, 231–417; 37. 3. 15, 1.]

These specimens were collected by Admiral Fitzroy, a celebrated meteorologist of his time (cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., vii., p. 414). Sir Wm. Burnett was the King's physician, and what he had to do with the presentation of a collection made by the Admiral, I have never been able to discover.

Burrows (Capt. GUY).

31 specimens from the Aruwhimi River, Upper Congo. Purchased. [1902. 5. 3, 1–31.]

Among many other interesting specimens, one of Dryotriorchis batesi, the West African Serpent-Eagle, is the most noteworthy. The collection acquired by the Museum is but a small portion of that formed by Capt. Guy Burrows, only one box having reached England out of several forwarded to Antwerp for transmission to this country. [Cf. "Land of the Pigmies, etc.," London, 1898.]

Burton (CHARLES).

39 birds in spirit from S. Australia. Presented. [96. 9. 16, 1–39.]

One of the sons of Henry Burton, a well-known taxidermist of Wardour Street, to whom many specimens of Osbert Salvin's youthful collections were due. All the sons were clever taxidermists.

Burton (Sir RICHARD).

16 birds from Camaroons and Fernando Po. Presented. [62. 6. 22, 33; 62. 12. 1, 8–23; 62. 11. 28, 1.]

Y 2

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5 birds from Midian. [78. 8. 20, 1–5.]

35 birds from the Ankobra River, Wasa, Gold Coast. [82. 6. 12, 1–35.]

From Sir Richard Burton, the famous traveller and Orientalist, the Museum received its first collections from the Camaroons, with some new species (Serinus burtoni, Callene isabellæ, etc.) described by G. R. Gray (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) x., pp. 443–445).

In conjunction with Capt. Cameron he went to the Gold Coast, and the two explorers presented a small collection from the Wasa district. [Cf. "Life of Sir Richard Burton." By his wife, Isabel Burton; 2 vols. 1893.]

Burton (WALTER).

Another son of Henry Burton.

See BOWYER BOWER.

Bury (G. W.).

See OGILVIE-GRANT, W. R.; GERRARD, E.

166 specimens from Southern Arabia. Purchased. [1902. 12. 1–82; 1902. 12. 13, 1–84; 1903. 8. 12, 1–244.]

Mr. Bury was the Political Agent on the Aden Hinterland frontier, and has for some years past been exploring parts of Southern Arabia, where his knowledge of Arabic dialects has enabled him to travel as a native. During these expeditions he has made some collections of birds, which have been described by Drs. Lorenz and Hellmayr (Denkschr. Akad. Wien, lxxi., pp. 103–21, Taf. 1; Bull. B. O. C., xii., p. 80; xiii., p. 21) and by Mr. Ogilvie-Grant. His most notable discoveries have been a new species of Rhynchostruthus, Fringillaria tdthalæ, Serinus rothschildi, etc. [Cf. Grant, Nov. Zool., vii., pp. 243–273, 591, pl. x.]

Butcher (S.).

108 specimens of birds and eggs from the Persian Gulf. Presented. [94. 11. 13, 1–108.]

Butler (A. L.).

2 birds from Kordofan. Presented. [1904. 6. 12, 1–2.]

2 Ptilopachus fuscus young from Kordofan. Presented. [1904. 7. 6, 1–2.]

Son of Colonel A. E. Butler, and, like his father, a first-rate preserver of mammals and birds. He has worked chiefly in the upper regions of Egypt and the Nile, and has contributed to the "Ibis" for 1895 an important paper on the ornithology of the Egyptian Soudan (cf. "Ibis," 1905, pp. 301–401). He is now Superintendent of Game Preservation under the Egyptian Government.

Butler (ARTHUR GARDINER), Ph.D.

A Java Sparrow (Padda oryzivora), pied variety, bred in confinement. [1904. 2. 5, 1.]

2 Weaver-Finches (Quelea quelea, Tæniopygia castanotis), bred in confinement. Presented. [1904. 3. 1, 1; 1904. 5. 8, 1.]

A young Diamond Dove (Geopelia cuneata), died in captivity. Presented. [1905. 7. 29, 1.]

A white variety of the Common Robin (Erithacus rubecula). Presented. [1905. 9. 21, 1.]

Butler (Col. E. A.).

70 birds from Mount Abu, Western India. Presented. [89. 1. 9, 1–70.]

9 birds from Suffolk. Presented. [98. 1. 27, 1–9.]

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Colonel Butler is one of the most artistic preservers of specimens that I have ever known, every single skin of his collections having been prepared with the most scrupulous care. His entire Indian series, save a few skins which he presented direct to our Museum, passed into the hands of Mr. Allan Hume, and some important papers were published on the collections ("Stray Feathers," iii., pp. 437–500; ix., pp. 367–442).

During the first Boer War he served with his regiment in Natal, and made a collection of birds, now in the Shelley collection. Interesting notes on these birds were published in the "Zoologist" for 1882 (pp. 165–460).

Colonel Butler has also published two very useful memoirs, viz., "Catalogue of the Birds of Sind, Cutch, etc.," 1879 (pp. 1–83), "Catalogue of the Birds of the southern portion of the Bombay Presidency," 1880 (pp. 1–114).

Büttikofer (Dr. J.).

See FRANK, G. A.

A Swiss naturalist, who was for some years attached to the Leyden Museum as Professor Schlegel's ornithological assistant. He has travelled extensively in Liberia, where, after enduring great hardships, he procured a fine collection of mammals and birds from this region of West Africa. From this celebrated exploration the British Museum obtained a few duplicates through the agency of Mr. G. A. Frank (cf. Büttikofer "Reisebilde," 2 vols., published in 1890).

He also conducted an expedition into the mountains of Dutch N.W. Borneo (cf. Notes, Leyden Museum, vii., viii., x., xi., xii.). He is now the Director of the Zoological Gardens at Rotterdam.

Buxton (Rev. H. F.).

68 birds from Mombasa. Presented. [82. 12. 3, 1–68.]

Calcutta Museum.

See INDIA MUSEUM, CALCUTTA; ANDERSON, DR. JOHN; etc.

Cambridge (F. O. PICKARD).

See AUSTEN, E. C.

20 specimens from the River Amazon. [96. 5. 12, 1–20.]

Cameron (E. S.).

12 Birds of Prey and Ducks from Montana. [91. 7. 18, 1–9; 91. 8. 13, 1–3.]

The series includes very interesting specimens, the various plumages of Buteo swainsoni, etc.

Cameron (Capt.).

See BURTON, SIR RICHARD.

Campbell (C. W.), H.B.M. Consul in Corea.

96 birds from Corea. Presented. [91. 10. 13, 1–75; 91. 10. 19, 1–21.]

52 birds from the neighbourhood of Pekin. [1901. 5. 20, 1–52.]

Cf. Seebohm, "Ibis," 1894, p. 338. Suthora longicauda, and other species described. The collection forms part of the Seebohm Bequest to the British Museum.

Campbell (W. MCORAN.).

3 young Iceland Falcons. Presented. [1901. 9. 4, 1; 1903. 4. 9, 1–2.]

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Canada, Government of.

27 specimens from Canada. [90. 3. 13, 1–27.]

These were some of the birds exhibited in the Imperial Institute by the Canadian Government.

Carruthers (D.).

5 birds from Canada and a Goldfinch from Malta. Presented. [1905. 9. 23, 1–5.]

88 birds from the Syrian Desert, including the type of Emberiza citriniventris, Sclater. Purchased. [1905. 10. 11, 1–88.]

Carter (TOM).

9 birds, including 4 species new to the Museum, from Western Australia. Presented. [1900. 5. 3, 1–8; 1901. 1. 24, 1.]

630 eggs of Australian birds. Purchased. [1903. 11. 4, 1–613.]

Mr. Carter is the discoverer of several new species in Western Australia (Eremiornis carteri, Thalassogeron carteri, etc.).

Cassels (Capt. KENNETT).

A Tragopan (Ceriornis blythi) from Manipur. Presented. [1904. 4. 22, 1.]

Cavendish (H. S. H.).

53 specimens from Mozambique. Presented. [98. 11. 18, 1–53.]

On this expedition Mr. Cavendish was accompanied by Mr. E. Dodson as his assistant. A new species of Weaver Finch (Estrilda cavendishi) was discovered, and a Swallow (Psalidoprocne percivali) was new to the collection; cf. Sharpe, Ibis, 1900, pp. 109–115.

Mr. Cavendish's exploration of the Lake Rudolf region is described in the Geographical Journal, xi., No. 4, pp. 372–396 (1898).

Cavendish Taylor (E.).

See TAYLOR.

Cazalet (Rev. A.).

2 Finches from Russia. Presented. [1905. 6. 23, 1–2.]

2 specimens of the Rose-coloured Pastor and Gouldian Finch. Presented. [1905. 7. 7, 1–2.]

2 Weaver Finches. Presented. [1905. 9. 14, 1–2.]

Challenger, Voyage of H.M.S.

1172 specimens of birds, skeletons and eggs. Presented by the Lords of the Treasury. [80. 11. 18, 1–795; 80. 12. 3, 1–226; 81. 4. 16, 4–8; 82. 6. 23, 1; 84. 2. 29, 1–31; 90. 5. 5, 1–18; 90. 11. 3, 1–21; 98. 7. 1, 1–15.]

The results of this celebrated voyage have been recorded in the volumes of the "Challenger Expedition." Vol. ii. deals with the ornithological collections, which were placed in the hands of Dr. Sclater for description. 31 species of birds were added to the British Museum, including the types of 12 new species.

Cf. Tweeddale, "Rep. Sci. Results Voy. Challenger," ii., Zool., Birds, pp. 5–25, pls. i.–vi. (1880). Philippine Islands.

Sclater, tom. cit., pp. 25–34, pls. vii.–xi. Admiralty Islands.

Finsch, tom. cit., pp. 34–58, pls. xii.–xvii., Tongatabu, the Fiji Islands, Api (New Hebrides), and Tahiti.

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Salvadori, tom. cit., pp. 58–83, pls. xviii.–xx. Ternate, Amboyna, Banda, the Key Islands and the Aru Islands.

Forbes (W. A.), tom. cit., pp. 84–93, Cape York, Australia, and the neighbouring islands (Raine, Wednesday, and Booby Islands).

Sclater, tom. cit., pp. 93–99, pls. xxi. and xxii., Sandwich Islands.

Sclater and Salvin, tom. cit., pp. 99–109, Antarctic America.

Sclater, tom. cit., pp. 110–117, pls. xxiii. and xxiv., Atlantic Islands and Kerguelen Island, and on the miscellaneous collections obtained during the voyage.

Sclater and Salvin, tom. cit., pp. 117–132, pls. xxv.–xxx., Steganopodes and Impennes collected during the Expedition.

Saunders, tom. cit., pp. 133–140. Laridæ collected during the Expedition.

Salvin, tom. cit., pp. 140–149. Procellariidæ collected during the Expedition.

APPENDIX.

Sclater, "List of birds' eggs obtained during the Challenger Expedition, tom. cit., pp. 150–152.

Garrod, A. H., "Note on the gizzard and other organs of Carpophaga latrans," tom. cit., pp. 152–154.

Watson, M., "Report on the anatomy of the Spheniscidæ collected during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger," op. cit., vii., pp. 1–244, pls. i.–xix. (1883).

Chamberlain (NEVILLE).

45 specimens from the Bahama Islands. Presented. [96. 8. 19, 1–45.]

A son of the Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, and an enthusiastic student of zoology. The collection presented by Mr. Neville Chamberlain was of great value to the Museum, which had but a poor collection from the Bahama Islands.

Chamberlain (WALTER).

A specimen of Rhipidura preissi from King George's Sound, W. Australia, new to the collection. Presented. [91. 11. 9. 1.]

Mr. Walter Chamberlain is a younger brother of the Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain. He has collected in the Fiji Islands and Australia.

Chambers (Capt.).

126 specimens from Port Essington, N. Australia. [42. 1. 13, 1–120; 42. 1. 15, 4–9.]

Mostly from Port Essington. At that time this collection must have been of great interest, but of the new species not one appears to have been named by Mr. Gould after the explorer who had taken the trouble to collect them.

Chapman (ABEL).

Nestling of Syrnium aluco, from Northumberland. Presented. [1904. 5. 10, 1.]

A specimen of the Common Eider Duck (Somateria mollissima) from Holy Island. Presented. [1905. 4. 13, 1.]

Mr. Abel Chapman is a very well-known field-naturalist, and is celebrated for his discovery of the nesting of the Flamingo in Southern Spain ("Ibis," 1884, pl. i–iv., pp. 66–99). Cf. also his works, "Wild Spain" and "Wild Norway."

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Charlton (Major).

27 birds from the Malay Peninsula. Presented. [46. 3. 4, 10–36.]

This collection was described by T. C. Eyton (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., xvi., pp. 227–230). The genus Philentoma was instituted, and 16 species were described as new, among them Arboricola charltoni, a fine species of Hill Partridge, since also found in N. W. Borneo.

Chaves (Major).

See PONTA DELGADA MUSEUM (AZORES).

Cheetham (G. H.).

9 specimens from Stornoway. Presented. [1900. 1. 16, 1–9.]

Mr. Cheetham accompanied Mr. R. M. Hawker on his expeditions to the Sudan (cf. "Ibis," 1902, pp. 393–470).

The two friends were in the habit of shooting together in Scotland, and during an excursion to the Hebrides in 1900 they sent to the Museum a few birds from Stornoway.

Chevalier (C.).

14 birds from Aden. Presented. [86. 11. 20, 11–19; 89. 3. 2, 175–179.]

Mr. Chevalier was for a long time the superintendent of the Eastern Telegraph Company at Aden, and devoted much of his time to the study of natural history. He was one of the first Englishmen to send home specimens from South Arabia.

Chill (W. N.).

One of Mr. Hume's collectors in the Delhi district. He made large collections of birds and eggs.

Cholmley (A. J.).

3 specimens from the neighbourhood of Suakin. Presented. [97. 10. 15, 1–3.]

Mr. Cholmley made an interesting collection in Suakin, and presented to the Museum the type of Ammedperdix cholmleyi, Grant (Handb. Game-birds, vol. ii., p. 293), and an example of Saxicola xanthoprymna, new to the Museum. An account of his expedition has been published by Mr. Cholmley in the "Ibis" for 1897 (pp. 196–209).

Christian (J.).

10 birds from the Pelew Islands. Purchased. [99. 5. 18, 1–10.]

Christiania Museum (Prof. ROBERT COLLETT, Director).

103 birds from Norway. Presented and exchanged. [84. 11. 1, 1–43; 86. 3. 19, 1–9; 86. 11. 19, 8–22; 88. 12. 7, 1–17; 89. 1. 16, 1–8; 92. 5. 5, 1–11.]

33 birds from Hawaii collected by V. Knudsen. [90. 10. 3, 1–19; 95. 10. 16, 1–14.]

For many years Professor Collett has been a staunch friend of the British Museum, and he has always procured and presented any specimens required for the work of the "Catalogue of Birds." The collection of Knudsen's duplicates from Hawaii was a very valuable addition to our series, and contained eight species new to the Museum.

Christy (Dr. CUTHBERT).

27 birds and eggs from Upper Nigeria. Presented. [99. 8. 8, 1–23 99. 9. 7, 1–4.]

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64 birds and eggs from Uganda. Presented. [1903. 5. 11, 1–64.]

75 birds from Chagwe, W. Uganda. Presented. [1906. 1. 21, 1–75.]

Dr. Christy has found time occasionally to procure a few birds for the Museum during his travels. He has described his collections from St. Domingo in the "Ibis" for 1897 (pp. 317–343).

Chubb (C.).

See REYNOLDS, H.

Mr. Chubb has been associated with my work in the British Museum for the past twenty-two years, in fact ever since the Natural History collections were transferred from Bloomsbury to Kensington. By incessant work inside the Museum and by devoting all his private time to the study of birds, he has acquired a knowledge of the class Aves which has been of the greatest assistance to myself and ornithologists visiting the Museum, while his knowledge of ornithological literature is probably unrivalled. He has been of the greatest help to me in the preparation of the concluding volumes of the "Catalogue of Birds," and has assisted me materially for several years in the compilation of the "Zoological Record." Mr. Chubb prepared the "List of the Birds of Uganda" for Sir Harry Johnston's great work on that country. He has also written a Synopsis and Index to the contents of the eleven volumes of "Stray Feathers."

Churchill (W. A.).

31 specimens from Mozambique. Presented. [97. 2. 26, 1–31.]

Clarke (EDWARD).

104 specimens from Mashonaland. Purchased. [1900. 2. 12, 1–104.]

Clarke (Major R. STEPHENSON).

11 birds from Bloemfontein. Presented. [1903. 3. 8, 1–11.]

These donations formed part of a very interesting collection made by Major Stephenson Clarke during the last Boer war. A new Weaver Finch has been named after him by Capt. Shelley, Sporæginthus clarkei (cf. Bull. B. O. C., xiv., p. 75).

Claussen (M.).

230 specimens from Brazil. Presented. [44. 3. 7, 12–19; 44. 11. 7, 1–222.]

Dr. Claussen is mentioned in the History of the Collections (Geology, p. 278) as having explored in Minas Geraes. He gave the Museum some interesting birds, which were for many years almost the only Brazilian birds it possessed.

Coale (H. K.).

60 birds from Arizona and other parts of North America. Presented. [87. 1. 24, 1–60.]

An active American naturalist, from whom the Museum received several interesting species. Many of his skins are in the Sclater Collection.

Cobbold (Major R. P.).

17 birds from Abyssinia collected by Mr. Zaphiro. [1903. 12. 18, 119–135.]

Coburn (F.).

7 specimens from Northern Iceland. Presented. [1902. 6. 13, 1–7.]

Mr. Coburn made a most successful visit to Iceland a few years ago.

[page] 330

He has described his trip in the pages of the "Zoologist" (1901, pp. 401–419), and a note on his collection is published in the "Bulletin" of the British Ornithologists' Club (xii., pp. 14, 15). He found the American Wigeon (Mareca americana) breeding in Iceland, and I also described the Iceland Redwing, of which Mr. Coburn brought three specimens all precisely alike, as Turdus coburni.

Cochrane (J. H.).

A companion of Canon Tristram during the latter's visit to Palestine.

Cockburn (J.).

One of Mr. Hume's collectors, who did good work in Assam.

Cockburn (Miss).

A correspondent of Mr. Hume, to whom this lady sent many interesting birds and eggs from the Nilghiri Hills.

Cockerell (J. T.).

13 birds from the Solomon Islands and New Guinea. Purchased. [84. 1. 19, 1–13.]

The Cockerells were well-known Australian collectors, and made beautiful skins of birds. The elder was a correspondent of John Gould's, and he made a fine collection of Australian birds, the bulk of the specimens being from Queensland. His collection was sent for sale to England and was sold by Mr. Higgins to Dr. F. D. Godman, who presented the whole of it to the British Museum in 1881. Many birds from the Cape York Peninsula, collected by Messrs. Cockerell and Thorpe, were also sold in this country from time to time.

J. T. Cockerell, jun., collected in the Solomon Islands, and out of the thirteen specimens acquired in 1884, seven were new to the National Collection, including the type of Myiagra ferrocyanea.

Cohen (J.).

See GERRARD, E.

Mr. Cohen collected in the Pelew Islands, and nearly every specimen purchased from Mr. Gerrard represented a species new to the Museum.

Collett (Prof. ROBERT).

See CHRISTIANIA MUSEUM.

Collinson (Admiral Sir RICHARD).

88 birds from the Arctic Seas. Presented. [55. 7. 11, 1–88.]

20 eggs of birds from Cambridge Bay. Presented. [91. 3. 13, 1–20.]

This collection, made during the voyage of H.M.S. Enterprise, contained specimens of the Arctic Peregrine (Falco pealei) and other interesting birds. No account of it was ever prepared. Capt. Collinson, as he then was, was also attached to the Voyage of the Sulphur.

Cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr. xi., p. 383.

Coltart (Dr.).

7 birds from the inner hill-ranges of Assam. Purchased. [1904. 7. 24, 1–7.]

Conyngham (Mrs.).

56 specimens of British birds, mostly from Torquay. Presented. [81. 8. 5, 1–56.]

These birds were beautifully mounted, and were useful in supplementing our series in the public galleries.

[page] 331

Conrad (Capt.).

See SHARPE, R. BOWDLER.

Capt. Conrad's collection from Siam and other parts of the Malay Archipelago and the China Seas was described by Dr. Otto Finsch. The collection was offered for sale, and I bought it during a visit to Germany and presented it to the Museum.

Comrie (Surgeon), R.N.

27 eggs from Ascension Island. Presented. [82. 6. 18, 1–27.]

Dr. Comrie was a naval surgeon who took great interest in natura history, and was the discoverer of the splendid Manucode from Huon Gulf named after him Manucodia comriei (cf. Sclater, P.Z.S., 1876, p. 459 pl. xlii).

Conway (Sir MARTIN).

23 birds from Lake Titicaca and other localities in the Andes. Presented. [99. 10. 4, 1–23.]

Cookson (Commander W. E.).

13 specimens from the Galapagos Archipelago (Charles and Albemarle Islands). Presented. [76. 7. 21, 1–13.]

When in command of H.M.S. Peterel Commander Cookson was directed to proceed to the Galapagos by Admiral the Hon. A. A. Cochrane, and the results of his fortnight's stay in the Archipelago were published by Dr. Günther in the "Proceedings of the Zoological Society" for 1877 (pp. 64–68).

Cooper (Sir DANIEL).

96 birds from Australia. Presented. [56. 3. 14, 1–96.]

Coppinger (Dr. R. W.).

91 skins and skeletons of birds from the Straits of Magellan and Western Patagonia, obtained during the voyage of H.M.S. Alert. Presented by the Lords of the Admiralty. [80. 8. 3, 1–79; 83. 10. 25, 1–12.]

176 specimens from various localities, Tongatabu, Torres Straits, Glorioso and Aldabra Islands, etc. Presented by the Lords of the Admiralty. [81. 9. 26, 1–19; 82. 2. 18, 1–157.]

The first collection was described by me in 1881 (cf. P.Z.S., 1881, pp. 6–18). The account of the other collections is embodied in the volume on the voyage of H.M.S. Alert, published by the Trustees of the British Museum. A new species of Turtle Dove (Turtur coppingeri) was discovered by him in Glorioso Island.

Dr. Coppinger was an excellent collector, and gained his first experience with Colonel Feilden in the Alert during Sir George Nares' expedition to the Arctic regions in 1875–76.

Cf. Coppinger, "Cruise of the Alert," 1883.

Cottle (W.).

23 specimens from the island of Nevis, W. Indies. Presented. [39. 5. 30, 1–10; 40. 5. 13, 1–10; 41. 6, 995–997.]

I have never discovered who Mr. Cottle was, but his small collection is still the only one which has reached the Museum from Nevis.

Coues (Prof. ELLIOT).

One of the greatest of American ornithologists and a first-rate field-naturalist. Many specimens obtained by him are in the Henshaw Collection.

See also BOUNDARY COMMISSION, NORTH AMERICAN.

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Cowan (Rev. W. DEANS).

See HIGGINS, W.; HARTING, J. E.

529 skins and skeletons of birds and eggs from the province of Betsileo in Madagascar. Purchased. [82. 2. 27, 1–140; 82. 2. 28, 1–33; 82. 3. 4, 1–173.]

183 eggs from Madagascar. Presented. [85. 1. 25, 1–183.]

The Rev. Deans Cowan was a missionary in Madagascar before the French occupation, and was a most energetie naturalist. His explorations in the Ankafana Forests were most noteworthy, and besides many rare species he discovered a new species of Sand-Martin which I named Cotile cowani (cf. his "Notes on the Natural History of Madagascar," P. Phys. Soc. Edinb., vii., pp. 133–150, 1883).

Cox (Capt.).

125 birds from the vicinity of Muscat. Presented. [1905. 12. 30, 1–125.]

Craddock (W. H.) and Thompson (H. N.).

420 birds and eggs from the southern Shan States. Purchased. [1903. 12. 24, 1–420.]

Crawford and Balcarres (Earl of), K.T.

35 specimens obtained during the cruise of the yacht Venus. Presented. [86. 2. 1, 1–35.]

The collection was described by Mr. Howard Saunders (P. Z. S. 1880, pp. 161–165).

732 spceimens collected during the cruise of the yacht Valhalla. [1903. 12. 30, 1–260; 1904. 8. 5, 1–35; 1904. 8. 17, 1–437.]

These collections were formed for the Earl of Crawford by Mr. M. J. Nicoll during the voyage of the R.Y.S. Valhalla, and several interesting species were obtained, the most notable being old and young birds of the Pitcairn Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus vaughani, Sharpe) (cf. Bull. B.O.C., xi., p. ii.), and the types of Dendrœca crawfordi and Vireo lauræ (cf. Nicoll, "Ibis," 1904, pp. 32–67, pl. i., pp. 555–591, pl. xi.).

Crawshay (Capt. RICHARD).

8 specimens from Lake Nyasa. Presented. [98. 6. 8, 1–8.]

18 specimens from British East Africa. Presented. [99. 2. 5, 1–8; 1900. 9. 4, 1–10.]

Mr Crawshay has discovered some fine new species of Mammals in Nyasaland (see Report on Mammalia, p. 24), and is a well-known entomologist. He has also sent to the Museum some interesting birds, including a new Francolin (Francolinus crawshayi, Grant).

Crewdson (WILSON).

19 specimens from California. Presented. [88. 2. 25, 1–19.]

Cripps (J. N.).

An energetic collector in Upper Assam, who sent many specimens of birds and eggs to Mr. Hume (cf. "Stray Feathers," xi., pp. 1–353).

Cross (W.).

49 birds from Colorado. Received in exchange. [1905. 1. 25, 250–298.]

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Crowfoot (Dr.).

8 birds and 24 eggs from Norfolk Island. Presented. [85. 1. 7 1–8; 87. 7. 9, 1–24.]

Dr. Crowfoot, of Beccles in Suffolk, is a first-rate oologist, and the eggs of some valuable species were included in the above donation.

Crowley (PHILIP).

92 eggs of British birds. Presented. [84. 10. 3, 1–92.]

14,657 eggs. The Crowley Bequest. [1901. 2. 25, 1–74 (Accipitres); 1901. 7. 6, 1–608 (Charadriiformes, etc.); 1901. 8. 12, 1–73 (Herodiones); 1901. 10. 15, 1–408 (Striges, etc.); 1901. 10. 28, 1–71; 1901, 11. 1, 1–713 (Ratitæ, Galliformes); 1901. 11. 15, 1–815 (Pelecaniformes, Anseriformes); 1901. 11. 20, 1–590 (Columbiformes, Ralliformes); 1901. 11. 30, 1–526; 1901. 12. 5, 1–838; 1901. 12. 11, 1–260; 1901. 12. 15, 1–1000 (Passeriformes, Picariæ); 1902. 1. 10, 1–1008 (eggs of Cuckoos with those of foster-parents); 1902. 2. 5, 1–287 (Lariformes); 1902. 2. 15, 1–10 (skins of birds); 1902. 2. 20, 1–229 (Pelecaniformes, Sphenisciformes); 1902. 2. 23, 1–120 (Alciformes); 1902. 2. 24, 1–1002 (Ralliformes, Passeriformes); 1902. 3. 1, 1–828 (Ploceidæ, Fringillidæ, Tanagridæ); 1902. 3. 10, 1–417 (Charadriiformes); 1902. 3. 20, 1–1014; 1902. 3. 25, 1–991; 1902. 4. 5, 1002; 1902. 4. 10, 1–1028; 1902. 4. 28, 1–87 (Passeriformes).]

The celebrated Crowley Collection, bequeathed by its owner, is one of the most valuable donations ever made to the Museum. It enriched the egg-collection in an extraordinary degree, as is evidenced by the "Catalogue of Birds' Eggs." The series of specimens from Australia, whence the Museum had but few examples, was extremely fine, and one of the treasures was an egg of the Great Auk (Plautus impennis), formerly in Canon Tristram's collection, the whole of which had been acquired by Mr. Crowley, and of which the major part has now passed into the cabinets of the Museum. By Mr. Crowley's will the Trustees were permitted to select four clutches of eggs from any locality not previously represented in the Museum, and any eggs of historical interest. The duplicates were afterwards sold at Stevens' on April 17, May 15, and June 5, 1902.

One of the most interesting features of the Crowley Bequest was the remarkable series of Cuckoo's eggs with those of the foster-parents.

Cuming (HUGH).

47 eggs from North America. Presented. [41. 6. 11, 16–57.]

234 specimens from Malacca and the Philippine Islands, collected by Cuming himself. Purchased. [42. 2. 15, 1–234.]

In this collection are several specimens which became types in after years, such as Baza magnirostris, Bubo philippinensis, Loriculus melanopterus, Gray, and L. hartlaubi, Frisch (= L. apicalis, Souanée; cf. Salvad. Cat. B., xx., p. 528).

35 specimens from Chili. Purchased. [44. 1. 8, 12–18; 44. 10. 7, 1–28.]

Collected by "Renous" [whoever he was!]. The collection was at first ascribed to Bridges.

35 birds from Honduras, collected by Dyson. (See postea, p. 343.) [45. 3. 15, 16–25; 45. 5. 3, 1–29; 45. 5. 21, 43–52; 45. 8. 5, 33–37.]

22 specimens from Borneo. [46. 1. 16, 8–29.]

10 specimens from Jamaica, being part of P. H. Gosse's collection.

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[46. 10. 26, 1–10, type of Hirundo pœciloma, Gosse (= Petrochelidon fulva (Vieill.); cf. Sharpe, Cat x., p. 155).]

17 birds from Caracas, Venezuela, collected by Auguste Sallé. [47. 7. 16, 1–17.]

30 specimens from Nicaragua, collected by Sallé. [48. 11. 1, 1–22, 27–34.]

64 specimens from San Domingo, collected by Sallé. [50. 11. 13, 17–52; 51. 11. 14, 1–28.]

140 skins from Ceylon, collected by Thwaites. [52. 2. 5, 6–43; 53. 5. 3, 1–34; 53. 10. 29, 1–20; 54. 1. 13, 1–48.]

39 specimens from the Philippine Islands. [53. 5. 4, 1–19; 54. 5. 8, 1–20.]

17 birds from California, collected by Bridges. [58. 3. 1, 1–9; 58. 25, 1–8.]

19 birds from the Pacific Islands and other localities. [58. 5. 8, 1–19.]

22 birds from New Caledonia, collected by John Macgillivray. [59. 4. 19, 1–22.] Type of Phænorhina goliath, Gray.

Cumming (WALTER D.).

634 birds, nests and eggs from Fao in the Persian Gulf. Presented. [85. 3. 7, 1–189; 85. 7. 15, 1–9; 88. 12. 6, 1–95; 90. 11. 1, 1–216: 1903. 2. 17, 1–25.]

64 specimens of birds, nests and eggs from Fao. Purchased. [95. 11. 15, 1–64.]

5 birds from the Mekran Coast. Presented. [1904. 11. 27, 1–5.]

These very valuable collections, from a locality whence the Museum had never received any specimens, were described by me in the "Ibis" for 1886 (pp. 475–493), and 1891 (pp. 103–116), when the nest and eggs of Hypocolius ampelinus were made known for the first time. Mr. Whitaker has recently described a new species of Chat from Mr. Cumming's collection, as Saxicola cummingi (Bull. B. O. C., x. p. xvii., 1900; figured, Ibis, 1902, pp. 58, 59, pl. iii.). His last donation included specimens of the Red-throated Diver (Colymbus septrionalis and Merganser serrator), recorded from S. Persia for the first time.

Mr. Cumming entered the Persian Gulf Telegraph Service in August 1876, and was stationed at Fao in 1883, 1886, 1890–1894, and 1896. Fao proved to be a good collecting ground, being situated at the north end of the Persian Gulf, on the right bank of the River Shat-al-arab, and about fourteen miles from its mouth. It belongs to Turkey, the river forming the boundary between Persian and Turkish territory.

Cuninghame (R. J.)

A Saddle-billed Jabiru from Fashoda. [1902. 11. 20, 1.]

Cunninghame (J. F.).

54 birds from Western Uganda. Presented. [1904. 6. 27, 1–9; 1904. 7. 17, 1–45.]

Cutter (W.).

32 birds from South America. Purchased. [69. 8. 16, 1–32.]

57 birds from Madagascar. Purchased. [70. 5. 20, 1–31; 72. 10. 12, 1–7; 75. 2. 1, 5. 23.]

7 birds from the Zambesi district. Purchased. [76. 7. 5, 1–7.]

Mr. Cutter was a well-known natural history agent in Great Russell Street, and had a shop at the opposite corner to Mr. John Gould's house

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in Charlotte Street, where the business is still carried on by the family. He was Alfred Everett's first agent, and it was from Mr. Cutter that Mr. Gould received the original type-specimen of Pitta arcuata, one of the finest of Everett's discoveries. I also knew him as Crossley's agent, and I described many fine things from Crossley's Madagascar collections, the types of which are in my collection now in the British Museum. After I had entered the Museum, I was no longer allowed to keep a private collection of birds, and Crossley's later consignments were purchased by the Museum direct from Mr. Cutter. Thus in 1875 we acquired the types of Eutriorchis astur, Atelornis crossleyi, Neodrepanis coruscans, Oxylabes xanthophrys, and Bernieria zosterops [75. 2. 1, 5–23], all most interesting species, which were described by me (P.Z.S., 1875, pp. 70–78, pls. xiii., xiv.).

The birds from the Zambesi must, I think, have been collected by Dr. Bradshaw. They were beautiful skins, and two species were described by me as new, Pinarornis plumosus (fig., Cat. B., vii., pl. ix.) and Saxicola shelleyi (cf. Sharpe's edition of Layard, pp. 230, 246. Figured in Oates' "Matabele Land," App., pl. A.). The latter bird is really a Thamnolæa, and was named by me in honour of my friend, Sir Edward Shelley, an old Zambesi explorer, who reached Lake Nyasa but a short time after its discovery by Livingstone and Kirk. Sir Edward was one of the pall-bearers at Livingstone's funeral.

Dalgleish (G.).

6 eggs of the Kentish Plover from the Channel Islands. Presented. [1904. 3. 2, 1–3; 1904. 3. 3, 1–3.]

Danckwerts (W. C.).

A specimen of the Grey Lag Goose (Anser anser) from Sutherland. [1905. 5. 22, 1.]

Danford (C. G.).

2 Nutcrackers, with nest and eggs, from the Carpathian Mountains. Presented. [1901. 4. 14, 1–8.]

Mr. Danford, with Mr. J. A. Harvie-Brown, wrote a list of the birds of Transylvania, mainly based on their own observations (Ibis, 1875, pp. 188–199, 291–313, 412–431). In 1877 he described the birds collected during his travels in Asia Minor (Ibis, 1877, pp. 261–274; 1878, pp. 1–35), and again in 1880 (Ibis, 1880, pp. 81–99).

Most of the specimens obtained during this last expedition were given by Mr. Danford to various private collections, and thus many have come to the Museum with the Seebohm Bequest. The type of a new species of Lesser Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopus danfordi) also came with the Hargitt collection. Mr. Danford has presented the nest in situ, with the eggs and parent-birds of the Nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes), from Transylvania, and this is one of the most interesting of our bird-groups.

Daniels (Major COOKE).

3 skins and 14 specimens in spirit, from S.E. New Guinea. Presented. [1905. 9. 18, 1–17.]

Daniels (Miss E.).

13 birds from British Guiana. Presented. [1905. 5. 20, 1–13.]

Darling (J.).

Was one of Mr. Hume's collectors.

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Darling (J. FFOLLIOT).

66 birds and eggs from Rhodesia. Exchanged. [1902. 2. 1, 1–18; 1902. 3. 14, 1–48.]

An interesting collection, the chief treasure being a specimen of Reichenow's Pitta (Pitta longipennis, Reichenow), found for the first time in the South African Sub-region (cf. Sharpe, Bull. B. O. C. xii., p. 49, 1902).

Darmstadt Museum.

3 specimens received in exchange. [77. 4. 21, 21–23.]

A new Polyplectron (P. schleiermacheri) from S. E. Borneo, Corvus annectens from Celebes, and Oriolus formosus from Sangi Islands, were added to the collection.

Darwin (CHARLES), F.R.S.

A specimen of Upucerthia dumetoria from Coquimbo. Presented. [39. 8. 4, 1.]

20 birds from South America. Presented. [56. 3. 15, 1–20.] [Contained the type of Pyrocephalus parvirostris, Gould, Zool. Voy. Beagle, iii, p. 44.]

26 birds from Persia. Presented. [56. 12. 16, 1–26.]

60 Domestic Pigeons and 6 Ducks. Presented. [67. 12. 9, 1–66.]

The collections made by Darwin during the voyage of the Beagle passed into the Museum of the Zoological Society, and were afterwards acquired by the British Museum. Unfortunately, a few of the types had either perished or were overlooked by Mr. G. R. Gray, when he made his selection, since they are not now in the National Collection. From whom Mr. Darwin received his small series of Persian birds, I never knew. The Pigeons and Ducks had served him in his works on Natural Selection.

(Cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., xiv., pp. 72–84.)

Davidson (J.).

18 birds, mostly from Aden, collected by Lieut. Barnes. [97. 11. 29, 1–18.]

A specimen of Remiza coronata from Sind. Presented. [1905. 2. 7, 1.]

Mr. Davidson is the author (in company with Mr. Wenden) of a very important paper on the Avifauna of the Deccan (Stray Feathers, vii, pp. 68–95); "Rough List of the Birds of Western Kandesh" (Stray Feathers, x., pp. 279–327), and his collections are now in the Museum, having been presented by Mr. Allan Hume, with the rest of the Hume collection. When the late Lieut. Barnes wrote a paper on the Birds of Aden (Ibis, 1893, pp. 57–84, 166–181), I was particularly anxious to examine some of his specimens, but they were, unfortunately, in India at the time.

Mr. Davidson afterwards acquired the collections of birds and eggs belonging to Lieut. Barnes, and he very kindly presented to the Museum the specimens which I desired. Another interesting species presented by Mr. Davidson was a specimen of Erythropus amurensis from Kanara. [1897. 12. 4, 1.]

Davies (Commander DAYRELL), R.N.

8 birds from Shanghai, 1 from Ascencion Island, and 3 from Panama. Presented. [87. 7. 30, 1–12.]

Davies (Capt. H. R.).

8 birds from the Shan States. Presented. [99. 8. 20, 1–8.]

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Davis and Soper (Messrs.).

69 birds from the Makalaka country collected by the late Dr. Bradshaw (q.v.). Purchased. [80. 1. 30, 1–69.]

Davison (WILLIAM RUXTON).

170 birds from the Nilghiri Hills. Presented. [82. 6. 8, 1–35; 83. 8. 1, 1–40; 84. 7. 28, 1–90.]

14 birds from Travancore. Presented. [85. 7. 30, 1–14.]

11 birds from Pahang. Presented. [92. 9. 1, 1–11.]

Davison was one of the best collectors that the world has ever seen. He was indefatigable as a worker in the jungle, but it was next to impossible to get him to write anything about his experiences, although, in conversation, his stories of the habits of birds were always interesting. Mr. Hume has told me that even when Davison returned to Simla after one of his expeditions, it was difficult to get him to write anything down, as he was always wanting to be out of doors collecting among the hills.

He was entrusted with the conduct of expeditions by Mr. Hume for many years, and his wonderful explorations in Burma, Tenasserim, and the Malay Peninsula are described in 'Stray Feathers,' the most important memoir being the account, by Mr. Hume and himself, of the birds of Tenasserim (Stray Feathers, vi., pp. 1–524).

When Mr. Hume gave up his ornithological work, Davison visited England and afterwards settled down for a time at Ootacamund in the Nilghiris, whence he sent some interesting birds to the British Museum. He was afterwards appointed to the Museum at Singapore, and made one more expedition into Pahang. The death of his wife and the hardships he had undergone in his younger days proved too much even for this strenuous man, and he died in January 1893 (cf. Ibis, 1893, pp. 478–480).

The collections which he made for Mr. Hume's Museum were always beautifully prepared, and he discovered many new species, several of which were named after him (Cyanops davisoni, Spilornis davisoni, Geronticus davisoni, Ixus davisoni, Brachyurus davisoni, Turdulus davisoni, Lioptila davisoni, Hemixus davisoni).

Dawson (Prof. G.).

300 specimens obtained during the Boundary Commission on the 49th Parallel, five species being new to the collection. Presented by the Foreign Office. [76. 4. 15, 1–300.]

Prof. Dawson was the naturalist attached to the British Commission, while Dr. Elliot Coues was the American zoologist. The collection was fully described by the latter.

Day (W. S.).

See GERRARD, E.

Deasy (Major H. H. P.).

18 birds from the Pamirs. Presented. [99. 8. 3, 1–18.]

36 birds from Tibet. Presented. [1903. 10. 3, 1–36.]

For an account of Major Deasy's adventurous journeys to Central Asia cf. Geogr. Soc. Journ. xi., pp. 544, 545, 665, 666, 1898; xvi., pp. 501–527.

Degen (E.).

67 birds' skins and specimens in spirits from South Australia. Purchased. [99. 8. 14, 1–19; 1900. 10. 7, 1–48.]

VOL. II. Z

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462 specimens from Abyssinia. [1903. 9. 5, 1–312; 1903. 10. 20, 1–146.]

Mr. Degen was a pupil of the late Professor Rütimeyer at Basel, and is an accomplished and skilful preparer of skeletons, in which capacity he has for many years done excellent work for the Museum. He is also interested in the moulting and phylogeny of the Class Aves, and has written two elaborate memoirs on these subjects. [Bull. B.O.C., vol. ii.; Trans. Zool. Soc., xvi., pp. 347–418, pls. xxxvi.–xxxviii.]

His recent expedition to Abyssinia resulted in a most valuable collection of fishes, and an interesting series of birds, including two new species, Melanobucco tsanæ and Mirafra degeni, and a very rare Owl, Asio abyssinicus. (Cf. Ogilvie-Grant, Ibis, 1904, pp. 250–280, pls. v., vi.)

Delamere (Lord).

61 birds from Somali Land. Presented. Collected by Dr. Atkinson. [98. 12. 11, 1–61.]

970 birds from Equatorial Africa. [1901. 2. 22, 1–970.]

The last-named collection is one of the most complete ever made on an expedition to Equatorial Africa. Lord Delamere took Mr. Leonard Harwood with him as taxidermist, and consequently the skins were beautifully prepared. At least twelve species were new to the Museum, of which seven were types.

Delmé–Radcliffe (Colonel C.).

405 birds and 37 skeletons from Uganda, collected during the Anglo-German Frontier Commission, including two types of species new to science, collected by the late W. G. Doggett. Presented. [1904. 10. 23, 1–100; 1904. 10. 27, 1–305; 1904. 10. 29, 1–37.] (Cf. Ogilvie-Grant, Ibis, 1905, pp. 199–212.)

Dent (Capt. R. E.).

16 birds from Kronstadt, Orange River Colony. Presented. [1903. 3. 21, 1–16.] Collected during the last Boer War.

See also WOOSNAM, R. B.

De Oca (RAFAEL).

See GERRARD, E.

A well-known Mexican collector, who travelled principally in the state of Jalapa (cf. Sclater, P.Z.S., 1859, p. 362).

Derby (Earl of).

94 birds from various localities. Presented. [37. 5. 13, 1–2; 37. 7. 8, 31–53; 38. 5. 12, 102; 42. 12. 6, 19–68; 46. 9. 1, 1–9, 12–21.]

The 13th Lord Derby, the founder of the Derby Museum at Liverpool, gave, from time to time, many interesting specimens of birds to the British Museum.

De Vis (C. W.).

See QUEENSLAND MUSEUM.

De Winton (W. E.)

16 birds from various localities. Presented. [94. 11. 15, 1–7 94. 11. 25, 1; 94. 12. 18, 1–8.]

1 example of the Common Teal (Nettium crecca) from Pembrokeshire. Presented. [1904. 10. 17, 1.]

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Dickinson (Dr.).

3 specimens from the Zambesi. [64. 12. 7, 1–3.]

Includes the type of Cerchneis dickinsoni.

Dismore (WALTER B.).

23 birds from Florida. Presented. [83. 3. 17, 1–23.]

Dixon (CHARLES).

The collections made in St. Kilda and in Algeria by Mr. Dixon passed into the collection of the British Museum along with the rest of the Seebohm collection. The St. Kilda Wren, Anorthura hirtensis (Seebohm, Zool., 1884, pp. 333–335) was discovered by Mr. Dixon.

Dixon (Lieut. KENNETT).

12 birds from Antipodes, Bounty and Campbell Islands. Presented. [1903. 3. 20, 1–11.]

This small collection was most interesting, and contained specimens of Anthus steindachneri with its nest and eggs (the latter unfortunately broken in transit); also a specimen of the nearly extinct Mergus australis.

2 heads and 2 eggs of the Wandering Albatross (Diomedea exulans) from Antipodes Islands. Presented. [1904. 6. 16, 1–4.]

2 Australian Grebes (Podicipes novæ hollandiæ) from Dauphin Island, New Hebrides. [1904. 12. 25, 1–2.]

Dobrée (E. A.)

A Sabine's Gull (Xema sabinei) from Christchurch, Hants. Presented. [1904. 3. 7, 1.]

Doggett (WALTER G.).

See DELMÉ-RADCLIFFE, Colonel; JOHNSTON, Sir Harry.

Doig (SCROPE).

9 birds from Sind. Presented. [81. 7. 11, 1–9.]

Mr. Scrope Doig did valuable ornithological work in Sind, and his series of birds and eggs collected in the Eastern Narra Range are in the Hume Collection (cf. Stray Feathers, viii., pp. 369–379; ix., pp. 277–282; x., pp. 503–512).

Done (R. H.).

A Knot and a Ruff, from South Uist. Presented. [1905. 9. 16, 1–2.]

Dorman (R. P.)

10 birds from the Congo Free State. Presented. [1905. 4. 8, 1–10.]

Doubleday (HENRY).

22 birds from Epping. Presented. [41. 1. 18, 1–14; 41. 1. 26, 2–9.]

Doubleday is principally known as an entomologist, and was a brother of the celebrated entomologist, Edward Doubleday, but he was a first-rate naturalist of the old school. The birds which he gave to the Museum were for years the best-mounted specimens in the collection.

Cf. Dict. Nat. Biog. xv., p. 254.

Drake–Brockman (R. E.).

41 birds from British East Africa. Presented. [1904. 4. 4, 1–41.]

34 eggs from East Africa. Presented. [1904. 5, 11, 1–34.]

9 birds from Berbera. Presented. [1905. 6. 1, 1–9.]

18 birds from Somali Land. Presented. [1905. 7. 24, 1–7; 1905. 12. 19, 1–11.]

Z 2

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Dresser (H. E.).

4 birds from Europe and Asia Minor. Presented. [72. 12. 16, 1–4.]

A Pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus) from Dalmatia. Presented [73. 12. 26. 12.]

46 eggs from Central Asia. In exchange for duplicates from the Museum Collection. [1902. 4. 25, 1–46.]

At the time that I entered the service of the Trustees, Mr. Dresser was engaged with me in writing the "Birds of Europe." Being unable to continue this work and at the same time write the "Catalogue of Birds," I preferred the latter work, and surrendered the "Birds of Europe" to my partner. The collection on which this work was founded contained many specimens of birds obtained in my younger days. Mr. Dresser sold his collection to a gentleman, by whom it was presented to the Victoria University, Manchester. The donor is now known to have been Mr. J. T. Thomasson.

Du Chaillu (PAUL B.).

See STEVENS, S.

This celebrated collector, the rediscoverer of the Gorilla, worked in his early days for the Maison Verreaux. Jules Verreaux, who came to England when the German army approached Paris in 1870, was received by the English ornithologists with great sympathy, and lived for some three weeks in my house. He told me that Du Chaillu was not only a first-rate collector, but an absolutely straightforward man, and that after his first efforts at scientific collecting he was entrusted with money for a second expedition into the interior of Gaboon by certain French zoologists. Du Chaillu's second collection was lost in a shipwreck, and when he afterwards arrived in Paris with another consignment, he made known his arrival to Jules Verreaux, and announced his intention of surrendering the collection he had brought with him for the benefit of the former subscribers. The latter, however, were unreasonable, and wanted to prosecute Du Chaillu for the loss of the money contributed towards his second venture, and he therefore sailed away to America; and thus Cassin was able to describe the wonderful novelties which Du Chaillu had brought back from Gaboon. He afterwards went back to the latter country under the auspices of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and continued his researches [cf. Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1855, p. 439; 1856, pp. 156–159 (Moonda river), 316–322 (Cape Lopez); 1857, pp. 33–40 (Muni river); 1859, pp. 30–55, 133–144, 172–176, pls. 1 and 2 (Camma and Ogowé rivers)]. This was the story told me by my old friend, Jules Verreaux.

Cf. Obituary, Geogr. Journ., pp. 680 and 681, 1903.

The following account of the explorer appeared in the "Daily Telegraph" of May 1st, 1903, and, as the best record of Du Chaillu's work, is worth preserving:—

Although the name of Paul Belloni du Chaillu cannot be placed in quite the same category as those of Speke, Grant, Gordon Cumming, Burton, Baker, Stanley, or others of the explorers who, during the past sixty years, unrolled to the knowledge of the civilised world the mysterious wonders of the Dark Continent, yet his work was of great importance, and in some respects his investigations were directed in a more scientific direction than those of many of the men mentioned. M. du Chaillu was a Frenchman, and was born in Paris on July 31, 1835. His father held an official appointment in the French settlement on the Gaboon River on the West Coast of Africa, where he also carried on a

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commercial concern, and thither the youth went at an early age. His education by the Jesuits of that colony doubtless tended to create in his mind a taste for exploration, for the members of the famous society have always been noted for the zeal and ability with which they have pursued geographical and ethnological research. When he was about seventeen years of age young Du Chaillu entered his father's trading business, and proceeded to the United States with a cargo of ebony. It was in New York that he took his initial plunge into literature, a very able series of articles on the Gaboon country appearing in the New York Tribune from his pen.

In 1855 he was naturalised as an American citizen, and in the same year returned to West Africa, where he immediately set out upon his first long journey in the interior. For nearly four years he pressed onward through a country up to that time untrodden by the foot of the European, travelling on foot or in canoes without white companions, and covering a total distance of about 8,000 miles. During this protracted itinerary M. du Chaillu shot and preserved thousands of specimens of bird and animal life, sixty of which were previously unknown. The great discovery, however, which overshadowed all his other achievements, brought about a very bitter scientific controversy, but finally placed his name on a secure basis, was that of the Gorilla. It is, of course, well known that for many years rumours from native sources had reached the coast of an extraordinary species of man-like apes, gifted with superhuman agility and strength, and endowed with something like human intelligence; and, indeed, certain specimens of the skin and skull of a great Simian had been obtained. But down to the time that Paul du Chaillu returned from his wanderings, no European had ever claimed personal acquaintance with this most remarkable member of the monkey tribe, and it was generally believed that the so-called Gorillas were nothing more than unusually fine specimens of the Chimpanzee or Ourang outang, both of which were familiar enough to zoologists. Therefore, when, in 1860, Du Chaillu came back to civilisation from the gloomy forests of West Africa and gave to the world his news that he had himself seen in its native fastnesses the mysterious creature in question, a war of words arose that has rarely been equalled and never exceeded in the history of science. Du Chaillu, of course, had his opponents and his supporters. On the former side were ranged such men as Dr. Petermann and Dr. Barth, two names to conjure with in Germany, and, indeed, in Europe. On the other were Sir Roderick Murchison and that greatest of modern comparative anatomists, Sir Richard Owen. Magazine and newspaper articles, papers before learned societies, pamphlets followed one another in rapid succession, alternately attacking and defending M. du Chaillu and the statements contained in the book, "Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa," in which he had set forth his experiences. Not only were his zoological researches discounted, but his maps and other geographical data were questioned, and the controversy reached a climax one night at the meeting of a certain scientific body, when a scene of considerable violence occurred between the explorer and his critics.

Intensely irritated by the reception which his statements had encountered, Du Chaillu was not at all discouraged. He went out again to West Africa, and, in 1863, he departed on another journey, by which he hoped to cross the continent. He was delayed by the loss of his outfit through the capsizing of a boat, but eventually a start was made. Passing up the Fernand-Vaz river to Obindji he went on to Olenda, in Astivialand, whence he explored much of the surrounding country, later on proceeding

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to the Apono, Ishogo, and Ashango territories, meeting on the way a curious race of negro dwarfs, of nomadic habits and of a very low type. This journey came to an untimely end. At a village over 400 miles from the point of departure one of M. du Chaillu's men had the misfortune to kill a native through the accidental explosion of a rifle. The enraged villagers attacked the party, M. du Chaillu and his companions were obliged to flee for their lives, and practically the whole of his instruments, scientific collections, note-books, and photographs were abandoned and lost in the jungle. The expedition effected its retreat only under great difficulties, but eventually reached the territory of friendly tribes in safety. This second journey, although a brief one, was very fruitful in scientific results, and has always been regarded as of more permanent value than the earlier and more protracted explorations of M. du Chaillu. By the time he returned to London, in 1865, the Gorilla controversy had to a large extent died out, and the fresh evidence which he was able to adduce set the matter definitely at rest. There is little doubt, indeed, that M. du Chaillu had himself largely to blame for the adverse criticism encountered by his earlier statements. His first book was couched in the form rather of a popular work of adventure than of a serious and sober account of a series of learned researches. Not content with recounting what he had himself seen, he embellished his narrative with a good deal of more or less sensational hearsay, probably derived from native sources. Hence matter-of-fact zoological experts, accustomed, above all things, to the precise terms and data of scientific exposition, were prone to put down as mere "traveller's tales" the stories of a man who, although given somewhat to exaggeration, had yet a very solid substratum of truth for his assertions. The matter, however, is now at rest, and no one doubts the existence of the great monkey.

After his expedition of 1865, the results of which were embodied in two further books, M. du Chaillu carried out no more explorations in Africa. For some years he lived in America and England, delivering a large number of public lectures, in which he recounted his experiences with much success. In the seventies and eighties he turned his attention to Scandinavia, and visited many of the more remote parts of Norway and Sweden, as the result of which he published a very fascinating book, entitled, "The Land of the Midnight Sun." During his life in those northern countries he made many researches into their ancient records, buildings, and folklore, and his work, "The Viking Age," published in 1887, dealing with the early history, manners, and customs of the ancestors of the English-speaking nations, is a classic.

In person, M. du Chaillu was well equipped for the arduous toils of exploration. Although his body was short and thick-set, almost to the verge of deformity, he was possessed of great muscular strength, and he enjoyed admirable health. He spoke and wrote English admirably, and his literary style, though florid and diffuse, was vigorous and picturesque. His knowledge of the languages, or dialects, of the many savage races with which he came in contact was considerable, and in coolness, pertinacity, and nerve few explorers have ever equalled him.

Ducie (Earl).

A hybrid Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus × P. reevesi) from Gloucestershire. [1904. 2. 4, 1.]

Dumas (J. M.).

94 birds from N. New Guinea. Purchased. [99. 11. 3, 1–41; 1900 4. 10, 1–53.]

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A companion of Mr. Alfred Everett during his travels in the Molucca Islands. After Everett's death, Dumas visited several islands in the Moluccas, and procured some interesting species. Geocichla dumasi, Rothschild, from Buru (Bull. B.O.C. viii., p. xxx.), and other new species were discovered by him (cf. Nov. Zool. vii., pp. 226–242).

Dunn (Surgeon-Captain H. N.).

234 specimens of birds and eggs from the neighbourhood of Khartum and the White Nile districts. Presented. [1900. 8. 29, 1–82; 1902. 12. 17, 1–59; 1903. 2. 4, 1–48; 1903. 2. 7, 1–46.]

6 birds from Somali Land. Presented. [1904. 6. 14, 1–6.]

These collections contain many interesting species, and should be carefully examined by anyone writing on the ornithology of the Eastern Sudan.

Dunstall (G. K.).

3 birds from British Guiana. Purchased. [1904. 10. 30, 1–3.]

11 Birds of Paradise from New Guinea. Purchased. [96. 3. 16, 1–11.]

10 specimens from New South Wales and New Zealand. Purchased. [96. 5. 1, 1–10.]

Durnford (HENRY).

9 eggs of birds, collected by the late H. Müller, from the Färoe Isles; and 3 from Walney Island. Presented. [75. 1. 5, 1–12.]

354 specimens from Argentina and the Chuput Valley in Patagonia. Purchased. [1885. 11. 20, 1–354.]

This fine young naturalist, whose career was cut short by an early death (cf. Ibis, 1878, p. 493), was a nephew of the late Dr. Durnford, Bishop of Chichester. He collected in the Färoes and also in the Frisian Islands (Ibis, 1874, pp. 391–406). He afterwards settled in South America, and his papers on the birds of Buenos Aires were published in the 'Ibis' for 1876 (pp. 157–166) and 1877 (pp. 166–203). In the latter volume also appeared his account of his expedition to the Chuput Valley (Ibis, 1877, pp. 27–46), with a further paper (Ibis, 1878, pp. 389–406). Porzana spiloptera was described by him and figured in the 'Ibis' for 1877 (pl. iii.), and I have named an Oyster-catcher (Hæmatopus durnfordi) after him (Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxiv., p. 117, pl. vi.). The account of his last expedition, to Tucuman and Salta, was published in the 'Ibis' for 1880, pp. 351–364. pls. ix. and x. The collection acquired after his death contains all the specimens obtained by Durnford in South America.

Dyer (Sir THISELTON), Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (q.v.).

A young White Stork (Ciconia alba). Presented. [1904. 5. 31, 1.]

Hybrid Goose (Chenalopex ægyptiaca × C. magellanica). [1904. 10. 28, 1.]

A Semipalmated Goose (Anseranas semipalmata). Presented. [1904. 12. 8, 1.]

A specimen of the White Stork (Ciconia alba). Presented. [1905. 5. 27, 1.]

Dyson (DAVID).

See also CUMING, HUGH.

38 birds from Honduras. Purchased. [45. 11. 2, 1–38.]

127 birds from Venezuela. Purchased. [46. 11. 27, 1–18; 47. 2. 10, 1–25; 47. 3. 22, 1–35; 47. 5. 1, 1–32; 47. 10. 18, 15–31.]

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This contains the type of Nothocercus bonapartei, Gray, from Aragua Valley, Venezuela.

No list of Mr. Dyson's collections appears to have been published, but a species of Bucco was named after him by Dr. Sclater (P.Z.S., 1855, p. 193). Some account of his life is published in the Proceedings of the Manchester Field Club (vol. i., pt. 2, 1900–1901), cf. Britten, Journ. Botany, 1905, p. 134. See also the 'Naturalist,' 1857, pp. 43, 44.

Earl (PERCY).

30 birds from New Zealand. Purchased. [45. 1. 13, 1–30.]

3 nests of New Zealand birds. Presented. [45. 3. 6, 2–4.]

One of the Weka Rails presented by Mr. Earl was described by G. R. Gray in his list of the "Birds of New Zealand" as Ocydromus earli (Ibis, 1862, p. 238).

Earle (EDWARD).

See STARES, JOHN.

East India Company (Hon.).

See INDIA MUSEUM, London.

Eaton (Rev. A. E.).

Mr. Eaton was the naturalist to the Transit of Venus expedition, and was stationed in Kerguelen Land. He did excellent work, and his field-notes on the habits of the birds are full of interest. The ornithological collections made by the expedition are described by me in the Report published by the Royal Society (Phil. Trans., vol. clxviii., pp. 101–162, pls. vi.–viii.). The eggs were described by Mr. Howard Saunders (t.c., pp. 163–166).

The Teal of Kerguelen Island proved to be new to science, and was named by me Querquedula eatoni ("Ibis," 1875, p. 328; figured Phil. Trans., clxviii., pl. vi.). It has since been made the type of the genus Dafilula.

Edinburgh, University of.

See ROBINSON, H. C.; ROYAL SOCIETY.

Edwardes (Hon. W.) [Lord KENSINGTON].

126 birds from St. Brides', South Wales. [88. 11. 14, 1–14; 88. 12. 13, 1–22; 89. 12. 17, 1–57; 91. 4. 28, 1–33.]

Lord Kensington was endeavouring to procure for the Museum a complete series of birds from South Wales. He went with his regiment to South Africa, was severely wounded during the Boer War, and subsequently died of enteric fever at Bloemfontein. He also presented the nesting groups of the Carrion Crow and the Shag.

Egypt, Exploration Fund (through Professor W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE).

Bones of a Crane from Egypt. Presented. [1904. 9. 8, 1.]

Many bones of mummified Mammals and Birds.

Elliot (Dr. EDMUND A. S.).

10 Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from Devonshire. Presented. [89. 3. 8, 1–10.]

When I was working at the distribution and migration of the Common Starling, Dr. Elliot procured me some interesting specimens. He is a well-known authority on the ornithology of Devonshire, and is

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also interested in the birds of North America (cf. Bull. B.O.C., v., pp. xxi., xiii.). He is the author of "A Century's Work on Ornithology in the Kingsbridge District" (Rep. Devon. Ass., xxix., pp. 167–174, 1897).

Elliott (GEORGE FRANCIS SCOTT).

8 specimens from Madagascar. Presented. [89. 9. 25, 1–8.]

35 specimens from Ruwenzori and Lake Albert Edward. Presented. [96. 2. 12, 1–35].

Mr. Scott-Elliot is chiefly known as a Botanical Collector, but he procured some specimens of birds during his travels in Equatorial Africa, and discovered a new species of Zosterops on Ruwenzori, which has been named after him, Zosterops scotti, by Mr. Oscar Neumann (Orn. M.B., vii., p. 24). See Hist. Coll. Brit. Mus., i. (Botany), p. 146.

Elliott (J. STEELE).

A specimen of the Sub-Alpine Warbler (Sylvia subalpina) from St. Kilda, being the only known specimen from the British Islands. [1901. 1. 4, 1.]

29 eggs from St. Kilda, Donegal and Shropshire. Presented. [1902. 7. 7, 1–13; 1904. 8. 11, 1–16.]

87 eggs of British birds. Presented. [1904. 10. 20, 1–87.]

Elsey (J. R.).

249 specimens from N.W. Australia. Presented. [57. 9. 18, 1–56; 57. 10. 28, 1–193.]

Dr. Elsey was the medical officer attached to the Gregory Expedition.

Elwes (H. J.), F.R.S.

98 birds (Ducks). Presented. [89. 4. 3, 1–80; 89. 4. 9. 1–18.]

The record of Mr. H. J. Elwes constitutes as fine a display of energy and devotion to scientific work as any in the annals of English science. Born in 1846, he was educated first at Mr. Goldney's school at Tonbridge, where the present Lord Walsingham made the study of natural history the rage, and this doubtless had its influence in the after career of Mr. Elwes. After four years at Eton, he joined the Scots Guards in 1865, and it was in 1863 and 1864 that he made his first expeditions in pursuit of natural history to the Orkney Islands. He stayed at Stromness in the house of the well-known collector, John Dunn, and was nearly drowned during one of their expeditions in the very boat in which Dunn lost his life a few years afterwards. Mr. Elwes visited Islay on several occasions, and again on one of these visits be narrowly escaped drowning through the swamping of the boat in which he was sailing. The ornithological notes which he made were sent to the late Robert Gray, who was at that time engaged in writing his book on the 'Birds of the West of Scotland.'

In 1868, when the Guards were quartered at the Tower, he obtained leave for the summer, and spent three months in the Hebrides, accompanied for the first ten days by T. E. Buckley. In those days the White-tailed Eagle (Haliaëtus albicilla) was common in Skye, three nests being found in a couple of days, and to two of these he descended over the cliffs by means of a rope. Sixty of these birds had been destroyed on the farm of Glenbrittle by Mr. Cameron, the tenant, with whom the travellers stayed, and who was afterwards killed by being thrown out of a window in a row which took place at Portree.

In 1869, Mr. Elwes went with the late Mr. T. E. Buckley on an expedition to Greece, Turkey, and the Crimea. While in Attica, the

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party narrowly escaped capture by the very same band of brigands who murdered Mr. Herbert, Mr. Vyner and the Secretary of the Italian Legation the year afterwards. (For an account of this expedition, see the "Ibis" for 1870, pp. 59–77.)

Being unable to effect an exchange into a regiment in India, Mr. Elwes left the Army in 1870, and determined to devote his time to travel and the pursuit of natural history. He went to Madras with the late Colonel Barne and Colonel the Hon. F. Bridgman. After hunting Elephants and Bison in the Cardamum Hills of Travancore, and making some notes on birds (Ibis, 1870, pp. 526–528), an expedition was made after Tiger and Rhinoceros in the Terai, with Colonel Sir F. (now General Lord) Grenfell and Colonel Bridgman; but, as the latter was invalided by a bad attack of fever, Mr. Elwes made a trip to Darjiling in April and stayed there till the end of October. He joined with Dr. W. T. Blanford in the well-known explorations of the head-waters of the Tista River in Tibet, a locality only once before visited, viz. by Sir Joseph Hooker, twenty-two years previously. An account of this expedition was published by Dr. Blanford in the "Journal" of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (vol. xli., pp. 41–73), and three new species of biods were described.

In November Mr. Elwes went to Assam with the late Colonel Haughton, C.I.E., the Commissioner of Kuch Behar, but was laid up with fever. After an expedition to Kangra and the north-western Himalayas he returned to England in 1871, and married. The result of his Indian experiences is summed up in his paper on the "Geographical Distribution of Asiatic Birds" (P.Z.S., 1873, pp. 615–682, pl. li., map). He likewise wrote a revision of the genus Henicurus (Ibis, 1872, pp. 250–262, pl. ix.).

In 1874 Mr. Elwes started to join the late Lord Lilford in his yacht on an expedition to Cyprus, but the yacht was disabled and could not go, so Mr. Elwes travelled by himself from Smyrna to Lycia, and collected birds and plants. Several new bulbous plants were discovered on this expedition, and one of them, Galanthus elwesi, has become a very popular garden-plant in England.

From this date he became especially interested in horticulture, and did little more in ornithology, but in May, 1880, he accompanied the late Henry Seebohm on a collecting trip to Denmark and Holland, when they obtained the eggs of the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra), the Kite (Milvus milvus), the Avocet (Recurvirostra avocetta), and many others (cf. Ibis, 1880, pp. 385–399).

In 1879 he turned his attention to Lepidoptera, and in April, 1882, he went to Algeria, accompanied by Mr. C. Dixon, and discovered a new Chat (Saxicola seebohmi) in the Aures Mountains. (Cf. Ibis, 1882, pp. 550–579, pl. 14.)

For the last twenty years Mr. Elwes has devoted himself to the study of Lepidoptera and Botany, and has made many expeditions, in pursuit of insects and plants, in different parts of the world. In 1884 he was at St. Petersburg as the British Delegate to the International Congress of Botany and Horticulture. In 1886 he was appointed by the Government of India a member of its Embassy to Tibet, a mission which came to naught owing to the political difficulties which led to the war in Sikhim, in 1888. Being unable to cross the Tibetan frontier, Mr. Elwes spent six months in Sikhim and the Khasia Hills.

After the death of his father in 1891, he settled down on the family estates, and has since devoted his time to forestry and horticulture, varied by occasional visits to Norway, the Tyrol, etc.

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In 1888 we find him, accompanied by Mrs. Elwes, in Mexico, where he joined his brother-in-law, Dr. F. D. Godman, F.R.S., in whose company a very large number of Birds and Lepidoptera were collected. The return journey was made via California, Oregon, and the Yellowstone Park. In 1893, and again in 1895, Mr. Elwes was again in North America, when he visited the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, Montana, and Alberta, and discovered several new species of Butterflies. By this time his interests were chiefly centred in the collecting of Lepidoptera, and reviews of several genera, Æneis, Colias, Argynnis, Erebia, etc., appeared in the "Transactions" of the Entomological Society, and in 1900 he disposed of his ornithological collections, consisting of some 4000 specimens, which were transferred to Mr. Rothschild's Museum at Tring.

In 1898 Mr. Elwes made an expedition into Siberia with Mr. W. A. L. Fletcher, D.S.O., the well known oarsman, to hunt wild Sheep. A very fine collection of Lepidoptera was obtained, which was described in the "Transactions" of the Entomological Society for 1899 (pp. 295–367, pls. xi.–xiv.). The principal ornithological discovery was that of the breeding of Stejneger's Scoter (œdemia stejnegeri) on the salt lakes of the Tchuja Steppe, 2000 miles from the sea. A fine collection of dried plants was unfortunately lost in crossing a river.

In the winter of 1901–1902, Mr. Elwes went to Chile and collected plants and butterflies, the latter being described in the Entomological Society's "Transactions."

In 1903 he wrote a paper on the "Habits and present condition of the Elk in Norway" (P.Z.S., 1903, pp. 133–151, text-figures 18–26).

For the past three years he has been engaged in arranging the collection of Lepidoptera in the British Museum, having in 1902 presented to the nation the pick of his collection, amounting to some 30,000 specimens. He is also engaged in a work on the Trees of Great Britain and Ireland, with Dr. A. Henry as his coadjutor.

Emin Pasha.

370 specimens from Equatorial Africa. Presented. [87. 9. 28, 1–342; 90. 7. 1, 1–28.]

The collections presented by Emin Pasha to the Museum were some of the most valuable ever received by the Trustees. They have been described by Captain Shelley (P.Z.S., 1888, pp. 17–50, pl. iii.). An interesting new species of Pratincole was named Glareola emini.

A further collection was despatched by Emin Pasha for the Museum shortly before his death. It was entrusted to the ex-missionary trader Stokes, who was hung by Major Lothaire under well-known circumstances. The collection intended for the British Museum found its way to Berlin, thus fulfilling the prophecy uttered by a friend of mine when he heard that Emin Pasha had entrusted a collection for the British Museum into the hands of Stokes. He warned me that the latter would either get rid of the incubus by throwing the cases into the first cataract he came to, or would sell the collection to Germany. The notes relating to the consignment were sent by Emin to the then Director of the Museum, Sir William Flower, and published by him in the "Proceedings" of the Zoological Society for 1894 (pp. 596–606). Whether Stokes sold the collections or not was never discovered, but the fact remains that they went to Berlin instead of coming to London.

"Erebus" and "Terror" (H.M.SS.)

See MCCORMICK, Dr. H.

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Esler (E.).

See GERRARD, E.

Mr. Esler went to the Sudan for Mr. Carl Hagenbeck to collect the larger Mammalia in pre-Mahdian days. He made collections of birds in Bogos-Land, chiefly in the neighbourhood of Keren. Many of these early consignments were bought by myself and by Capt. G. E. Shelley, and are included in our respective collections of African birds now in the Museum. A few were also bought from Mr. Gerrard in later years.

"Euphrates" Expedition.

46 birds and eggs collected during this expedition. Presented. [50. 10. 21, 40–86.]

Evans (Capt. G. N.).

A specimen of a rare Duck (Asarcornis scutulata) from Bhamo. [1900. 5. 20, 1.]

Everett (ALFRED HART).

See GERRARD, E.; HIGGINS, T.

Mr. Everett's whole life was spent in the cause of science, and no man underwent more privations than this brave naturalist, who undoubtedly shortened his days by his devotion to zoological work. From the time that he entered the service of Raja Brooke in Sarawak his whole mind was devoted to the study of zoology. I described several of his early collections from Borneo in the 'Ibis' for 1876, pp. 29–52, pl. ii.; 1877, pp. 1–25; 1893, pp. 550, 559, 560–563, and in the P.Z.S. for 1879, p. 343, where Prionochilus everetti is figured (pl. xxx., fig. 1). The results of his explorations in the Philippines, where he travelled for the late Marquis of Tweeddale, were described by the latter (P.Z.S., 1877, pp. 686–703 (Luzon), 755–769 (Cebu), 816–834 (Mindanao); P.Z.S., 1878, pp. 106–114, pls. vi.–viii. (Dinagat, etc.), 280–288 (Negros), 339–346 (Leyte), 379–381 (Panaon), 611–624, pls. xxxvii., xxxviii. (Palawan), 708–712 (Bohol), 936–954, pls. lvii.–lix. (Zamboanga); 1879, pp. 68–73 (Basilan). Several remarkable novelties were discovered by Everett in the Philippines as well as in the Sulu Archipelago (cf. Sharpe, 'Ibis,' 1894, pp. 238–259, pls. vi., vii.).

His later work was for the Hon. Walter Rothschild, and consisted of explorations in the Lesser Sunda Islands and in Celebes and the neighbouring islands. The following papers refer to these expeditions: Hartert, Nov. Zool. i., pp. 469–483; ii., pp. 466–478 (Natuna Islands); iii., pp. 69–71, 149–165 (S. Celebes), pp. 591–599 (Lombok); iv., pp. 170–172 (Flores, Djampea Island), 253–273 (Savu), 513–528, pl. ii.; v., pp. 42–50, pl. i. (S. Flores); v., p. 111 (Timor), 455–465 (Lomblon, Pantar, Ombay), 477–505 (Sumba).

Mr. Everett himself published some valuable papers and notes, the most important being his essay on the zoo-geographical relationship of the island of Palawan (P.Z.S., 1889, p. 220), and his "List of the Birds of the Bornean Group of Islands" (J. Straits' Branch R. Asiatic Soc., 1889, p. 91.

173 birds from Borneo. Exchanged. [94. 7. 5, 1–173.]

199 birds from Borneo and Palawan. Presented. [93. 7. 4, 1–18; 94. 8. 6, 1–171; 95. 3. 8, 1–10.]

For obituary notices, see 'Ibis,' 1898, p. 627, Nov. Zool., v., p. 606.

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Everett (HAROLD H.).

See HIGGINS, T.

A brother of Alfred Everett and a good collector. I described a collection of his from Sarawak, with some notes on Cyornis rufifrons, and a new Bulbul (Ixidia paroticalis) in the "Ibis" for 1878 (pp. 417–419).

The Rev. H. H. Slater described another collection of Mr. Harold Everett's from the Bangal Hills in Sarawak, and named Myiophoneus borneensis and Parus cinerascens (Ibis, 1885, pp. 123, 124). The latter name being preoccupied, he changed it to P. sarawacensis (Ibis, 1885, p. 327). It has never been found again, whereas Myiophoneus borneensis has been met with on several mountains in N.W. Borneo (Kina Balu, Dulit, etc.).

Exton (Dr. H.).

51 birds and eggs from the Orange River Colony and the Transvaal. Presented. [76. 1. 25, 1–4; 76. 10. 18, 1–23; 77. 2. 5, 1–4; 77. 4. 23, 1–20.]

Petrochelidon spilodera was new to the collection. Dr. Exton collected in Matabeleland when it was still an unexplored country, and resided for some time at Kanye. Barbatula extoni was a new Barbet discovered by him.

Eyton (THOMAS CAMPBELL).

See GERRARD, E.

Eyton was a well-known Shropshire naturalist and a coadjutor with Jardine in the days of the "Contributions to Ornithology." He was the author of "A Catalogue of the British Birds," 8vo, vi. + 68 pp. (1836); "History of the Rarer British Birds," 8vo, pp. 1–101 (1836); "Monograph of the Anatidæ" (1838); and "Osteologia Avium." One of his principal papers was a "Catalogue of a Collection of Birds from Malaya," with descriptions of new species (P.Z.S., 1839, p. 100), wherein some now very well-known forms were described for the first time.

After his death his collection was purchased by Mr. E. Gerrard, and I made a selection of the types for the Museum. The labelling of the collection was in such an illegible handwriting that I fear I missed identifying a few of them, but the majority of the Eyton types are now in the British Museum.

Cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., xxviii., p. 107.

Farnum (J. E. and G. L.).

74 birds from the Khingan Mountains, Mongolia. Presented. [98. 11. 15, 1–74.]

See SMITH, DONALDSON.

Faber (VON).

See GERRARD.

Farquhar (Capt. A. M., R.N.).

121 specimens from the New Hebrides. Presented. [1900. 1. 10, 1–121.]

2 specimens of Ægithalus macedonica, new to the collection. [1901. 4. 13, 1 and 2.]

This remarkable donation of birds by Capt. Farquhar added 12 new species to the Museum, and these were described by me in the Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club, vol. x. (pp. xxxviii, xxxix), and in

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the "Ibis" for 1900 (pp. 337–354), when a complete account of the collection was given, with a figure (pl. vii.) of a beautiful new Kingfisher (Halcyon farquhari). Some notes on the birds of the New Hebrides are added by Capt. Farquhar himself in the same volume of the "Ibis" (pp. 607–612). His ship having been recently on the Mediterranean station, he has procured specimens of Ægithalus macedonica for the Museum, and has written a paper on the nesting of Falco eleonoræ in the Levant ("Ibis," 1902, pp. 166–168).

Fayrer (Sir JOSEPH), Bart., LL.D., F.R.S.

A Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) and Black-throated Diver (Colymbus arcticus) from Falmouth. [1904. 2. 6, 1; 1905. 12. 4, 1.]

A Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), a Shag (Phalacrocorax graculus), and a Great Northern Diver (Colymbus glacialis) from Falmouth. [1901. 12. 6, 1; 1902. 12. 28, 1; 1903. 1. 18, 1.]

Sir Joseph, who is one of the survivors of the siege of Lucknow, has always taken a great interest in Natural History, and, since his retirement from Indian service, has continually procured specimens for the British Museum (see "Who's Who," 1905, p. 528).

Feilden (Colonel H. W.), C.B., C.M.Z.S.

Visited the Færoe Islands in 1872 (cf. Zoologist, 1872, pp. 3210–3225, 3245–3257, 3277–3294). Was naturalist to H.M.S. Alert during Sir George Nares' Arctic voyage. Has collected in many countries, and done good work on every occasion. In company with Colonel A. E. Butler and Captain Savile Reid he made an interesting collection of birds near Newcastle, in Natal, during the first Boer War (cf. Zoologist, 1882, pp. 165–171, 204–212, 243–258, 297–303, 335–345, 423–430, 460). He has accompanied Mr. Henry J. Pearson on his expeditions to Novaya Zemlya and other parts of Northern Europe (cf. Hist. Coll. Brit. Mus., i., p. 288; Pearson, postea, p. 439).

100 specimens of birds and eggs from Greenland and the Arctic Regions, obtained during the expedition under Sir George Nares in H.M.S. Alert (cf. P.Z.S., 1877, pp. 28–32; Ibis, 1877, pp. 401–412). Presented by the Lords of the Treasury. [77. 11. 10, 1–51; 77. 11. 23, 1–3; 78. 7. 2, 1–46.]

Among the specimens obtained by Colonel Feilden on this occasion were three nestlings of the Knot (Tringa canutus).

A nest and four eggs of the Dartford Warbler (Melizophilus undatus) (cf. Zoologist, 1872, p. 3272), and two eggs of the Black Grouse (Lyrurus tetrix) from Wolmer Forest. Presented. [78. 9. 20, 1–7.]

31 eggs, 2 birds, and 1 nest from Barbados. Presented. [91. 7. 11, 1–34] (cf. Feilden, "Ibis," 1889, pp. 477–503).

29 birds from various localities. Presented. [94. 11. 1, 1–29.]

16 birds and 8 skeletons from N. Greenland and Spitsbergen. Presented. [94. 11. 22, 1–16; 95. 2. 10, 1–8.]

— and Harvie-Brown (J. A.).

39 birds from the Petchora River. Presented. [76. 5. 1, 4–42.]

These were duplicates from the collection made on the Petchora River, by Mr. Harvie-Brown, who was Seebohm's companion (cf. "Ibis," 1876, pp. 105–126, 215–230, 289–311, 434–456). Colonel Feilden and Mr. Harvie-Brown have joined collections.

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Ferguson (HAROLD S.).

22 birds from Travancore. Presented. [1900. 5. 24, 1–12; 1900. 10. 6, 1–10.]

Mr. Ferguson was the Director of the Museum at Trevandrum, and sent some interesting species to the National Collection.

Ferguson (R.).

16 specimens from the Himalayas. Presented. [38. 7. 9, 1–16.]

Ferryman.

See MOCHLER-FERRYMAN.

Ffinch (B. T.), C.I.E.

33 birds from Fao, Persian Gulf. Presented. [1901. 9. 16, 1–33.]

Field (LEOPOLD).

See STEVENS, H.

A well-known oologist, whose collection was dispersed in 1895. A beautiful series of the eggs of Cuculus canorus, with the eggs of the foster-parents, was secured by the Museum.

Finckh (H. E.).

2 eggs of the Kagu (Rhinochetus jubatus). Purchased. [1904. 7. 25, 1–2.]

Finn (FRANK).

8 specimens from Calcutta. Presented. [1902. 10. 18, 1–8.]

2 specimens. [1903. 7. 2, 2–3.]

Until recently Mr. Finn was the Assistant Director of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, and he has written some interesting papers in the 'Journal' of the Asiatic Society of Bengal and the 'Proceedings' of the Zoological Society.

Finsch (Dr. OTTO).

See BREMEN, GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF; SCHNEIDER, G.

A few duplicates from Dr. Finsch's ornithological collections have found their way into the British Museum, and the first set of the series from his well-known Siberian expedition was purchased by the Trustees.

A record of the life-work of this diligent zoologist is to be found in his "Systematische Uebersicht der Ergebnisse seiner Reisen und schriftstellerischen Thätigkeit" (1859–1899), published in Berlin in 1899. His voyages to West Siberia (1876), the South Sea Islands (1879–1885), New Guinea (1884–1885), and their results are fully described, and a list of his works and papers (over 400 in number) is given.

Dr. Finsch was until recently the Curator of the Ornithological Department in the Leyden Museum, where he was employed as an Assistant in his young days, when he wrote his celebrated monograph of the Parrots under circumstances of great difficulty. He has done much in recent years to elucidate the treasures of that great Museum, and many valuable memoirs have appeared in the "Notes of the Leyden Museum."

Fisher (THEODORE).

70 British birds collected and mounted by himself. Presented. [88. 5. 20, 1–70.]

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Fitzgerald (E. A.).

127 birds from the Andes, collected by P. H. Gosse during the expedition to Aconcagua. Presented. [99. 1. 20, 1–95; 99. 2. 4, 1–32.]

In Mr. Fitzgerald's book "The Highest Andes, 1899," a chapter on the birds of the Aconcagua Valley is written by Mr. Gosse (pp. 342–352).

Fitzroy (Admiral).

See BURNETT, Sir W.

Cf. Dict. Nat. Biog., xix., pp. 207–209.

Fleming (J.).

51 birds from Darjiling. Presented. [77. 2. 20, 1–51.] One (Suthora ruficeps) new to the collection.

Fleming (J. H.).

546 birds from Canada. Received in exchange [98. 5. 10, 1–344; 98. 9. 91, 1–99; 99. 4. 4, 1–103.]

A valuable addition to the Museum collection, as there were scarcely any Canadian birds in the series of North American species.

2 examples of Nuttall's Goat-suckers (Phalænoptilus nuttalli) from California. Presented. [1904. 8. 10, 1–2.]

Flower (Capt. STANLEY S.).

See ROYAL SIAMESE MUSEUM.

38 birds from Siam. Presented. [98. 10. 30, 11–20; 99. 1. 12, 1–9; 99. 8. 10, 1–19] (cf. Flower, Ibis, 1898, pp. 319–327).

A new Grakle was named by me Sturnopastor floweri. [Cf. Bull. B.O.C., vii., p. xvii., 1897.]

22 birds from the White Nile. Presented. [1900. 8. 30, 1–22.]

A female Ostrich from the neighbourhood of Khartum. Presented. [1903. 11. 30, 1.]

A son of the late Sir William Flower, Director of the Natural History Museum. Captain Flower is now the Director of the Zoological Gardens at Ghizeh in Egypt.

"Flying Fish" (Voyage H.M.S.).

See MACLEAR, Admiral.

Forbes (H. O.), LL.D., Reader in Ethnology at the University of Liverpool.

See BRITISH ASSOCIATION; GERRARD, E.; JANSON, O.; OGILVIE-GRANT, W. R.

10 specimens from the Tenimber Islands and Sumatra. Presented. [84. 5. 10, 1–10.]

6 specimens of Anas superciliosa from Lake Wakolo, Buru. Presented. [84. 6. 2, 1–6.]

5 specimens of Hirundo gutturalis from Kajeli, Buru. Presented. [84. 7. 30, 5–9.]

68 specimens from the interior of British New Guinea, including the types of 4 new species, Rhectes meridionalis, Melirrhopetes batesi, Pseudogerygone cinereiceps, Rallicula forbesi; and 7 species new to the collection. Purchased. [88. 3. 24, 1–52; 88. 4. 4, 1–13; 88. 6. 19, 1–3.]

25 birds from the New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. Presented. [94. 2. 20, 1–20; 94. 4. 18, 1–5.]

In this series was the type of a new Fruit Pigeon (Carpophaga

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chathamica, Forbes, Nature, vol. xlvi., p. 252, 1892, = C. chathamensis, Rothschild, P.Z.S., 1891, p. 312, pl. xxviii.).

133 skins and bones of birds from the Chatham Islands. Purchased. [92. 10. 31, 1–21; 93. 1. 30, 1–35–78; 93. 6. 24, 1–16; 93. 12. 31, 1–6; 94. 4. 18, 1–5; 94. 5. 1, 1–60.]

While on the Chatham Islands a series of bones of Diaphorapteryx and other specimens of extinct forms of birds were procured and described by Dr. Forbes, as well as examples of Cabalus modestus, the peculiar Rail of the islands, now believed to be extinct (cf. his paper on "The Birds of the Chatham Islands," Ibis, 1893, pp. 521–546, pls. xiv., xv.).

After his adventurous explorations in the Tenimber Islands and other Malayan and Papuan Islands, Dr. Forbes was for some years Director of the Museum at Christchurch, New Zealand, and shortly after his return to England he was appointed Director of Museums at Liverpool, where he has done some excellent work. A recently published volume on the Zoology of Sokotra gives an account of the expedition to that island, which he made in company with Mr. W. R. Ogilvie-Grant.

(Cf. Forbes, "A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago," 1885, where a complete account of his early labours is published; cf. also Nicholson, F., on the birds collected by Mr. H. O. Forbes in the Island of Java, Ibis, 1881, pp. 139–156; in Sumatra, Ibis, 1882, pp. 51–65, 66–71; 1883, pp. 235–257, pl. x.).

Forbes (W. A.).

426 specimens from Nigeria (vide infra), and his collection of Weaver-birds (Ploceidæ), eight species being new to the collection. Presented by his executors. [84. 1. 10, 1–426.]

Forbes was the successor of Garrod as Prosector to the Zoological Society, and was an equally brilliant man. After a successful expedition to Pernambuco (cf. "Ibis," 1881, pp. 312–362), he made a voyage to the Niger, where he unfortunately died—a grievous loss to science (cf. Shelley, "Ibis," 1883, pp. 538–562; Ægialitis forbesi, n.sp., pl. xiv.). Forbes' last journal is published in the "Ibis" for 1883, pp. 491–537; 1884, pp. 119–120.] His collection he bequeathed to the Nation. His Pernambuco collections are also in the Museum, having been given by Forbes to Dr. Sclater and to Messrs. Salvin and Godman. A complete collection of his memoirs, edited by Mr. F. E. Beddard, with an account of his life by Dr. P. L. Sclater, was issued in 1885.

Foreign Office.

See N. AMERICAN BOUNDARY COMMISSION (p. 316).

Foresman (A.).

21 birds from the Transvaal. Presented. [69. 10. 7, 1–21.]

Forrer (A.).

24 birds, including three species new to the collection, from Vancouver Island and California. [80. 5. 5, 1–24.]

Mr. Forrer was a very good collector who travelled in Western North America, Western Mexico, and also visited the Tres Marias Islands. The first series of his Mexican collections was purchased by Dr. F. D. Godman, and is described by Messrs. Salvin and Godman in the "Biologia Centrali-Americana," where Chrysomitris forreri is named after him.

Forrester (T. W.).

19 birds from Spain and other localities. Presented. [1904. 8. 8, 1–19.]

VOL. II. 2 A

[page] 354

Fortnum (C. D. E.).

39 birds from South Australia. [42. 6. 29, 17–55.]

Foster (W.).

14 birds from Paraguay. Presented. [1902. 3. 24, 1–14.]

253 birds and 312 eggs from Sapucay, Paraguay. Purchased. [1903. 12. 22, 1–114; 1903. 12. 23, 1–139; 1904. 7. 26, 1–312.]

906 birds and 745 nests and eggs from Paraguay. Purchased. [1905. 10. 12, 1–906; 1905. 10. 13, 1–745.]

Fothergill (Major H.).

A skeleton of Cloephaga magellanica. [98. 4. 7, 1.]

A specimen of Crossoptilum manchuricum. [98. 4. 14, 1.]

A young example of a Magellanic Goose (Chloephaga magellanica), died in captivity. Presented. [1904. 7. 4, 1.]

Fotheringham (J.).

20 birds from Darjiling. Presented. [77. 4. 21, 1–20.]

Francis (H. F.).

9 birds from the Transvaal. Presented. [96. 2. 13, 1–9] (cf. W. L. Sclater, Ibis, 1899, pp. 111–115).

Frank (G. A.).

143 specimens of skins and skeletons of birds from various localities. Purchased. [45. 6. 3, 1–5; 45. 7. 16, 1–4; 46. 5. 5, 6–36; 49. 3. 2, 41–67; 66. 2. 13, 1–13; 72. 2. 10, 1–23; 72. 10. 4, 7–46.]

Frank was a natural history agent in Amsterdam, from whom the Museum received many fine Mammalia and Birds. For years he received the duplicates from the Leyden Museum, and offered the best of these to the Trustees until the time when Count Turati began forming his splendid Museum at Milan, when most of the birds were sold to him by Frank, as the Count gave prices which no public Museum could afford.

Frank (G. A., jun.).

35 birds from the Comoro Islands. Purchased. [88. 5. 4, 1–35.]

177 birds' skins and specimens in spirit, from Liberia. [99. 7. 1, 1–162; 99. 8. 10, 23–37.]

A son of the above, who succeeded to his father's business, which was transferred to London. After the death of Professor Schlegel, the explorations of the Dutch Government in their East Indian Colonies gradually ceased, and there were no more duplicates from the Leyden Museum for disposal to our Museum.

Frank bought up many of the duplicates of the Humblot collection from the Comoro Islands (cf. Milne-Edwards and Oustalet, "Études sur les Mammifères et les Oiseaux des Îles Comores," Nouv. Arch. Mus. (2) x., pp. 211–297, pls. iv.–ix. 1889), and the set purchased from him in 1888 contained the new genus Humblotia and twelve species unrepresented in the national collection. Many duplicate skins and birds in spirits were purchased from Dr. Büttikofer's Liberiau collection through Frank.

Fraser (LOUIS).

300 specimens of birds, skeletons, and eggs from Tunis. Purchased. [46. 10. 30, 1–147; 47. 3. 26, 6–28; 47. 10. 21–10, 14–21, 25–53; 48. 1. 10, 1–22.]

[page] 355

19 specimens from West Africa. Purchased. [51. 11. 5, 1–3; 51. 11. 27, 1–12; 53. 1. 26, 1–5.]

76 specimens, registered as from "South America." [59. 1. 12, 1–19; 59. 4. 26, 1–13; 60. 6. 12, 1–4; 60. 11. 9, 1–13; 60. 12. 5, 1–19; 62. 1. 17, 1–7.]

Mr. Gerrard, senior, can remember Fraser as a young man employed at the Zoological Society's Museum in Brewer Street, Golden Square. Here he picked up his knowledge of natural history. He wrote several papers and described various new species of birds in the "Proceedings" of the Zoological Society, from 1839–1845, 1850–1856. Was appointed naturalist on board H.M.S. Wilberforce in the expedition up the River Niger, 1841–42 (cf. Allen and Thomson, "Narrative of the Expedition to the Niger in 1841," i., p. 467, 1848; list of the species described, op. cit., ii., pp. 488–508).

He was an excellent naturalist, and was a protégé of the Earl of Derby, who procured him a consular appointment in 1850 at Whydah, West Coast of Africa. In 1857 he was in Ecuador, collecting for Dr. Sclater (cf. P.Z.S., 1858, pp. 449–461; 1859, pp. 135–147; 1860, pp. 73–98, 272–301).

I only remember him in his later life, when his caligraphy was really beautiful, and he was employed by Dr. Sclater to write the labels for the animals in the Zoological Gardens. He afterwards had a shop for living animals at the Polytechnic in Regent Street, and I remember him also in another small shop near Tattersall's, Knightsbridge, after which I heard that he had gone to California, where, I believe, he died.

Cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., xx., p. 215.

Frere (R. T.).

28 eggs of British birds. Presented. [52. 3. 20, 1–28.]

Fry (ALEXANDER).

947 birds from Rio de Janeiro. Presented. [95. 4. 1, 1–947.]

Mr. Fry was a well-known coleopterist, and was always a good friend to the British Museum. His collection from the neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro is probably one of the most extensive ever made in that province, and its value to the Museum can scarcely be overestimated.

Fulton (H. T.).

36 birds from Chitral. Presented. [1904. 12. 5, 1–36.]

Gaekwar of Baroda (His Highness The).

52 birds from Somali Land. Presented. [1901. 4. 20, 1–52.]

H.H. The Gaekwar is a very keen naturalist, and the Baroda Museum is a feature of the country over which he rules. Dr. Donaldson Smith, the well-known African explorer, made an expedition into Somali Land on behalf of the Gaekwar, who kindly allowed the British Museum to take any specimens of interest for the National Collection. The results of the expedition were described by me in the "Proceedings of the Zoological Society" (1901, vol. ii., pp. 298–316), and a new Warbler (Camaroptera gaekwari) was named after His Highness the Gaekwar.

Galton (Sir FRANCIS).

34 birds from the 5th Cataract of the Nile. Presented. [49. 2. 8, 1–34.]

2 A 2

[page] 356

Gätke (HEINRICH).

4 birds from Heligoland, mounted by himself and presented. [76. 10. 17, 4–17.]

In company with the late Henry Seebohm and Mr. Frank Nicholson, of Manchester, I visited Heligoland in 1876, and shared with them those wonderful experiences which Seebohm has so graphically described in his books.

Gätke was undoubtedly one of the grandest-looking old men I have ever seen, with the exception of Edward Blyth, who resembled him in his leonine appearance. He had resided in Heligoland for many years, and was an accomplished marine painter. Around his studio he had arranged his collection of birds, all mounted by himself, and mostly first-rate specimens. Several White's Thrushes (Oreocichla varia) and other migrants to this wonderful island resting-place were mounted in glass cases. Unfortunately the studio was lighted from the top, and the windows being unprotected by blinds, and exposed to the sun of every North Sea summer, the most lamentable exhibition of damage by light which it has ever been my lot to behold ensued in Gätke's studio. Specimens of unique and priceless value were bleached almost beyond recognition, and I was not sorry that Seebohm's negotiations for the purchase of the Gätke collection fell to the ground. His intention was to buy the collection (after the surrender of the island to Germany) and present it to the British Museum, providing for it a special case, in order to teach the public what the migration of birds to one isolated spot really meant. Considering the faded condition of the specimens, I was decidedly glad that Seebohm's generous offer (far beyond the actual value of the collection) was refused, and that the German Government, in a proper patriotic spirit, decided that the Gätke collection should not be transferred to this country.

(Cf. Gätke, "Vogelkarte Helgolands," 1891, 8vo, pp. 1–609. English translation by Rosenstock, Edinburgh and London, 8vo, pp. x and 599, illustrated. Cf. also Seebohm, Ibis, 1892, pp. 1–32; Cordeaux, Ibis, 1875, pp. 172–188. Obituary Notice, Ibis, 1897, pp. 291–294).

Gaumer (Dr. G. F.).

Collected in Yucatan, and on the islands of the Bay of Honduras (cf. Lawrence Salvin, Ibis, 1888, pp. 241–265; 1889, pp. 359–379; 1890, pp. 84–95).

Geale (F.).

10 specimens from Prince's Island, Bight of Biafra. Purchased. [66. 7. 20, 1–10.]

These birds were duplicates from Dr. Dohrn's collection (cf. P.Z.S. 1866, pp. 324–332, pl. xxx.). They were prepared by J. G. Keulemans, who as a boy accompanied Dr. Dohrn in his expedition to the Cape Verde Islands and West Africa.

21 specimens from Mexico. Purchased. [66. 12, 21, 1–21.]

Geale was assistant to Hugh Cuming, and carried on the business after the death of the last-named naturalist. When I knew him he had a shop in Drury Lane. I purchased the Kingfishers from the Dohrn collection, and this was my first experience (as a boy) of the high prices it was possible to pay for bird-skins, when necessary for my Monograph of the Alcedinidæ!

[page] 357

Gedge (ERNEST).

10 specimens from Uganda, including the type of Francolinus gedgei, Grant, "Ibis," 1891, p. 124; Sharpe, "Ibis," 1892, p. 551, pl. xiv. Presented. [93. 12. 1, 46; 94. 2. 24, 1–9.]

Genoa Museum (Director, Professor RAFAELLO GESTRO).

2 specimens from Papuasia, new to the collection. Received in exchange. [76. 7. 18, 1, 2.]

6 specimens from the Arfak Mts. in N.W. New Guinea, including three species new to the Museum. [82. 5. 30, 2–7.]

26 specimens from South-eastern New Guinea, collected by the Marquis L. Loria. Purchased. [97. 8. 29, 1–26.]

9 species new to the collection, 4 specimens being co-types (cf. Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civic. Genoa, (2), xvi., pp. 55–120, 1896).

Gerrard (EDWARD, jun.).

44 specimens from Chile, collected by Mr. E. C. Reed, of Santiago. Purchased. [71. 6. 28, 1–44.]

60 specimens from Panama. Purchased. [72. 2. 8, 1–60.]

15 specimens from Ecuador. Purchased. [72. 5. 27, 25–39.]

3 specimens of Oreotrochilus chimborazo from Ecuador and 24 birds from the Rio Negro and Patagonia (cf. Sclater, P.Z.S., 1872, pp. 534–550, pl. xxxi.). Purchased. [72. 5. 28, 1–27.]

58 specimens from Costa Rica. Purchased. [72. 5. 29, 1–58.]

11 specimens from Jalapa collected by M. de Oca. Purchased. [72. 10. 25, 15–25.]

11 specimens from South America. Purchased. [72. 10. 28, 1–6; 72. 11. 23, 2–6.]

56 specimens from Bogos-Land collected by Mr. Esler [q.v.]. Purchased. [73. 2. 25, 1–41; 74. 11. 13, 4–15.]

12 birds from Yarkand. These specimens are the types of the new species described by Mr. A. O. Hume in the "Ibis" for 1871, pp. 407–411; they were collected by Dr. G. Henderson (cf. Henderson and Hume, "Lahore to Yārkand"). [73. 6. 30, 1–12.]

15 birds from the Southern Ural Mountains collected by Dr. Strader. These birds were received from the Moscow Museum by Jamrach, who sold them to Gerrard. Purchased. [73. 7. 2, 1–15.]

89 specimens of Hawks and Owls from various localities. Purchased. [73. 8. 20, 1–42; 73. 10. 31, 2–24; 74. 1. 10, 1–4; 74. 4. 29, 3–19.]

12 specimens, one new to the collection, from the Interior of Queensland, collected by J. B. White (cf. Sharpe, P.Z.S., 1875, pp. 337–339). Purchased. [75. 4. 19, 1–12.]

43 specimens, including the type of Falco brookei, from Sardinia, collected by the late A. Basil Brooke. Purchased. [75. 5. 1, 6–48.]

93 specimens from various localities, 3 new to the collection. Purchased. [76. 1. 4, 1–6; 76. 1. 31, 1–52; 76. 9. 18, 1–6; 77. 5. 31, 1–29.]

25 specimens from Ceylon, including Bubo pectoralis, new to the collection, collected by A. Whyte. Purchased. [77. 11. 9, 1–25.]

10 specimens, adding four species not previously represented in the collection, from Duke of York Island and New Britain, collected by the Rev. G. Brown. Purchased. [78. 3. 14, 1–10.]

4 specimens, including Micrœca papuana, new to the collection, from New Guinea, duplicates from the celebrated expedition of Dr. A. B. Meyer. Purchased. [78. 4. 27, 1–4.]

[page] 358

15 specimens from N.W. Borneo collected by the late Governor H. T. Ussher. Purchased. [78. 5. 3, 1–15.]

50 specimens from Colombia collected by the late T. K. Salmon. Purchased. [78. 9. 30, 2–51.]

These consisted of a few species required by the Museum at the time, but the bulk of this excellent collector's specimens passed into the hands of Messrs. Salvin and Godman, and Dr. Sclater. With the acquisition of these great collections, the British Museum possesses nearly the entire results of Salmon's work in Antioquia. 468 species were obtained by him, and his collections were described in 1879 by Dr. Sclater and Mr. Osbert Salvin in their paper, "On the Birds collected by the late Mr. T. K. Salmon in the State of Antioquia, United States of Colombia" (P.Z.S., 1879, pp. 486–550, pls. xli.–xliii.). The collection was especially rich in eggs, many of which were figured for the first time. Several new species were described: Cyphorhinus dichrous (pl. xli.), Buarremon elæoprorus, Automolus ignobilis, Grallaria rufocinerea, and Brachygalba salmoni. All the types of these species are now in the British Museum.

4 specimens, two new to the collection, from the Arfak Mountains. Purchased. [78. 10. 23, 1–4.]

10 specimens from Angola collected by Mr. A. S. Heath. Purchased. [78. 10. 23, 5–14.] (See Sharpe, R. Bowdler.)

Heath was a clever young man who succeeded to an excellent business as a solicitor, built up by years of labour by his father. He would not stick to the drudgery of a city life, and wanted to go abroad and collect specimens for the Museum, but 22 skins were all that we ever received from him.

40 birds from the Pelew Islands collected by Mr. Cohen. Purchased. [78. 10. 29, 1–40.]

I do not know who Mr. Cohen was, but his collection was purchased by Gerrard and offered to the Museum, whereby we obtained a number of interesting species, of which twelve were new to the national collection.

11 specimens, of which 6 species were new to the national collection, from the Molucca islands. Purchased. [78. 11. 12, 1–11.]

25 specimens of Passerine birds, including 10 species new to the collection, from India and Burma. Purchased. [79. 2. 4, 1–25.]

69 specimens, including 16 species new to the collection, from the neighbourhood of Port Moresby, in British New Guinea, collected by Mr. Kendal Broadbent. Purchased. [79. 3. 6, 1–69.]

This collection was described by me in the "Journal" of the Linnean Society (Zool., xiv., pp. 626–634, 1879). I had named, in April 1879, two new species as Pœcilodryas flavicincta and Aprosmictus broadbenti, in the "Annals and Magazine of Natural History," 1879, p. 313. Mr. Broadbent had, however, sent specimens to the Sydney Museum, and Mr. E. P. Ramsay described the same species as Aprosmictus chloropterus and Pœcilodryas placens, so that my names were pre-occupied.

58 bones of the extinct Goose, Cnemiornis calcitrans. Purchased. [79. 3. 11, 1–58.]

36 birds, one species new to the collection, from Borneo and the Philippines, collected by Harold Everett. Purchased. [79. 5. 3, 1–36.]

20 specimens from Burma, Central and South America, containing one species new to the collection. Purchased. [80. 9. 13, 1–20.]

43 specimens, including types of three newly-described species and nine new to the national collection, from S.E. New Guinea, collected by C. Hunstein (cf. Sharpe, Ann. and Mag. N. H. (5), vi., pp. 231, 232, 1880). Purchased. [80. 9. 13, 21–63.]

[page] 359

293 birds and 108 skeletons from the Eyton collection. Purchased. [80. 12. 31, 1–88; 81. 1. 17, 1–108; 81. 2. 18, 1–205.]

To the importance of the Eyton collection, with its 71 types of ancient species and seven new to the collection, I have already referred. The skeletons, being the specimens on which his "Osteologia Avium" was founded, were also a most desirable acquisition.

6 specimens from Australia, collected by A. P. Goodwin, and two from S.E. New Guinea, collected by A. Goldie. Purchased. [81. 3. 15, 1–8.]

100 specimens from New Britain and Duke of York Island, collected by the Rev. G. Brown (cf. Sclater, P.Z.S., 1879, pp. 446–451, pls. xxxvi. and xxxvii., and 1880, pp. 65–67, pls. vi.–viii.). Purchased. [81. 3. 29, 1–100.]

This collection contains 8 types of birds described as new to science by Dr. Sclater and 21 species hitherto unrepresented in the national collection.

11 birds from Borneo. Three species from the Lawas river, collected by Sir W. H. Treacher, were new to the collection. Purchased. [81. 4. 21, 1–11.]

4 birds from S.E. New Guinea. Purchased. [81. 4. 22, 1–4.]

17 birds from the Gold Coast, collected by the late Governor Ussher. Purchased. [81. 9. 24, 1–17.]

This is a fragment only of the great collection of birds made by Governor Ussher before his death. He was keenly interested in the natural history of the colony over which be ruled, and shortly before his death I received letters from him announcing his return to England with the largest collection of birds he had ever made, with rare species like Picathartes gymnocephalus and many other apparent novelties from the interior of the Gold Coast. He had also made a special study of the game-birds from the Accra district, and believed that he had obtained a complete series of these birds. What became of this collection, of which there must have been several cases, was never actually discovered, but a few seem to have found their way to England and to have come ultimately into Gerrard's hands. One of these specimens threw me off my guard on this occasion, and I described a pale moulting bird which looked like a Flycatcher as Muscicapa ussheri. It turned out to be a Garden Warbler (Sylvia simplex)!

45 birds from various localities. Purchased. [81. 11. 5, 1–45.]

55 birds from Sikhim and other parts of the Indian Empire. Purchased. [81. 12. 28, 3–57.]

These were duplicates from the Hume collection sent home by Mr. Hume for disposal or for exchange. Many of these skins were of the utmost service to me in the preparation of the "Catalogue of Birds," as of course at that time I had no idea that four years later Mr. Hume was going to present his wonderful collection to the Museum.

132 birds from South-eastern New Guinea, collected by Mr. A. Goldie. Purchased. [82. 3. 5, 1–5; 82. 3. 8, 1–121; 83. 6. 5, 1–6.]

These collections contained 33 species not previously represented in the Museum, eleven of them being new. I described the collection in the Linnean Society's "Journal" (vol. xvi., pp. 317–319, 422–447). Among the novelties were such fine birds as Trichoglossus goldiei, Æthomyias guttata, Eupetes pulcher, Munia grandis, Phonygama hunsteini, and Ptilorhis intercedens.

14 birds from the west coast of Sumatra, collected by Dr. von Faber. Purchased. [82. 7. 24, 1–14.]

[page] 360

516 specimens from the Jardine collection. Purchased. [86. 6. 24, 1–516.]

This important collection, full of historical specimens, was dispersed by auction in London after Sir William Jardine's death. I did my best to identify the type-specimens as the collection lay in a crowded auction room, and eventually the Museum secured twenty-five of the most important ones, but some were purchased over our heads. The fate of this most interesting collection is one of the saddest memories I have. The printed catalogue was simply ridiculous, for if I remember rightly it recorded the types of Linnean species like the Peregrine Falcon and the Common Swift, and the collection ought to have fetched more thousands of pounds than it did hundreds. The Museum did not get half what we wanted, and one of the things I most regret was the series of South African species, which included a set of Sir Andrew Smith's skins. There were many beautiful skins of Bustards, and I felt the want of these when I was writing the "Catalogue of Birds." I fear that the bid offered by the Museum was outdone by someone who wanted the specimens for fly-fishing!

54 birds from N.W. Borneo, collected by A. H. Everett, including the type of Carpophaga everetti from Mantanani Island. Purchased. [88. 8. 13, 1–54.]

40 skins from Kashgar and Yarkand, collected by the Rev. Dr. Landsdell. Purchased. [89. 7. 3, 1–26; 89. 7. 30, 1–14.]

235 specimens from the Baram Province of Sarawak, collected by Dr. Charles Hose, the Resident of Baram. Purchased. [89. 1. 17, 1–21; 89. 7. 31, 1–14; 89. 9. 21, 1–13; 90. 2. 1, 1–13; 92. 4. 29, 1–51; 92. 8. 25, 1–50; 94. 2. 2, 1–21; 94. 6. 26, 1–21; 1900. 9. 1, 1–31.]

This collection, which was made by Dr. Hose on Mounts Dulit, Mulu, and Kalulong, contains the types of the descriptions given in the "Ibis" for 1892, pp. 322–324, and Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, i., pp. 4 and 5 (1892).

11 birds from Madagascar, collected by A. Majastre. Purchased. [89. 9. 5, 1–11.]

100 specimens from Labuan and Mount Penrisen, N. W. Borneo, collected by A. H. Everett and Dr. C. Hose. This collection includes the type of Siphia everetti and 9 species new to the collection. Purchased. [90. 6. 14, 1–100.]

447 specimens from Captain Savile G. Reid's collection. Purchased. [92. 5. 6, 1–447.]

This collection, which was principally from Bermuda and Natal, forms part of the material on which Captain Reid's "Birds of the Bermudas," and Butler, Feilden and Reid's "Ornithological Notes from Natal," were based (cf. "Zoologist," 1877, pp. 393–424, 473–493; op. cit., 1882, pp. 165–171, 204–212, 243–258, 297–303, 335–345, 423–429, 460).

230 specimens from the mountains of N.W. Borneo, principally from Mount Kina Balu, collected by A. H. Everett. Purchased. [92. 10. 30, 1–118; 93. 6. 22, 1–23; 95. 1. 26, 1–7; 95. 11. 19, 1–82.]

These collections contained several species new to the Museum, and types of two undescribed species, Scops mantananensis and Arachnothera everetti.

34 bones of Dinornis and Harpagornis from Omeru, New Zealand, from Dr. Forbes' collection. Purchased. [93. 1. 30, 1–34.]

65 birds from the Sulu Archipelago collected by Mr. A. H. Everett. Purchased. [94. 4. 20, 1–52.]

This collection, containing 4 types of species new to science and 5

[page] 361

not previously represented in the national collection, was described in the "Ibis" for 1894, pp. 238–259, pls. vi. and vii.

5 eggs of Apteryx australis from South Island, New Zealand. Purchased. [94. 11. 20, 1–5.]

27 birds from N. Mindoro, collected by A. H. Everett. Purchased. [95. 6. 13, 1–27.]

66 birds from Zululaud, collected by Messrs. R. B. and J. S. D. Woodward. Purchased. [96. 4. 17, 1–66.]

Includes the type of Stactolæma woodwardi (cf. "Ibis," 1897, pp. 400–422, pl. x., 1898, pp. 216–231).

74 specimens from S. Celebes, Bonthain Peak, Mount Kina Balu, etc., collected by A. H. Everett. Purchased. [96. 6. 10, 1–72.] In this collection there were 5 species new to the Museum.

21 Kingfishers for the Public Gallery. Purchased. [96. 6. 11, 1–21.]

32 specimens from Djampea Island, collected by Mr. A. H. Everett. Purchased. [96. 10. 3, 1–32.]

11 species new to the collection (cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., iii., pp. 165–183).

6 birds from Mount Victoria. Purchased. [96. 10. 4, 1–6.]

6 specimens of Prionodura newtoniana, from N. Queensland, collected by W. S. Day. Purchased. [96. 11. 24, 1–6.]

23 specimens from the Talaut Islands. Purchased. [97. 5. 12, 1–23.]

20 mounted specimens of Pigeons, for the Exhibition Gallery. Purchased. [97. 10. 14, 1–20.]

488 birds and eggs from the Lesser Sunda Islands (Savu, Flores, Sumbawa, Lombok, Bali, etc.), collected by Mr. Alfred Everett. Purchased. [97. 11. 1, 1–136; 98. 5. 4, 1–125; 98. 6. 30, 1–39; 98. 12. 5, 1–56; 98. 12. 6, 1–6; 98. 12. 7, 1–15; 98. 12. 7, 18–25; 98. 12. 8, 1–90; 98. 12. 9, 1–13.]

135 birds from N. Celebes, collected by Dr. Charles Hose. Purchased. [97. 12. 14, 1–104; 97. 12. 24, 1–31.]

The collection of birds made by Dr. Hose in the mountains of N. Celebes is described by him (Ornis xii., pp. 77–117 (1903)).

118 birds from Goodenough and Ferguson Islands and from St. Aignan in the Louisiade Archipelago, collected by A. S. Meek. Purchased. [98. 4. 30, 1–93; 98. 6. 28, 1–25.] This collection contained 7 species new to the Museum.

36 specimens from the Owen Stanley Mountains in British New Guinea. Purchased. [98. 11. 20, 1–24; 98. 12. 4, 1–12.]

92 skeletons. Purchased. [98. 12. 3, 3–94.]

37 birds from Borneo, collected by Mr. T. Waterstradt. Purchased. [98. 12. 10, 1–37.]

118 specimens from S.E. New Guinea, collected by Mr. A. S. Meek. Purchased. [99. 5. 17, 1–56; 99. 5. 20, 1–21; 1900. 2. 7, 1–41.]

45 birds from Cape York, N. Queensland, collected by A. S. Meek. Purchased. [99. 5. 21, 1–45.]

21 birds from Basilan, Philippine Islands. Purchased. [99. 5. 22, 1–21.]

12 specimens from New Guinea. Purchased. [99. 5. 23, 1–12.]

51 specimens from Mt. Mada, in the Island of Buru in the Moluccas, and 45 specimens from Morotai Island, collected by A. H. Everett. Purchased. [99. 5. 24, 1–40; 1900. 2. 8, 1–45; 1900. 3. 24, 1–11.]

21 birds from S.E. New Guinea. Purchased. [99. 8. 17, 1–21.]

143 birds and eggs from the Island of Hainan, collected by Mr. John Whitehead. Purchased. [99. 1. 2, 19–162.] Including the types of 7 species new to science (cf. Grant, P.Z.S., 1900, pp. 457–504, pls. xxxiii. and xxxiv.).

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56 skeletons of birds, skulls, etc. [1900. 7. 6, 1–56.]

26 eggs from St. Aignan Island in the Louisiade Archipelago, and 41 birds from the Solomon Islands, collected by Mr. A. S. Meek. Purchased. [1900. 8. 1, 1–26; 1901. 11. 5, 1–41.]

32 mounted Birds of Paradise, for the Exhibition Gallery. Purchased. [1901. 1. 12, 1–32.]

48 specimens from Batchian Island in the Moluccas, collected by Mr. Heinrich Kühn. Purchased. [1901. 10. 5, 1–48.]

32 specimens from Nyasaland, collected by Mr. Brown. Purchased. [1901. 11. 6, 1–32.]

29 birds, collected in Pahang, Malay Peninsula, by Mr. John Waterstradt. Purchased. [1903. 5. 1, 1–29.] Included a specimen of Chalcurus inopinatus, the new species of Peacock-Pheasant described by the Hon. Walter Rothschild.

56 birds from Batchian and the Obi Islands in the Moluccas, collected by Mr. John Waterstradt. Purchased. [1903. 6. 2, 1–56.]

19 birds from the Solomon Islands, collected by Mr. A. S. Meek. Purchased. [1903. 6. 3, 1–19.]

44 birds from New Guinea, collected by Mr. A. S. Meek. Purchased. [1904. 4. 19, 1–44.]

24 birds from the Malay Archipelago. Purchased. [1904. 4. 23, 1–24.]

27 birds from Batjan, collected by H. Kuhn. Purchased. [1904. 5. 4, 1–27.]

12 birds from Mount Madang, Moluccas. Purchased. [1904. 5. 6, 1–12.]

11 birds from Sarawak. Purchased. [1904. 5. 30, 1–11.]

21 birds from the Solomon Islands, including three species new to the collection, collected by A. S. Meek. Purchased. [1904. 6. 9, 1–21.]

35 birds from the Solomon Islands, collected by Mr. A. S. Meek. Purchased. [1904. 7. 11, 1–35.]

37 birds from the Philippine Islands and Solomon Islands. Purchased. [1904. 7. 13, 1–37.]

180 birds from the Camaroons, collected by G. L. Bates, Esq. Purchased. [1904. 7. 18, 1–180.]

16 birds from Solomon Islands, collected by Mr. A. S. Meek. Purchased. [1904. 11. 16, 1–16.]

592 birds from the Uganda Protectorate, duplicates from Mr. Jackson's collection. Purchased. [1904. 11. 20, 1–592.]

265 birds from Efuler, Camaroons, and River Ja, collected by G. L. Bates, Esq. Purchased. [1905. 1. 24, 1–265.]

230 birds from Sierra Leone. Collected by Robin Kemp, Esq. Purchased. [1905. 1. 25, 1–230.]

427 eggs from Uganda, duplicates from Mr. Jackson's collection. Purchased. [1905. 9. 15, 1–427.]

27 birds and 10 eggs from the Solomon Islands, collected by Mr. A. S. Meek. Purchased. [1905. 11. 25, 1–37.]

450 birds from Somaliland, collected by Mr. G. W. Bury. Purchased. [1905. 11. 27, 1–253; 1905. 12, 23, 1–197].

236 birds from Mindauao, collected by Mr. Walter Goodfellow. Purchased. [1905. 11. 26, 1–236.]

Mr. Edward Gerrard has been for the last thirty-five years a natural history agent and taxidermist, to whom the Museum has entrusted its most valuable commissions and its most important work. He is the son of Mr. Edward Gerrard, sen., whose honourable career in the British Museum is one of the longest on record in that Institution.

This old gentleman, beloved and respected by every one of us in the Museum, has not long retired from the service. When the Zoological

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Society transferred its offices to Leicester Square, he entered its employ on the same day as the late Mr. G. R. Waterhouse, and assisted in arranging the Museum and making skeletons for the latter. Dr. J. E. Gray often visited the Society's Museum, and ultimately wrote to Mr. Gerrard offering him a post in the British Museum. This he accepted, entering the service in April 1841, when Sir Henry Ellis was the Principal Librarian, and the national collection was stored in Montague House, Bloomsbury. Here the collections were arranged in the various rooms in cases standing along the centre, after the manner of the present Bird Gallery at South Kensington. He witnessed the demolition of this historic building and the gradual development of the great British Museum at Bloomsbury under Panizzi, as well as the ultimate removal of the natural history collections to their present home in the Museum in the Cromwell Road. His early duties consisted in assisting Dr. Gray in the arrangement of the old British Museum, and especially looking after the collections of Mammalia, Reptiles and Fish, and keeping the registers.

Mr. Gerrard, sen., is still hale and hearty at the age of 95.

Gestro (PROF. R.).

See GENOA MUSEUM.

Getting (B. H. F.).

35 birds from British Guiana. Purchased. [97. 10. 16, 5–39.]

Gibson (ERNEST).

114 birds from Argentina. Presented. [1903. 12. 18, 1–114.]

This collection has been described in the "Ibis" for 1879 and 1880.

Gifford (Lord).

29 birds from Tibet. Presented. [51. 7. 2, 1–29.] The types of Syrrhaptes tibetanus and Montifringilla hæmatopygia (cf. Gould, P.Z.S., 1850, p. 92; 1851, p. 115) are included in this collection.

Lord Gifford was the elder brother of the celebrated 9th Marquis of Tweeddale (q.v.).

Giglioli (Professor H. H.), Director of the Royal Museum of Natural History at Florence.

40 birds from Italy. Presented. [84. 7. 12, 1–25; 86. 12. 28, 1–15.]

Dr. Giglioli has done a great work in forming a museum of the animals indigenous to the Italian Peninsula and islands.

He has written some important works on Italian Ornithology.

Gillespie (F.).

A specimen of the St. Helena Sand-Plover (Ægialitis sanctæ-helenæ) and two eggs. Presented. [79. 6. 10, 1–3.]

Gillett (FRED.).

98 birds from Somali Land. Presented. [96. 4. 18, 1–98.]

31 birds from Persia. Presented. [96. 12. 21, 1–31.]

Mr. Gillett accompanied Dr. Donaldson Smith on his first celebrated expedition to Lake Rudolf, but was summoned home on the death of his father, and was not able to go the entire journey. He afterwards undertook an expedition into Persia by himself. Both collections given by him to the Museum contained specimens of much interest.

Gladstone (HUGH E.).

8 specimens of Black Game in changes of plumage, from Dumfriesshire. Presented. [1902. 9. 2, 1–8.]

33 nestlings and embryos of various birds. Presented. [1903. 7. 31, 1–33.]

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4 specimens, Black Game and Red Grouse, Pheasants, etc. Presented. [1903. 8. 6, 1; 1903. 11. 27, 1–2; 1904. 2. 2, 1.]

5 eggs of Red Grouse from Dumfriesshire. Presented. [1905. 5. 13, 1–5.]

A nestling of the Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus hyperoreus) from Belmullet, Co. Mayo. Presented. [1905. 7. 21, 1.]

Glazner (C.).

142 birds from Cyprus. Purchased. [1901. 8. 20, 1–22; 1902. 8. 2, 1–40; 1902. 19. 6, 1–51; 1903. 7. 5, 1–29.]

30 birds from Cyprus. Purchased. [1904. 4. 18, 1–30.]

Mr. Glazner has made several interesting collections in Cyprus, and discovered some new species in the island. The Museum has received from him a good series of Parus cypriotes, Pisorhina cypria, Garrulus glazneri, and other rare birds.

Glossop (Commander JOHN C. T.).

9 eggs from the Campbell Islands. Presented. [1904. 10. 18, 1–9.]

Godeffroy Bros.

131 birds from the Pacific Islands and the Bismarck Archipelago. Purchased. [77. 11. 17, 1–52; 78. 10. 23, 17–28; 79. 6. 2, 1–4; 81. 11. 22, 1–11; 82. 7. 5, 1–30; 82. 8. 19, 1–21.]

This well-known firm of Hamburg merchants employed a number of collectors in their service, of whom the most celebrated were Andrew Garratt, Kubary, Kleinschmidt, and others whose names are household words among ornithologists. Although the collections of fishes came to the British Museum (see Report on Fish Collections), only a few duplicates of birds reached England, but there were some very rare species among them, 26 being previously unrepresented in the national collection.

Godman (FREDERIC DU CANE), D.C.L., F.R.S.

Trustee of the British Museum.

[See also SALVIN, OSBERT.]

N.B.—I have not separated the names of these two distinguished naturalists as donors to the British Museum. Mr. Salvin's name will always be associated with that of Dr. F. D. Godman, and in my notes I have pointed out where the donations were jointly made.

8 birds from the Azores. Presented. [78. 7. 30, 5–12.]

These were a few duplicates from his Azorean collection, and added 4 species to the Museum, including a specimen of the new Bullfinch (Pyrrhula murina) discovered by him. This species is now nearly extinct. It was at one time so common that it descended in large numbers on the fruit-gardens and did great damage. Unfortunately, in suppressing its ravages the species has been all but wiped out.

1914 specimens from various parts of the Old World. Presented by Messrs. Salvin and Godman. [79. 4. 5, 1–1858; 75. 4. 15, 1–50; 83. 4. 21, 1–6.]

This is a very interesting and historical collection, adding 4 species new to the collection and the type of a species new to science; it proved a welcome gift to the Museum, which at that time possessed a very poor collection of Palæarctic birds. There were numbers of interesting specimens procured by well-known naturalists in different parts of Europe. Included in this donation were birds from Northern Norway, obtained by Dr. F. D. Godman and his brother, Mr. Percy Godman (cf. "Notes on the Birds observed at Bodö," "Ibis," 1861, p. 77), and the birds collected in Tunis by Mr. Osbert Salvin (cf. "Birds'-nesting in the Eastern Atlas," "Ibis," 1859, pp. 174, 302, 352). There were also numbers

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of interesting specimens obtained from other collectors, such as those from Palestine (Canon Tristram), Turkey (T. Robson), Asia Minor (C. G. Danford), China (Consul Swinhoe), Natal (T. Ayres), and many others.

To the ornithologist, however, there will always occur the interest surrounding the British specimens which were acquired by the donors during their school and college days, Mr. Salvin's being mostly collected around Finchley and Hampstead, while Dr. Godman's were chiefly obtained in the neighbourhood of Park Hatch, the family seat near Godalming.

In this Palæarctic collection were likewise all the specimens obtained by Dr. F. D. Godman and Mr. Percy Godman in the Azores, including the types of Pyrrhula murina (cf. "Ibis," 1866, pp. 88, 109; also Dr. Godman's work, "The Azores," 1870), as well as the series of birds obtained in Madeira and the Canaries, with the types of the new Pigeon discovered by Dr. Godman and named by him Columba bollei (cf. his paper, "Notes on the Resident and Migratory Birds of Madeira and the Canaries," "Ibis," 1872, pp. 156–177, 209–224).

3 young specimens of the Australian Cassowary (Casuarius australis). Presented. [80. 3. 24, 1–3.]

These formed part of the Cockerell Collection, which was presented in the next year.

1394 specimens from various parts of Australia. Presented. [81. 11. 7, 1–1315; 81. 13. 7, 1–38; 81. 12. 9, 1–41.]

This was the celebrated Cockerell Collection. It was supposed to contain several new species, but these invariably turned out to be well-known forms from the Aru Islands, where Mr. Cockerell was said to have been engaged in the pearl-fisheries. Whether this fiasco was due to the representations of the collector himself or to his agent in England will never be known, but the result was that the collection, badly labelled in the first place, was purchased by Dr. Godman under the idea that it contained several undescribed species of Australian birds, whereas there was not a single new species to be described. The preservation of the skins was excellent, and to the Museum, possessed of but few Australian birds, its worth was inestimable. Most of the specimens were undoubtedly from the neighbourhood of Brisbane and from Cape York.

22 specimens from S.E. New Guinea, collected by Mr. A. Goldie. [83. 4. 4, 1–22.]

Contained the types of Paradisea decora and Pachycephalopsis fortis.

6 specimens of birds from South America. Presented. [83. 4. 21, 1–6.]

These were Vireonidæ presented for the purposes of the eighth volume of the "Catalogue of Birds." Two species, Vireo gundlachi and Hylophilus muscicapinus, were new to the collection.

3191 eggs. Presented. [84. 9. 2, 1–826; 85. 1. 1, 827–2162; 85. 4. 20, 2163–3191.]

This collection is a model one for all oologists. The volumes which accompany the donation contain the records of the various expeditions, donations, and exchanges by which the collection was built up, and they show the absolutely exact method adopted by the British school of ornithologists in their early collecting days. This method was inaugurated by John Wolley and Professor Newton, and can best be studied in the two volumes of the "Ootheca Wolleyana," written by the last-named naturalist.

The above collection, presented jointly by Dr. F. D. Godman and Mr. Osbert Salvin, must always remain of great historical interest to British ornithologists, as it contains the eggs collected by them in their young days, when it was possible to obtain the eggs of Emberiza cirlus, Dendro-

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copus major, and Gecinus viridis at Hampstead and Finchley in places long since built over.

52120 specimens of Nearctic and Neotropical birds. Presented.

In the year 1885 Dr. Godman and Mr. Salvin decided to present their wonderful collection of Neotropical birds to the nation. The first instalments were received in January of that year, and during my absence in India the registration and incorporation of this great collection were superintended by Mr. Osbert Salvin. Separate registers for the collection were provided, to which reference is made below.

(1) 669 specimens of Turdidæ and Mimidæ (Thrushes and Mocking-birds). (S. G. Reg., Vol. I., pp. 1–13.) [85. 3. 2, 1–669.]

10 types and 13 species new to the Museum.

(2) 517 specimens of Paridæ and Troglodytidæ (Tits and Wrens). (S. G. Reg., Vol. I., pp. 14–23.) [85. 3. 6, 1–517.]

18 types and 16 species new to the Museum.

(3) 890 specimens of Motacillidæ and Mniotiltidæ (Wagtails, Pipits, and American Warblers). (S. G. Reg., Vol. I., pp. 25–42.) [85. 3. 8, 1–890.]

15 types and 15 species new to the Museum.

(4) 285 specimens of Vireonidæ and Laniidæ (Greenlets and Shrikes). (S. G. Reg., Vol. I., pp. 43–48.) [85. 3. 10, 1–285.]

7 types and 20 species new to the Museum.

(5) 713 specimens of Ampelidæ, Hirundinidæ, and Cærebidæ (Wax-wings, Swallows, and American Creepers). (S. G. Reg., Vol. I., pp. 50–64.) [85. 3. 20, 1–40; 85. 3. 24, 1–209; 85. 4. 1, 1–364.]

4 types and 4 species new to the Museum.

(6) 1814 specimens of Tanagridæ (Tanagers). (S. G. Reg., Vol. I., pp. 66–104.) [85. 6. 4, 1–653; 85. 6. 7, 1–717; 85. 6. 8, 1–454.]

41 types and 48 species near to the Museum.

(7) 2088 specimens of Icteridæ and Fringillidæ (Hang-nests and Finches). (S. G. Reg., Vol. I., pp. 107–120, 122–148.) [85. 11. 2, 1–694; 85. 12. 14, 1–1394.]

19 types and 19 species new to the Museum.

(8) 1073 specimens from the islands off the coast of Yucatan and Honduras (Cozumel, Jolbox, Ruatan, Meco, and Bonacca). (S. G. Reg., Vol. I., pp. 153–173.) [86. 9. 9, 1–1073.]

2 types and 3 species new to the Museum. This collection was formed by Dr. G. F. Gaumer, and was an exceedingly interesting one (cf. Salvin, "Ibis," 1888, pp. 241–265; 1889, pp. 359–379; 1890, pp. 84–95; Salvin and Godman, "Biologia Centrali-Americana, Aves.") A small collection from Cozumel, formed by Mr. E. C. J. De Vis, had been previously described by Mr. Salvin ("Ibis," 1885, pp. 185–194, pl. v.), when several new species were named. These, however, were anticipated by Mr. Ridgway in his description of the collection made during the voyage of the U.S. ship "Albatros" (P. U.S. Nat. Mus., VIII., p. 560, 1885).

(9) 186 specimens of Corvidæ (Crows, Jays, etc.). (S. G. Reg., Vol. I., pp. 176–179.) [87. 3. 9, 1–186.]

2 species new to the collection.

(10) 2134 specimens of Trochili (Humming-Birds). (S. G. Reg., Vol. I., pp. 82–222.) [87. 3. 22, 1–2134.]

17 types and 8 species new to the Museum.

(11) 1015 specimens of Accipitres (Birds of Prey). (S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 1–201.) [87. 5. 1, 1–1015.]

9 types and 14 species new to the Museum.

(12) The Henshaw Collection, consisting of 13,326 specimens, with 3 types and 30 species new to the Museum.

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This fine collection was purchased and given to the British Museum by Dr. Godman.

Many American ornithologists have told me that they are glad that we have the Henshaw Collection in England, and the advantage to students of Ornithology has been simply incalculable. Before this time there could not be said to be any collection of North American birds worthy of the name in England, but since Dr. Godman acquired the Henshaw Collection we have been able to comprehend and appreciate the work of our American colleagues in a manner before impossible, and the advantage to the writers of the "Catalogue of Birds" cannot be over-estimated.

An act of courtesy on the part of the authorities of the United States National Museum deserves grateful recognition. Professor Ridgway was permitted to devote his time to the identification of the specimens with Mr. Henshaw, so that the collection when it arrived was found to be not only completely and neatly labelled, but the names attached to the species represented the most recent conclusions of American naturalists. These determinations have proved to be of immense advantage to English ornithologists.

Dr. Godman's primary object in securing the Henshaw collection was to have a thoroughly authentic series of North American birds for comparison with his series from Mexico and Central America, and to further this object he shortly afterwards purchased a set of birds from Florida, 2500 in number, collected by Mr. W. E. D. Scott.

1866 specimens of Tyrannidæ (Tyrant-birds). (S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 27–62). [88. 1. 1, 1–1866.]

34 types and 107 species new to the Museum.

976 specimens of Cotingidæ (Chatterers). (S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 67–85). [88. 1. 20, 1–976.]

16 Types and 49 species new to the Museum.

177 specimens of Procellariidæ (Petrels). (S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 88–91). [88. 5. 15, 1–177.]

9 Types and 16 species new to the Museum.

This is the collection on which Mr. Salvin's portion of the 25th volume of the "Catalogue of Birds" was based. It was got together with an idea of publishing a Monograph of the Procellariidæ.

325 specimens of Striges (Owls). S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 93–99. [88. 7. 20, 1–325.]

3 types and 6 species new to the collection.

74 specimens of Cypseli (Swifts). S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 103, 104. [88. 7. 30, 1–74.]

1 type and 2 species new to the Museum.

205 specimens of Caprimulgi (Night-jars). S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 106–109. [88. 8. 1, 1–205.]

2 types and 1 species new to the Museum.

635 specimens of Pici (Woodpeckers). S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 112–124. [88. 8. 5, 1–635.]

5 types and 44 species new to the collection.

125 specimens of Momotidæ (Mot-mots). S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 127–129. [88. 8. 10, 1–125.]

1 type and 2 species new to the Museum.

120 specimens of Halcyones (Kingfishers). S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 132–134. [88. 8. 16, 1–120.]

1 type and 1 species new to the collection.

309 specimens of Trogones (Trogons). S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 136–141. [88. 8. 20, 1–309.]

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2 types and 1 species new to the Museum.

114 specimens of Galbule (Jacamars). S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 144–146. [88. 8. 2, 1–114.]

1 type and 1 species new to the Museum.

184 specimens of Buccones (Puff-birds). S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 148–151. [88. 8. 22, 1–184.]

1 type.

224 specimens of Cuculi (Cuckoos). S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 153–157. [88. 8. 23, 1–224.]

2 types and 3 species new to the Museum.

71 specimens of Capitones (Barbets). S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 159, 160. [88. 12. 20, 1–71.]

3 types and 2 species new to the Museum.

208 specimens of Rhamphastides (Toucans). S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 162–165. [89. 1. 8, 1–208.]

1 type and 1 species new to the Museum.

538 specimens from Motto Grosso, collected by Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Smith. S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 166–176. [89. 1. 16, 1–538.]

This was the second set of the birds procured by those truly wonderful collectors Mr. Herbert Smith and Mrs. Daisy W. Smith. The collection formed the subject of a memoir by Prof. J. A. Allen in the "Bulletin" of the American Museum of Natural History, Vols. III., pp. 337–380; IV., pp. 331–350; V., pp. 107–158.

2 species new to the Museum.

503 specimens of Psittaci (Parrots). (S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 178–187.) [89. 1. 30, 1–503.]

14 types and 19 species new to the Museum.

482 specimens of Columbiformes (Pigeons). (S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 189–198.) [89. 2. 12, 1–482.]

2 types and 2 species new to the Museum.

This collection consisted of Pigeons of the Old World, which had been gathered together by Messrs. Salvin and Godman with a view of writing a monograph of the Columbiformes. The working out of the "Biologia," however, occupied the whole time of the authors, and left no leisure for monographs, so that the collection of Pigeons was handed over to the Museum to aid Count Salvadori in writing the twenty-first volume of the "Catalogue of Birds."

564 Pigeons of the New World. (S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 199–209.) [89. 4. 20, 1–564.]

10 types and 21 species new to the Museum.

845 specimens of Dendrocolaptidæ (Spine-tails). (S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 210–226.) [89. 5. 14, 1–845.]

7 types and 56 species new to the Museum.

With this collection the second volume of the Salvin-Godman Registers concludes. Vol. III. is devoted to the Henshaw collection.

In the early part of 1889 the supplementary collections from Mexico began to arrive in England, the result of Dr. Godman's visit to that country in 1887. In the last-named year he made a special expedition to Mexico, in which he was joined by Mr. and Mrs. Elwes, for the purpose of exploring some of the districts on the northern frontier of the Neotropical region. Besides working very hard himself, he engaged the services of several other good collectors, among the number being Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Smith, Mr. W. Lloyd, Manuel Trujillo, and Mr. W. B. Richardson. The latter was afterwards employed by Dr. Godman for nearly ten years in travelling through the various mountain ranges of

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Central America, and not only has he explored Mexico in various directions, and visited nearly every province, but he has also collected in San Salvador, Nicaragua, Guatemala, and Honduras.

Mr. W. Lloyd worked for Dr. Godman in Sonora and Chihuahua, Mr. and Mrs. Smith in Guerrero and the adjoining States, and Trujillo in Vera Cruz, while at the same time Mr. F. B. Armstrong, who made most beautiful skins, visited Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas. From this collector Dr. Godman also purchased a very fine series of birds from Texas, principally from the neighbourhood of Corpus Christi and Brownsville.

386 specimens of Galliformes. [89. 6. 1, 1–386.] (S. G. Reg., Vol. II., pp. 228–235.)

8 types and 5 species new to the Museum.

Vol. IV. of the Salvin-Godman Registers is occupied with the registration of the Salvin-Godman collection, keeping pace with the later volumes of the "Catalogue," which contain the Rails, Herons, etc., the specimens of which groups were sent to the Museum as they were required by the authors. In this register, therefore, not only is the main collection included, but also the additional material received from the Mexican travellers.

138 specimens of Accipitres. Supplementary collection. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 1–3.) [89. 4. 4, 1–136.]

1025 specimens of Formicariidæ (Ant-birds). (S. G. Reg., Vol. 14, pp. 6–25.) [89. 7. 10, 1–1025.]

21 types and 72 species new to the Museum.

260 specimens of Ralliformes (Rails, Coots, etc.). (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 27–31.) [89. 4. 20, 1–260.]

6 types and 9 species new to the Museum.

413 specimens of Accipitres. 2nd Supplementary collection. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 35–42.) [90. 4. 28, 1–413.]

3 types and 4 species new to the Museum.

181 specimens of Striges (Owls). Supplementary collection. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 43, 46.) [90. 5. 16, 1–181.]

442 specimens of Corvidæ (Crows). Supplementary collection. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 47–55.) [90. 5. 30, 1–442.]

2 species new to the Museum collection.

593 specimens of Turdidæ. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 56, 67.) [90. 6. 20, 1–593.]

1 species new to the Museum collection.

1206 specimens of Troglodytidæ. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 69–92.) [90. 12. 20, 1–1206.]

1 type and 2 species new to the Museum.

210 specimens from various islands in the West Indies, presented by Mr. C. B. Cory. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 94–97.) [91. 1. 25, 1–210.]

9 species new to the Museum collection.

566 specimens of Laridæ (Gulls). (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 98–101, 164–171.) [91. 5. 22, 1–162; 91. 10. 30, 1–404.]

346 skeletons of birds. (S. G. Reg., IV., pp. 102–107.) [91. 7. 20, 1–346.]

42 specimens of German birds sent by Count von Berlepsch in exchange. [91. 9. 20, 1–42.]

392 specimens of Paridæ (Tits, etc.). Supplementary collection. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 108–115.) [91. 10. 10, 1–392.]

3 species new to the Museum.

1480 specimens of Charadriiformes (Wading-birds). (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 116–144.) [91. 10, 20, 1–1480.]

VOL. II. 2 B

[page] 370

2 types and 3 species new to the Museum.

336 specimens of Galliformes (Game-birds). (S. G. Reg., IV., pp. 145–151.) [91. 10. 21, 1–236.]

5 species new to the Museum.

525 specimens of Columbiformes (Pigeons). Supplementary collection. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 152–162.) [91. 10. 26, 1–525.]

628 specimens of Laniidæ and Vireonidæ (Shrikes and Greenlets). Supplementary collection. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 173–185.) [91. 11. 3, 1–628.]

229 specimens of Ralliformes (Rails). Supplementary collection. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., 187–191.) [91. 11. 4, 1–229.]

1 species (Rallus scotti), new to the Museum.

254 specimens from the West India Islands, presented by Mr. C. B. Cory. (S. G. Reg., IV., pp. 202–206.) [92. 1. 12. 1–254.]

6 new to the Museum.

270 specimens of Trogonidæ (Trogons). (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 193–197.) [91. 11. 10, 1–270.]

57 specimens of Certhiidæ (Creepers). Supplementary collection. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 198, 199.] [92. 1. 11, 1–57.]

305 specimens from British Guiana, collected by Henry Whitely. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 208–213.) [92. 1. 16, 1–305.]

284 specimens of Grebes (Podicipedidæ) and Divers (Colymbidæ). (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 215–220.] [92. 1. 20, 1–284.]

The type of the Flightless Grebe (Centropelma micropterum).

488 specimens of Geese and Ducks (Anseriformes). (S. G. Rge., Vol. IV., pp. 221–230.) [92. 2. 1, 1–488.]

4 types and 2 species new to the Museum.

100 specimens of Paridæ (Tits). Supplementary collection. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 232, 233.) [92. 3. 1, 1–100.]

405 Wagtails and Pipits (Motacillidæ), Swallows (Hirundinidæ), Chatterers (Ampelidæ). Supplementary collection. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 235–242.) [92. 3. 20, 1–405.]

2 species new to the Museum.

2494 specimens of American Warblers (Mniotiltidæ). (S. G. Reg., Vol. VI., pp. 243–289.) [90. 4. 1, 1–2454; 94. 6. 1, 1–40.]

187 specimens of Tinamous (Tinamidæ). (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 290–293.) [92. 6. 9, 1–187.]

5 types and 10 species new to the Museum.

956 specimens of Cranes (Gruiformes) and Herons (Ardeiformes). (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 294–312.) [92. 2. 1, 1–956.]

The type of Salmon's Tiger-Bittern (Tigrisoma salmoni).

1245 specimens of Tanagridæ from Mexico, Guatemala, and Nicaragua. Supplementary collection. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 317–340.) [94. 7. 1, 1–1245.]

136 specimens from British Guiana, collected by the late Henry Whitely, including the types of Hapalocercus striaticeps, Capsiempis caudota, and Todirostrum pictum (cf Salvin, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, XII., pp. xv.–xvii., 1897). (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 342–344.) [95. 11. 27, 1–136.]

85 specimens of Accipitres and Striges from Mexico, etc. Supplementary collection. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 345, 346.) [96. 5. 9, 1–85.]

480 specimens from Peru, collected by O. T. Baron, including 15 species new to the national collection, and 12 types of species new to science (cf. Salvin, Nov. Zool., II., pp. 1–22, pls. i., ii., 1895). (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 347–356.) [96. 10. 6, 480.]

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245 specimens of Parrots from Mexico and Central America. Supplementary collection. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 364–368.) [96. 12. 1, 1–245.]

200 specimens of Goatsuckers (Caprimulgidæ) from Texas and Mexico. Supplementary collection. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 370–373.) [97. 2. 1, 1–200.]

262 specimens of Cuckoos (Cuculidæ) from Mexico and Guatemala. Supplementary collection. (S. G. Reg., Vol. IV., pp. 375–380.) [97. 4. 1, 1–262.]

510 specimens of Turdidæ, Troglodytidæ, Mimidæ, etc., from Mexico, Guatemala, and Nicaragua. Supplementary collection. 2 types of species new to science and 2 new to the Museum. (S. G. Reg., IV., pp. 381–390.) [97. 10. 1, 1–510.]

298 specimens from the Lesser Antilles, collected by Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Smith, including 3 new to the national collection. (S. G. Reg., IV., pp. 411–416.) [98. 2. 8, 1–298.]

14 specimens from Colombia, etc., with 3 types and 5 new to the Museum. (S. G. Reg., IV., p. 417.) [98. 3. 12, 1–14.]

990 specimens of Woodpeckers [Picidæ], principally from Mexico. (S. G. Reg., IV., pp. 418–437.) [98. 3. 14, 1–990.]

The type of Melanerpes canescens, Salvin.

321 specimens of various species from California, Texas, etc., received from Mr. C. K. Worthen. (S. G. Reg. IV., pp. 440–446.) [98. 7. 12, 1–304; 1900. 2. 26, 1–17.]

8 species new to the Museum.

Dr. F. D. Godman was born at Park Hatch, near Godalming, in Surrey, in 1834. He was educated at Eton and at Cambridge. While at the University he became acquainted with Osbert Salvin and Professor Newton and his brother, Sir Edward Newton, and, with them and a few other kindred spirits, he assisted in founding the British Ornithologists' Union, with its journal, the "Ibis."

Having been prevented by an accident from joining Canon Tristram and Mr. Salvin in their expedition to Algeria in the spring of 1857, he went with his brother Percy to Bodö in northern Norway, where the travellers made a good collection of birds and eggs, taking several nests of the Great Snipe. Crossing thence from Alten they visited John Wolley at Munioniska, where he was then living, and, descending the Tornea River to the Gulf of Bothnia, they afterwards visited Stockholm, St. Petersburg, Moscow and Nishni Novgorod, before returning to England.

In August, 1861, Dr. Godman went with Mr. Salvin to Guatemala, remaining a month in Jamaica en route. A year was spent in Guatemala, collecting birds and insects in various parts of the country. While there they instructed some natives in the art of preserving bird-skins, and by these pupils several collections were afterwards despatched to England. The best known of these collectors was Enrique Arcè, who did some excellent work in Costa Rica and Panama.

Dr. Godman returned home in 1862, and in 1865 he went to the Azores, visiting the islands of St. Michael, Terceira, Fayal, Pico, Flores and Corvo, and making a good collection of birds and insects, discovering a new species of Bullfinch, Pyrrhula murina. In 1871 he spent three months in the Canaries, visiting Tenerife, Palma, and Gran Canaria, but, in consequence of the prevalence of small-pox, communication between the islands was difficult.

In 1886 Dr. Godman joined Mr. H. J. Elwes in an expedition to Native Sikhim, and as in the autumn of 1887 he had to go abroad for the benefit of his health, he started for Mexico, taking with him the

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well-known collectors, Mr. H. H. Smith and Mr. W. B. Richardson. A good series of birds was obtained, chiefly in S.E. Mexico, but after Dr. Godman's departure, he employed a number of collectors, who explored different parts of Mexico, and sent home large collections.

Godman (PERCY).

Brother of the above-mentioned F. D. Godman, and his companion on several ornithological expeditions.

Godwin-Austen (Colonel H. H.).

3582 specimens from the Hills of N.E. Bengal (Naga, Miri, Dafla, Khasi, Garo Hills, and Manipur, etc.). [71. 1. 13, 1–5; 76. 5. 3, 1; 76. 5. 22, 2; 78. 10. 14, 1–8; 95. 7. 14, 1–3329; 96. 7. 13, 1–10; 99. 5. 31, 1–78; 1900. 10. 10, 1–147.]

The results of Colonel Godwin-Austen's explorations in the Naga Hills and the other hill-ranges of the N.E. frontier of India have been described by him in the "Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal" (xxxix., pp. 91–112, 264–275, 1870; xli., pp. 142–143, 1872; xliii., pp. 151–180, pls. iv.–x., 1874). The Hume Collection contained a good series of specimens from Manipur, but had not a great many from the above-mentioned localities, so that Colonel Godwin-Austen's series proved to be a very valuable addition to the British Museum. There were many types of the species described by him in his Memoirs, and a series of birds supplementing the great Hume Collection.

Goldie (A.).

42 birds from S. E. New Guinea. [80. 6. 23, 1–42.]

2 types (Geocichla papuensis, Seeb., Cat. B., v., p. 158, pl. x.; Otidiphaps regalis, Salvin and Godman, "Ibis," 1880, p. 364, pl. xi.), and five species new to the collection.

Goldie was a botanical collector, who penetrated from Port Moresby to the Astrolabe Range in British New Guinea, where the Goldie River is named after him. Another collection was purchased from Mr. Edward Gerrard.

Gomez (RAMON).

A naturalist in Tenerife.

Goodfellow (WALTER).

See GERRARD, E.

2 types of Helianthea hamiltoni from Ecuador. Presented. [1900. 6. 29, 1–2.]

Goodwin (A. P.).

36 birds from the Richmond River, N.S. Wales. Purchased. [80. 4. 2, 1–36.] One species new to the collection. Presented. [97. 11. 6, 39–40.]

Goodwin was a Dane, who made excellent skins of birds, and procured several interesting species for the Museum.

His notes on the Paradise Birds of British New Guinea were published in the "Ibis," 1890, pp. 150–156.

See also GERRARD, E.

Gordon (Sir ARTHUR H., now Lord Stanmore).

13 birds from the Fiji Islands. Presented. [85. 12. 24, 1–13.]

[page] 373

Gordon-Cumming (Hon. Mrs.).

10 specimens of Australian birds. Presented. [1902. 11. 16, 1–10.]

Gosse (PHILIP HENRY).

159 birds from Jamaica. Purchased. [45. 4. 29, 1–4; 47. 6. 8, 1–21.]

Types of Anas maxima, Gosse = Cairina moschata × Anas boscas, cf. Salvad., Cat. xxvii., p. 53; Egretta ruficollis, Gosse; Cyanopterus inornatus, Gosse = Querquedula discors (Linn.), cf. Salvad., Cat. xxvii., p. 299; Ephialtes grammicus, Gosse; Rallus concolor, Gosse; Myiobius stolidus, Gosse; Laterirallus gossei, Bp. = Porzana flaviventris (Bodd.), cf. Sharpe, Cat. xxiii., p. 110; Myiobius tristis, Gosse = Blacicus barbirostris (Swains.), cf. Scl. Cat. xiv., p. 244; Elainea cotta, Gosse; Myiobius pallidus, Gosse; Sylvicola pannosa, Gosse = Dendrœca cærulescens (Gm.), cf. Sharpe, Cat. x., p. 329; Sylvicola eoa, Gosse; S. pharetra, Gosse; Hirundo euchrysea, Gosse; Spermophila adoxa, Gosse = Phonipara lepida (Jacq.), cf. Sharpe, Cat. xii., p. 145; Spermophila anoxantha, Gosse; Coturniculus tixicrus, Gosse = Ammodromus savannarum (Gm.), cf. Sharpe, Cat. xii., p. 687. [47. 6. 9, 1; 47. 6. 16, 1–109; 47. 8. 30, 1–15; 47. 10. 11, 6–14.]

Gosse's "Birds of Jamaica" is still the standard work on the birds of this island, and the specimens above recorded are doubtless the material on which his descriptions were founded. Unfortunately they have much deteriorated, having been mounted for many years in the British Museum Galleries at Bloomsbury, and ruined by exposure to light and dust. A good series of Jamaican Birds is a great desideratum to the Museum.

Some of his birds appear to have been sent to Hugh Cuming (vide antea, p. 333). (Cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., xxii., pp. 258–260.)

Gough (Earl).

6 birds from Buenos Ayres. Presented. [1904. 4. 5, 1–6.]

Gould (JOHN), F.R.S.

97 birds from Brazil. Presented. [37. 3. 15, 60–153, 158–160.]

38 Humming Birds. Presented. [37. 3. 6, 639–676.]

78 birds from South Australia. Presented. [37. 4. 4, 418–495.]

126 specimens, principally from Brazil and India. Purchased. [37. 5. 13, 100–211; [38. 5. 12, 103–117.]

97 birds and nests chiefly from Australia. Presented. [38. 1. 19, 208–229, 232–244; 41. 3, 540–541; 41. 6, 1669–1671 (Australian birds); 42. 12. 21, 11–20 (nests of Australian birds); 43. 4. 4, 1–43 (nests of Australian birds); 43. 12. 30, 18–20 (types of Coryphilus dryas, Gould; Halcyon saurophagus, Gould).]

100 birds from various localities, but chiefly from Tamaulipas, Eastern Mexico. 38. 5. 12, 1–100.]

25 birds from Jamaica. Presented. [44. 1. 22, 20; 44. 1. 23, 4–7; 44. 5. 16, 2–21.]

280 birds and 91 eggs from Australia. Purchased. [41. 6, 990–1098, 1269–1501, 1669–1671; 44. 2. 10, 92–117.]

14 birds from South America. Purchased. [44. 12. 12, 1–14.]

55 Humming Birds. Purchased. [53. 5. 17, 1–34; 53. 11. 28, 1–21.]

149 specimens, mostly Rhamphastidæ (Toucans). Purchased. [53. 12. 26, 1–86; 54. 5. 25, 1–12.]

39 birds from Guatemala and Brazil. Purchased. [54. 12. 20, 1–29].

43 birds from various localities. Purchased. [55. 11. 5, 1–43.]

Includes the types of Formicarius erythropterus, Monarcha leucotis,

[page] 374

Thamnophilus melanurus, Ptilotis filigera, Bourcieria fulgidigula, Arremon erythrorhynchus, Cinclosoma castanothorax.

113 birds from Europe and South America. Purchased. [55. 12. 17, 1–101; 56. 10. 28, 1–12.]

The type of Ptilopus eugeniæ (Gould), P.Z.S., 1856, p. 137 (Solomon Islands). Presented. [56. 10. 14, 15.]

90 birds from various localities. Purchased. [57. 10. 16, 1–71; 57. 11. 11, 1–19.]

4 Humming Birds. Purchased. [57. 11. 20, 1–4.]

251 birds, chiefly from South America. Purchased. [57. 11. 28, 1–251.]

127 birds from Ashanti. Purchased. [58. 1. 4, 1–127.]

On this collection was founded the record of the locality "Ashanti," which so often occurs in Hartlaub's "Ornithologie West-Afrika's," on the authority of specimens in the British Museum, but I greatly doubt if any of them came from Ashanti proper. They seem to me to be all skins of the ordinary Fanti make, and were probably preserved by Aubimu, a professional negro hunter, who in Governor Ussher's time, some twelve years later, was an old man, but still an active collector; he ultimately died of small-pox. Among the specimens thus procured from Mr. Gould were several interesting additions to the Museum collection.

40 specimens from various localities. Purchased. [58. 3. 5, 1–8; 58. 6. 25, 9–38; 58. 9. 7, 6 7.

38 birds, mostly from South America and Australia. Purchased. [58. 12. 2, 1–38.]

236 birds, nests and eggs, mostly from South America. Purchased. [59. 3. 25, 28–84 (Falkland Islands); 59. 6. 5, 2–79; 59. 6. 29, 1–36; 59. 7. 6, 1–65 (Indian eggs).]

Some eggs are from Mexico, but the registering is faulty, and many have no locality at all. The type of Gavia roseiventris of Gould is also included in this purchase (P.Z.S., 1859, p. 97) = Larus glaucodes, Meyer. (Cf. Saunders, Cat. B., xxv., p. 200.)

15 nests from Epping. Presented. [59. 7. 6, 66–80.]

93 birds from various localities. Purchased. [60. 1. 16, 1–93.]

2 types, Otocorys penicillata (cf. Gould, P.Z.S., 1837, p. 126), and Ruticilla erythroprocta (cf. Gould, P.Z.S., 1855, p. 78).

92 birds from South America (chiefly Ecuador and Amazonia). Purchased. [60. 11. 26, 1–92.]

1 type (Toccus hartlaubi) and 1 (Thamnophilus corvinus) new to the Museum.

176 Humming Birds. Purchased. [61. 11. 11, 1–176.]

11 birds from South America. Purchased. [61. 11. 11, 177–187.]

Includes the type of Chordeiles pusillus and a specimen of Moho nobilis.

10 specimens of birds and 22 eggs from various localities. Purchased. [62. 6. 22, 1–32.]

3 specimens of birds and 13 sets of eggs from N.W. America. Purchased. [62. 11. 4, 1–16.]

5 specimens of birds from West Africa. Purchased. [64. 2. 7, 1–5.]

Includes the type of Smithornis rufilateralis, Gray, P.Z.S., 1864, p. 143, pl. xvi.

115 sets of eggs and 105 birds from various localities. Purchased. [65. 2. 3, 1–115; 67. 3. 16, 1–105.]

Among these birds were the nestlings figured by Gould in his "Birds of Great Britain," and several hybrid Game-birds.

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168 birds from various localities. Purchased. [68. 1. 27, 1–41; 69. 6. 4, 1–102 (Humming Birds); 69. 6. 9, 1–25 (Samoan birds).]

In these purchases the Museum acquired from Mr. Gould several valuable types of species which he was then figuring in his "Supplement" to the "Birds of Australia," such as Malurus hypolcucus, Gerygone personata, Cyclopsittacus coxeni, Geopsittacus occidentalis, and Cacomantis castaneiventris.

150 specimens, mostly Humming Birds. Purchased. [72. 5. 28, 28–77.]

The type of Otidiphaps nobilis is included in this purchase.

2 specimens of the Gyr-Falcon (Hierofalco gyrfalco) from Lapland and West Finmark. Presented. [72. 11–8, 1–2.]

These were two of Wolley's specimens lent for the purpose of illustration in the "Birds of Great Britain." (Cf. Newton, Ootheca Wolleyana, p. 94.)

20 specimens of Accipitres. Purchased. [72. 11. 8, 3–22].

Some of these are the originals of the plates in the "Birds of Great Britain."

97 Accipitres from various localities. Presented. [73. 6. 6, 1–97].

Including the type of Pernis celebensis.

18 birds from Australia. Purchased. [75. 11. 8, 1–18].

4 types of species, Strepera melanoptera, Cracticus cinercus, C. argenteus, and C. crissalis.

100 specimens, principally from Europe and various parts of Asia. Purchased. [76. 1. 7, 1–100].

6315 specimens of birds. Purchased. [81. 5. 1, 1–6315].

This was Gould's private collection of birds, and was purchased by the Trustees after his death. It contained a large number of interesting species, 22 of which were new to the collection, as well as 59 types.

1155 eggs. Purchased. [84. 10. 1, 1–268; 84. 11. 20, 269–579; 85. 1. 8, 580–1264; 85. 3. 1, 1265–1687; 85. 7. 21, 1688–1736].

This collection of eggs was purchased at the same date as the bird-skins, but was not registered until some time after. It contained a number of Australian eggs which were new to the collection.

93 Humming Birds, with 8 types. Purchased. [88. 7. 25, 1–59; 90. 10. 14, 1–34].

This was the commencement of the registration of the Gould Collection of Humming Birds, which was never completed.

For Gould's biography, reference may be made to the memoir published by me in my "Analytical Index to the Works of the late John Gould," in 1893, and to the "Dictionary of National Biography" (vol. xxii., p. 287). Both these works give a full account of his labours, and especially of his epoch-making journey to the Antipodes. His collection of Australian birds "comprised examples of both sexes of nearly every known species, 1800 specimens in all, in various stages of plumage, each carefully labelled with the scientific name and the name of the place where killed." The expedition to Australia cost Gould £2000, and he offered the collection, with its numbers of priceless types, to the Trustees of the British Museum of that day, for £1000. The offer was declined, and Gould, in a fit of chagrin, allowed Dr. Thomas Wilson of Philadelphia to buy the whole collection for £1000; it has since been one of the greatest treasures of the Academy of Natural Science in that town. (Cf. Cassin's Report on the Ornithological Collection, Proc. Acad. Philad., 1849, pp. 256–260; Witmer Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1899, pp. 5–63.)

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Gould (Dr. HENRY).

Eldest son of John Gould. He was in the Indian Medical Service, and sent some collections of birds and eggs from Sind to his father.

Graham (R.).

80 specimens from Para. Presented. [45. 8. 25, 24–114.]

Graham (Sir R. J.), Bart.

3 hybrid Ducks (Anas boscas × A. strepera). Presented. [1905. 11. 20, 1–3.]

A remarkable hybrid Drake (Anas boscas × Marcea penelope × Dafila acuta). Presented. [1905. 12. 5, 1.]

Grandidier (ALFRED).

3 birds from Madagascar. Presented. [73. 6. 7, 63–65.]

M. Grandidier for many years devoted himself to the exploration of Madagascar, and published, with Professor Alphonse Milne-Edwards, a monumental work, "Histoire Physique, Naturelle et Politique de Madagascar."

A considerable number of Mammalia were presented by him to the British Museum, but only three birds, Coua coquereli, C. gigas, and C. ruficeps, passed into the collection; these he kindly gave me on my first visit to Paris in 1873.

Grant (CLAUDE H. B.).

Was an excellent taxidermist in the Museum, and with Seimund (q.v.) joined the Imperial Yeomanry during the last Boer war. The two troopers made a splendid collection of natural history objects in the neighbourhood of Deelfontein (cf. Sharpe, Ibis, 1904, pp. 1–29, 313–367, pl. viii.). He has since been travelling and collecting in various parts of South Africa for Mr. C. D. Rudd (q.v.).

Grant (W. R. OGILVIE).

See OGILVIE-GRANT.

Gray (Major ANSTRUTHER).

5 specimens of the Cereopsis Goose. Presented. [1905. 1. 17, 1–5.]

Gray (Capt. DAVID).

13 birds from the Aretic Seas. Presented. [93. 10. 8, 1–13.]

Saxicola ænanthe and Plectrophenax nivalis are among these specimens, procured in long. 4° E., lat. 79° 30′ N.

Gregory (Sir A. C.).

See also ELSEY, J. R.

26 birds from the Gregory Expedition to N.W. Australia. Presented. [56. 12. 24, 1–26.]

Gregory, accompanied by Dr. F. von Mueller as botanist, made expeditions into N. W. Australia from 1855–58. (Cf. Who's Who, 1905, p. 662.)

Gregory (Dr. J. W.).

7 birds from Equatorial Africa. Presented. [94. 12. 21, 1–7.]

These few specimens were obtained during Dr. Gregory's well-known expedition to the Rift Valley in Equatorial Africa in 1892–93.

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Grey (Sir GEORGE).

60 birds from West Australia. Presented. [40. 10. 13, 1–52.]

373 birds, mainly from South Australia. Presented. [43. 1. 4, 1–35; 43. 6. 14, 1–3; 43. 7. 14, 1–267; 44. 9. 3, 32–59; 44. 12. 18, 1–3; 45. 11. 7, 1–37.]

95 birds and eggs from New Zealand. Presented. [47. 1. 8, 1–44; 51. 7. 18, 1–45; 52. 1. 20, 1–6; 54. 5. 31, 1–14.]

14 birds from the Loyalty Islands. Presented. [54. 5. 31, 1–14.]

Contains the type of Myiagra viridinitens, Gray; Aplonis atronitens, Gray; Zosterops melanops, Gray.

Sir George Grey always took an active interest in natural history, and many of the Australian birds which he presented were obtained by Mr. Gould, with whom he was on terms of friendship all his life.

Cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., Suppl. II., pp. 357–361.

Grubbe (Admiral Sir WALTER HUNT).

2 specimens of Delegorgue's Quail (Coturnix delegorguei) from St. Thomas Island, W. Africa. Presented. [1905. 11. 9, 1–2.]

Gueinzius (Dr.).

See STEVENS, S.

Dr. Gueinzius was an early collector in Mozambique and Natal, and his specimens are mentioned by the late Mr. J. H. Gurney in his first memoirs on the ornithology of the latter country (cf. "Ibis," 1859, pp. 234–251). The Accipitres were purchased by Mr. Gurney for the Norwich Museum, but the bulk of the other specimens passed into the British Museum.

Guillemard (F. H. H.).

A very well-known traveller and naturalist who discovered many new species of birds during the voyage of the Marchesa to the Malay Archipelago, 1881–84. He has also made collections in Cyprus (cf. Lord Lilford, postea, p. 413).

Gulliver (H.).

See ROYAL SOCIETY.

Mr. Gulliver was the naturalist appointed to the Transit of Venus Expedition to Rodriguez. He procured skins of Bebrornis rodericanus and Foudia flavicans, with their nests and eggs (cf. Sharpe, Phil. Trans., extra vol. 168, pp. 459–469, 1879).

Gunn (RONALD).

158 birds from Tasmania. Presented. [38. 1. 15, 48–205.]

This collection, comprising a very complete series of Tasmanian birds, has now almost perished, the specimens having all been mounted for years in the public galleries.

Günther (Dr. ALBERT C. L.), F.R.S.

Collection of osteological specimens.

7 birds from Pagham Harbour, Sussex. Presented. [72. 10. 2, 1–7.]

37 specimens of Gulls and Cormorants from Fowey, Cornwall. Presented. [76. 10. 21, 1–27; 78. 10. 4, 1–10.]

12 specimens of Guillemots, etc., from St. David's, Pembrokeshire. Presented. [81. 9. 30, 1–7; 82. 9. 18, 1–5.]

31 specimens of old and young Cormorants and Shags from Fowey, Cornwall. [84. 1. 29, 1–12; 88. 10. 15, 1–19.]

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15 specimens of Terns and other shore-birds from Norfolk. Presented. [89. 3. 11, 1–15.]

Dr. Günther was Keeper of the Zoological Department for twenty years, and took a keen interest in ornithology. During his keepership the groups illustrating the nesting of British birds were commenced and carried out under his direction. Some of them were also presented by him. Dr. Günther likewise initiated and carried through the "Catalogue of Birds," which was completed in twenty-seven volumes.

Gurney (JOHN HENRY).

5 specimens of Cathartes aura, etc., from California. Presented. [73. 7. 19, 19–23.]

44 birds from the Transvaal. Presented. [76. 6. 5, 1–26; 78. 6. 18, 1–18.] Including a specimen of Geocichla gurneyi, which was new to the collection.

Mr. Gurney was the greatest authority on the Accipitres of his day, and it was through his exertions that the magnificent collection of Birds of Prey was formed at Norwich. He told me that the way in which this collection came to be made was through a curious accident. When it was resolved to give up the museum of the Zoological Society an agent was entrusted with some money to buy a selection of the birds for the Norwich Museum. The sale commenced in scientific sequence with the Accipitres, and the agent bid with diligent persistence until all his money was gone, with the result that he bought only Birds of Prey. With this foundation Gurney determined to devote himself to a special study of these birds, and made the collection of Accipitres at Norwich the most famous in the world. He also took particular interest in the ornithology of South Africa, and wrote many papers in the "Ibis" on the birds of Natal and the Transvaal, based on the collections made by Mr. Thomas Ayres (q.v.). A list of Mr. Gurney's papers is given in my edition of Layard's "Birds of South Africa," p. xiii. He also edited the "Birds of Damara-Land," from the MSS. left by C. J. Andersson (q.v.).

Gurney (JOHN HENRY), jun.

63 birds from Egypt. Presented. [76. 1. 22, 1–18; 81. 10. 24, 1–48] (cf. Ibis, 1871, pp. 68–86, 289–301).

541 specimens from the Transvaal. Presented. [90. 10. 16, 1–445; 90. 12. 20, 1–96.]

This was a donation of a portion of the African collection formed by his late father during the latter's life-time. It included many valuable specimens, the series being divided between the British Museum and Canon Tristram, whose share has now passed with the rest of his great collection into the Liverpool Museum.

Habel (Dr. A.).

63 birds from the Galapagos Islands. Purchased. [75. 4. 2, 1–63.]

Dr. Habel was a well-known explorer of the Galapagos, and his collection was described by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin (P.Z.S., 1870, pp. 322–327), when 7 new species were named. The bulk of Dr. Habel's birds, with the types of the new species, was purchased by Dr. Godman; and the collection formed part of the ground-work of Mr. Salvin's memoir on the "Birds of the Galapagos" (Trans. Z. S., ix., pp. 447–510, pls. lxxxiv.–lxxxix.).

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Haggard (W. H. D.).

67 birds from the Andes of Ecuador. Presented. [94. 2. 15, 1–67.]

Mr. Haggard has been H.B.M. Resident Minister in Ecuador, Venezuela, and the Argentine Republic. The birds presented by him were collected by his friend Mr. L. Söderstrom, the Swedish Consul in Ecuador, who has himself also given some valuable birds to the Museum.

Haigh (GEORGE HENRY CATON).

17 specimens of Sturnus vulgaris from Tetney, Lincolnshire. Presented. [89. 1. 2, 1–17.]

Mr. Caton Haigh was one of several friends who helped me in my unluckily futile endeavours to determine the migratory routes of the Common Starling in Europe, and he obtained a series of specimens from the Lincolnshire coast. My object was to ascertain what proportion of the birds which migrated from the Continent to our eastern shores in winter were the Scandinavian form (the true Sturnus vulgaris of Linnæus) or were tinged with an admixture of the Purple-headed Starling (Sturnus menzbieri, Sharpe). Although it was evident that many of our eastern birds were of the intermediate form, which Mr. Prazak, rushing in where I had feared to tread, afterwards called Sturnus intermedius, it was impossible to prove whether the Starlings which were procured on our eastern and southern coasts were migrants from the Continent or birds which came south from the north of England or from Scotland (cf. Eagle Clarke, Ibis, 1902, pp. 246–269).

43 Skylarks (Alauda arvensis) from the neighbourhood of Great Grimsby. Presented. [90. 10. 20, 1–43.]

These Larks were also collected for me by Mr. Caton-Haigh for the same purpose as the Starlings, viz., to attempt to settle the lines of migration of our own Skylark and the larger Continental form.

57 Wading Birds from Great Grimsby. Presented. [91. 10. 1, 1–35; 91. 10. 25, 1–22.]

Hall (ROBERT).

10 birds from N.W. Australia. Presented. [1902. 6. 12, 1–10.] 1 new to the collection (Pseudogerygone tenebrosa).

Mr. Hall is one of the most energetic of Australian naturalists, and has also collected in Kerguelen Land (cf. Ibis, 1900, pp. 1–34), and on the River Lena in Siberia (cf. Hartert, Ibis, 1904, pp. 415–446).

Hamilton (Capt.).

16 birds from Jamaica. Presented. [58. 10. 1, 12–27.]

Hamilton (G. E. H. BARRETT-).

See BARRETT-HAMILTON.

Hanson (NIKOLAI).

308 specimens of birds and eggs from N. Norway. [96. 10. 2, 1–37; 96. 11. 17, 1–29; 97. 2. 6, 1–27; 97. 5. 11, 1–21; 97. 11. 16, 1–25; 97. 12. 12, 1–38; 98. 4. 28, 1–37; 98. 5. 3, 1–28; 98. 6. 24, 34–66.]

These birds were collected in the Sundal Fjord and the neighbourhood of Christiansund, as well as on the Smolen Islands, whither he accompanied me in May 1898. He obtained a most useful series shewing the changing plumages of the Black Guillemot (Uria grylle), and especially of the Eider Duck (Somateria mollissima).

Hanson died during the Antarctic Expedition of the Southern Cross, of which he was the zoologist. On this occasion he made a fine collection

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of seals and birds, but his notes were lost. His diary was published by me in the "Report on the collections of Natural History made in the Antarctic Regions during the voyage of the Southern Cross," Aves, pp. 106–173, pls. vii.–x., published by the Trustees in 1902. He was one of the most conscientious and energetic collectors I have ever known.

See also NEWNES, Sir GEORGE, Bart.

Hanson (BERNARD).

33 eggs of Norwegian birds. Purchased. [89. 6. 24, 1–33.]

A younger brother of the above, and a very good collector.

Harcourt (EDWARD VERNON).

A specimen of the Andalusian Hemipode (Turnix sylvatica). Presented. [52. 10. 8, 1.]

Mr. Vernon Harcourt published a list of the birds of Madeira (P.Z.S. for 1851, pp. 141-146). In 1854 he described as new Regulus maderensis (P.Z.S., 1854, p. 153), and in a further list published in 1855 in the "Annals and Magazine of Natural History," (2), xv., pp. 430–438, he described a new Petrel from the Desertas Islands, Procellaria castro. Neither of the types came to the Museum.

Hardwicke (General).

See antea, p. 169.

Hargitt (EDWARD), R.I.

2 specimens from the Vosges Mountains. Presented. [81. 11. 28, 1–2.]

36 birds, mostly from the North of France. Presented. [85. 1. 12, 1–36.]

109 birds from various localities. Purchased [86. 9. 13, 1–73] and presented [86. 12. 1, 1–36].

1807 specimens of Woodpeckers (Pici). Purchased. [97. 11. 10, 1–1807.]

From his earliest years Edward Hargitt was a devoted student of ornithology, and collected in the Orkneys and the Highlands of Scotland during his excursions to these localities as an artist. He afterwards made a fine collection of European birds and eggs, but he gradually dropped this portion of his work in order to devote himself to the study of the Picidæ. Of these birds he acquired a large collection, and wrote memoirs on several groups of Woodpeckers. In 1887 he was asked by Dr. Günther to write the eighteenth volume of the "Catalogue of Birds," which he did with his usual conscientiousness; it is one of the best-written volumes of the series. For the last few years of his life his health failed him, but he occupied himself with painting a series of pictures of Woodpeckers, which, it is hoped, may be secured some day for the British Museum, as his collection of birds, from which the paintings are mostly taken, is now in the National Collection. Of a singularly lovable disposition, Hargitt was endeared to a large number of artistic and scientific men, and his death was mourned by a wide circle of friends.

Harington (Captain H. H.).

9 birds from Upper Burmah. Presented. [1905. 12. 20, 1–9.]

Harris.

See WEBSTER-HARRIS.

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Harris (Sir W. CORNWALLIS).

Sir Cornwallis Harris, the author of the "Highlands of Ethiopia," and other works on the game and wild animals of Southern Africa, accompanied the British Expedition to Shoa in Abyssinia, and made a collection of birds, chiefly in the neighbourhood of Ankober and Angolalla. These collections passed into the India Museum, and were all registered as from "Abyssinia" by Messrs. Horsfield and Moore in the "Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum of the East India Company." Fortunately the original labels were not detached from the specimens in the India Museum, so that the record of locality was not lost; but all the birds transferred to the British Museum had, after the fashion of those times, the labels carefully removed, and a card-board ticket marked "Abyssinia" attached! (Cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., xxv., p. 28.)

See INDIA MUSEUM.

Harrison (Colonel J. J.).

31 birds from Somali Land. Presented. [1901. 3. 15, 1–31.]

Colonel Harrison made an expedition, in company with Mr. A. E. Butter, Captain Powell Cotton and Mr. W. F. Whitehouse, through Somali Land to Lakes Rudolf and Baringo. He made a good collection of birds, which was described by Mr. Ogilvie-Grant in the 'Ibis' for 1901 (pp. 278–299, pl. vii.). A species of Finch-Lark described as Pyrrhulauda harrisoni turned out to be P. signata, Oust. The specimens presented by Colonel Harrison were all of great interest to the Museum.

45 birds from the White Nile district. Presented. [1905. 2. 3, 1–45.]

Hart (H. CHICHESTER).

See LORDS OF THE TREASURY.

Mr. Hart was the naturalist on board the Discovery during Sir George Nares' expedition towards the North Pole. He has given an account of his experiences in a paper published in the 'Zoologist' for 1880 (pp. 121–129, 204–214). He has also written a book on the Fauna and Flora of Sinai, Arabia Petræa, etc. (1891).

Hartert (ERNST).

98 birds from East Prussia and other parts of Germany. Received in exchange. [92. 4. 11, 1–98.]

Dr. Hartert is the Director of the Hon. Walter Rothschild's Museum at Tring, and is one of the most energetic of modern naturalists. His experiences in Eastern Prussia have been described in the 'Ibis' for 1892 (pp. 353–372, 504–522), and the account of his travels in many foreign lands is given in his memoir, "Aus den Wanderjahren eines Naturforschers," first published in the 'Novitates Zoologicæ' for 1901 (pp. 221–355, 383–39, pls. xii.–xvii.), and 1902 (pp. 141–160, 193–339, pls. 1–5), and afterwards as a separate work.

Harting (J. EDMUND).

23 birds from Madagascar, collected by the Rev. W. Deans Cowan. Purchased. [80. 5. 1, 1–23.]

Among many interesting species was the type of Oxylabes cinereiceps, Sharpe, P.Z.S., 1881, p. 197.

80 mounted specimens of British birds. Purchased. [73. 11. 17, 17–22; 83. 11. 10, 1–74.]

Among these were several authentic examples of rare birds killed in Great Britain, among them being three specimens of the so-called Sabine's

[page] 382

Snipe (Gallinago sabinei), and the Red-breasted Snipe (Macrorhamphus griseus), etc.

29 Accipitres from South Queensland, collected by Mr. J. Bell. Presented. [1901. 12. 8, 1–20; 1902. 7. 31, 1–9.]

2 specimens of Willow Grouse from the Altai Mts., procured by Prince Demidoff. Presented. [1902. 7. 31, 10, 11.]

Mr. Harting is one of the best-known British naturalists, and there is probably no one living who can so well remember the days before enclosure had done away with the natural harbours on the south coast, where birds were plentiful in places now dominated by the plough. His reminiscences, like my own, carry him back to the palmy days of Pagham Harbour, when some fine collecting was to be done on the mud-flats, and a number of specimens obtained by him in his early life are in the Museum. He was for many years the best authority on Wading Birds, and made a fine collection of Charadriidæ, which was ultimately acquired by the late Mr. Henry Seebohm, who made it the basis of his work on the "Geographical Distribution of the Family Charadriidæ." With the Seebohm bequest the whole of this celebrated collection of Waders was added to the national collection. Mr. Harting has published many popular books on natural history, and has done much to spread the love of the study of birds among the people.

Harvey (W.).

160 birds from Malacca. Presented. [65. 6. 30, 1–160.]

These birds, prepared in the usual Malay type of skins, were without particulars of sex or date, and being now replaced by Mr. Hume's beautiful series, have mostly passed into the duplicates.

Harvie-Brown (J. A.).

See also FEILDEN, Colonel H. W.

11 birds from Dunipace, Larbert, N.B. Presented. [92. 12. 19, 1–11.]

Hauxwell (J.).

Was an old companion of H. W. Bates, and settled in Upper Amazonia. He travelled on the Ucayali River in the early fifties, and made a large collection, which was exhibited to the Zoological Society by Gould in May 1855 (P.Z.S., 1855, pp. 77, 78). In 1867, after a long period of inaction, he again forwarded a collection from Pebas, a town on the north bank of the River Amazon. This was described by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin in the "Proceedings" for 1867 (pp. 977–981, pl. xlv.), when four new species of birds were characterised. The bulk of the collection passed into the hands of Messrs. Salvin and Godman and Dr. Sclater, but a few were purchased by the British Museum. [See Higgins.] Out of a later consignment sent to Mr. Whiteley from Samiria, some specimens were acquired for Dr. F. D. Godman. In Professor James Orton's book, "The Andes and the Amazon," he mentions his meeting with Hauxwell at Pebas, where he was comfortably established and received the traveller with great hospitality. Pebas is situated on a high clay bluff, beside the Ambiyacu, a mile above its entrance into the Marañon.

Haviland (Drs. H. A. and G. D.).

32 birds from Mt. Kina Balu in N.W. Borneo. Presented. [93. 6. 10, 1–32.]

Two species (Merula seebohmi and Hyloterpe hypoxantha) were new to the Museum.

[page] 383

Hawker (RICHARD MCD.).

21 specimens from Lahej, S. Arabia. Presented. [98. 4. 30, 94–114.]

In this small series were specimens of the Lanner Falcon (Falco feldeggi) and the Pintail Duck (Dafila acuta). Cf. Ibis, 1898, pp. 374–376.

163 specimens from Somali Land. Presented. [98. 6. 13, 1–163.]

Five species were new to the collection, of which two (Mirafra marginata, Apalis viridiceps) were types of new forms. The collection was described by Mr. Hawker in the "Ibis" for 1899 (pp. 52–81, pl. ii.). M. marginata is now considered to be the same species as M. cantillans of India.

451 specimens of birds, nests, and eggs from the Egyptian Sudan. Presented. [1901. 8. 3, 1–76; 1902. 4. 20, 1–358; 1902. 7. 10, 1–17.]

This collection is described by Mr. Ogilvie-Grant in the "Ibis" for 1902 (pp. 393–470, pls. x., xii.).

31 birds from Berbera, Somali Land. Presented. [1903. 8. 5, 1–31.]

5 birds from the Sudan and 5 birds from Australia. Presented. [1905. 6. 30, 1–10.]

Hearsey (Brigadier-General T.).

10 specimens of birds from the Punjaub. Presented. [54. 12. 6, 1–10.]

Heath (ALFRED).

See GERRARD, E.

Helms (Dr. OTTO).

37 Greenland Gyr-Falcons (Hierofalco candicans) and Iceland Gulls (Larus leucopterus). Purchased. [1900. 6. 26, 1–15; 1901. 3. 16, 1–8; 1902. 9. 29, 1–14.]

A very interesting series of skins, showing the changes of plumage in the Greenland Falcons. See Dr. Helms' memoir, "Ueber Grönlands Vogelwelt" (J. f. O., 1902, pp. 91–101, 126).

Henderson (Messrs. [of Dundee]).

9 specimens of Greenland Gyr-Falcons (Hierofalco candicans) from Greenland. Purchased. [99. 11. 2, 1–9.]

Henderson (Dr. GEORGE).

See GERRARD, E.

Dr. Henderson was the naturalist attached to the British Mission to Yarkand, under Sir Douglas Forsyth, in 1870 (cf. "Lahore to Yarkand," by G. Henderson and A. O. Hume, 8vo, 1873). During the expedition several new species were discovered, and the types of these (Falco hendersoni, Saxicola hendersoni, Podoces hendersoni, P. humilis, Trochalopterum simile) were purchased for the Museum through Mr. Gerrard. They are all figured in the above-mentioned book.

Henning (J.).

115 specimens of Finches. Purchased. [87. 1. 25, 1–115.]

"Herald," Voyage of H.M.S.

See RAYNER, Dr. F. M.; MACGILLIVRAY, John.

[page] 384

Hewett (W.).

236 eggs of Guillemots from the Bempton cliffs. Purchased. [1901. 10. 27, 2–151; 1902. 11. 5, 1–86.]

This series, selected from many hundreds of eggs obtained by Mr. Hewett, is exhibited in the Great Hall of the Natural History Museum as an example of the variation in the colour to be found in the eggs laid by one single species.

Hiekman (J.).

26 birds from Fanti, West Africa. Presented. [91. 2. 11, 1–26.]

Some rare birds were contained in this collection, among them four specimens of Pæoptera lugubris.

Higgins (T.).

A specimen of Andersson's Pern (Machæhamphus anderssoni) from Damara Land. Purchased. [62. 2. 23, 1.]

23 birds from Damara Land. Purchased. [66. 12. 24, 1–23.]

These were from some of the last collections sent home by Andersson.

25 specimens from N.E. Australia and Upper Amazonia. Purchased. [67. 2. 25, 1–6; 67. 10. 1, 1–19.]

Ten of these birds from Cape York and Champion Bay were collected by Cockerell; the other nine were collected by Hauxwell.

14 birds from Zanzibar, and other localities. Purchased. [68. 1. 29, 1–9; 68. 2. 21, 2–6.]

21 birds from N.E. Australia. Purchased. [69. 8. 17, 1–21.]

Three species, Cyclopsittacus coxeni, Ptilotis cockerelli, and Myzomela pectoralis were new to the collection. They were from one of the series obtained in Cape York and Queensland by Cockerell and Thorpe.

15 birds from Celebes. Purchased. [72. 5. 27, 1–15.]

These were some of the duplicates from Dr. A. B. Meyer's expedition to the Moluccas.

9 birds from Fanti, W. Africa, collected by Mr. G. Lyall. Purchased. [75. 5. 21, 1–9.]

3 species new to the Collection, Pæoptera lugubris, Myioceyx ruficeps, and Dendropicus lugubris.

175 birds from Borneo and the Philippine Islands, collected by Alfred Everett. Purchased. [75. 8. 16, 1–57; 76. 7. 28, 1–96; 78. 1. 4, 1–5; 78. 5. 20, 80–96.]

These were Everett's early Bornean collections, made chiefly in Sarawak, together with a few specimens from the Philippines. They contained the types of Micropus immaculatus, Prionochilus everetti, and Phyllornis viridinucha. His Bornean collections were described by me in the 'Ibis' for 1876, 1877, 1893, and in the P.Z.S. for 1879.

469 birds, nests, and eggs, from Labuan and Lumbidan, N.W. Borneo. Purchased. [76. 5. 2, 1–151; 80. 9. 14, 1–318.]

Collected by Sir Hugh Low, and forming the material for my paper in the "Proceedings" of the Zoological Society for 1875 (pp. 99–111), 1879 (pp. 317–354, pl. xxx.).

12 birds from the collection made by the late Dr. James in British New Guinea. Purchased. [77. 4. 6, 1–12.]

Dr. James was killed by the natives of Yule Island shortly after his arrival in British New Guinea. His collection was described by me in the 'Journal' of the Linnean Society (Zool., vol. xiii., pp. 305–321, 1878). He discovered the following new species: Phonygama jamesi

[page] 385

(Cat. B., III., p. 181), Tanysiptera microrhyncha, and Melidora collaris.

16 birds from the Fiji Islands and New Caledonia, collected by E. L. and E. L. C. Layard. Purchased. [76. 2. 3, 4–15; 78. 5. 20, 76–79.]

7 species new to the collection (cf. Ibis, 1876, pp. 137–157, Fiji Islands; 1877, pp. 355–363; 1878, pp. 250–267, New Caledonia).

75 birds from Sarawak, collected by Mr. Harold Everett. Purchased. [78. 5. 20, 1–75].

5 specimens from the neighbourhood of Antananarivo, Madagascar, collected by Mr. Lormier. Purchased. [79. 3. 5, 25–29.]

The five specimens included an example of Heliodilus soumagnei, and the types of a new Warbler (Dromæocercus seebohmi).

Higgins was a retired doctor with a strong love of natural history, who succeeded to Mr. Samuel Stevens' celebrated zoological agency, when the latter retired from active work. Higgins ultimately settled in Tasmania, and died there.

Hildebrandt (Dr.).

57 specimens from East Africa. Purchased. [79. 3. 4, 1–52; 79. 3. 5, 1–5.] 6 species new to the collection.

Dr. Hildebrandt collected in the Teita district of British East Africa, and his birds were described by Dr. Cabanis (J. f. O., 1878, pp. 213–246). He afterwards travelled in Madagascar, where he died.

Hinde (Dr. R. B.).

156 birds from Kamptee, C. India. Presented. [75. 7. 13, 1–156.]

Dr. Hinde was the uncle of the well-known traveller, Dr. Sydney L. Hinde.

Hinde (Dr. S. L.).

144 birds from Machakos, British East Africa. Presented. [96. 9. 11, 1–32; 98. 5. 13, 1–95; 99. 2. 1. 1–17.]

2 types (Cisticola hindei, Serinus fagani) and 5 species new to the collection (cf. Ibis, 1898, pp. 576–587, pl. xii., fig. 2).

39 birds from Masai Land, including types of Euprinodes hildegardæ. [99. 10. 30, 1–19; 1900. 2. 6, 1 and 2; 1900. 2. 28, 1–18.]

21 birds from the Athi River, including the types of Crateropus hindei. Presented. [1901. 5. 6, 1–19; 1901. 5. 7, 1 and 2.]

Dr. Hinde saw much service with the Congo Free State army on the Upper Congo, and has written a very interesting work on the "Downfall of the Congo Arabs." He has since held appointments under the Foreign Office in British East Africa, and has made several good collections of birds, in the formation of which he has been aided by his wife.

Hobson (H. E.).

9 birds from Northern Formosa. Presented. [77. 10. 22, 1–9.] 1 new to the collection.

Mr. Hobson was H.B.M. Consul in Formosa, and presented many Butterflies to the Museum, as well as a few birds.

Hodgson (BRIAN H.).

2596 birds from Nepal and Tibet. Presented. [43. 1. 13, 1–1302; 44. 12. 27, 1–4; 45. 1. 9, 1–841; 45. 1. 12, 1–414 (skeletons), 478–513.]

These were Hodgson's early collections, and were presented by him to

VOL. II. 2 C

[page] 386

the Museum when he left Nepal in 1843. It is from these specimens that the native drawings of the birds were taken. Every one of the Hodgson drawings has its name and its number, and the specimens originally had a label tied either round the neck or the foot, bearing a number corresponding with that of the drawing. In Dr. Gray's "Zoological Miscellany" for 1844, Hodgson, writing from Canterbury on the 24th of June,* gave a list of Nepalese birds, with an indication of the Hodgsonian number, and he stated that "a nearly complete series [of drawings] has been sent to the British Museum." Consequently, these drawings constitute the types of Hodgson's species. A second set of drawings was retained by Hodgson himself, and afterwards given by him to the Zoological Society; these two sets have never yet been collated together.

In the "Dictionary of National Biography" (Suppl., vol. ii., pp. 429–432), it is said that after his resignation of the Indian Civil Service in 1843, he came to England, but that, after less than a year at home, he resolved to return to India. He fixed his residence at Darjiling, where for thirteen years he lived the life of a recluse, suffering a good deal from weak health, but this did not abate his ardour for collecting or his devotion to learning. Dr. J. E. Gray, in his preface to the "Catalogue" of the Hodgson collection, writing on the 10th of December, 1846, speaks of him as having returned to India, to continue his studies and complete his series of drawings.

301 birds from Behar. Presented. [45. 5. 19, 1–301.]

This series of skins from Behar was never made by Hodgson's Himalayan collectors. The method of preparation is quite different. It may have been made for Hodgson by some friend of his, or he may have employed a native of the country to prepare the skins. I can find no evidence that Hodgson was ever resident in Behar.

307 birds from "India"! [See small register.] Presented. [48. 6. 4, 1–307.]

In 1848, as mentioned above, Hodgson was living at Darjiling, and there can be no doubt that this collection came from Sikhim. On looking up some of the specimens which are registered by G. R. Gray himself (without any specific localities and with only the Hodgsonian number added), I have found skins labelled by Gray as from Behar! Any one who compares the preparation of the Behar examples with that of the Himalayan taxidermists, will see at a glance that this 1848 collection has been made by the same hands as the early Nepal collections, and doubtless Hodgson had imported some of his native skinners from Nepal. The question is settled, however, by an entry of Gray's in the register: "211 duplicates transferred to the Hon. E. I. Comp."; and in Horsfield and Moore's Catalogue of the latter collection (Vol. I., Intr., p. v.), we read: "1848. B. H. Hodgson, Esq. Several birds from Sikim and Darjiling," showing that Moore knew where they were from, if Gray did not.

These Sikhim specimens will have to be carefully relabelled; but it shows the truth of Professor Newton's criticism on G. R. Gray, that he was a good ornithological clerk; but in the case of the Hodgson collections he was not even entitled to this praise, for he destroyed all Hodgson's original labels.

598 birds from Nepal. Presented. [59. 3. 4, 1–598.]

For some reason Hodgson was offended with his treatment by the

* Mr. Gerrard, sen., remembers going to Canterbury to pack the collection for transmission to London.

[page] 387

Grays, and in 1853 he sent a large collection of birds from Nepal and Tibet to the E. I. Company's Museum, but, in 1859, he appears to have once more determined to send his collections to the British Museum.

When the India Museum was broken up in 1881 and its zoological contents were merged in the British Museum, the whole of the Hodgsonian series was once more united under one roof, and great praise is due to Mr. F. Moore for having preserved the original labels on those specimens which had been under his charge. Two Catalogues of the Hodgson collection were published by the Trustees, one in 1846, and a second in 1863.

Besides the article in the "Dictionary of National Biography," a life of Hodgsou has been written by Sir William Hunter.

Cf. also 'Ibis,' 1894, pp. 580, 581.

Holboell (Governor).

See also STEVENS, S.

5 birds and 31 eggs from Greenland. Purchased. [50. 11. 9, 23–58.].

Holboell was the Danish Governor of South Greenland, and took great interest in natural history. He discovered the intermediate race between the typical Gyr-Falcon of Greenland and that of Iceland, and named it Falco arcticus. As this name was preoccupied, I named the bird Hierofalco holboelli in his honour. The large Red-poll (Cannabina holboelli), from Scandinavia and Siberia, is also named after him. The latter species has occurred occasionally in England.

Holden (W. L.).

7 birds from Paraguay. Presented. [1904. 11. 30, 1–7.]

Holland (ARTHUR H.).

789 birds and eggs from Argentina. Purchased. [97. 11. 14, 1–224; 98. 3. 25, 1–565.]

Mr. Holland is an energetic young naturalist who has devoted much attention to the ornithology of the Argentine Republic, on which subject he has published some interesting papers (Ibis, 1890, pp. 424–428; 1891, pp. 16–20; 1892, pp. 193–214; 1893, pp. 467–469; 1895, pp. 213–217; 1896, pp. 315–318).

His collection of eggs, 565 in number, has proved to be of the utmost value to the Museum, as can be seen in the published volumes of the "Catalogue of Eggs." Among the birds was the type of Hapalocercus hollandi, Sclater, Ibis, 1896, p. 317.

Holst (P. A.).

44 birds from Central Asia, of which 7 were new to the collection. Purchased. [83. 4. 3, 1–37; 83. 5. 23, 1–7.]

Duplicates from the Severtzoff and Russow collections. Also some interesting species from the Caucasus.

9 birds from Sweden. Purchased. [84. 7. 29, 1–9.]

50 birds from Russia, Siberia, Turkestan, and other parts of Central Asia, with 3 species new to the collection. [84. 9. 25. 1–20; 86. 3. 31, 1–30.]

Holst was a young Swedish collector who settled in England for a time as an agent, and from whom the Museum purchased several interesting specimens. He afterwards travelled in the East for Henry Seebohm, and visited the Volcauo Islands, the Liu Kiu Islands, and the Bonin group, as well as Formosa. Here he discovered a beautiful new Tit (Parus holsti) named after him by Seebohm (Ibis, 1995, pl. vi.).

2 C 2

[page] 388

Home (Sir JAMES EVERARD), R.N.

59 birds from New Zealand and Tongatabu. Presented. [46. 12. 4, 59.]

A son of the well-known Sir Everard Home.

Cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., xxvii., pp. 227, 228.

Hooker (Sir JOSEPH).

17 nests from various localities. Presented. [66. 11. 17, 1–17.]

Sir Joseph Hooker was naturalist to the Antarctic Expedition, surgeon to the Erebus during the celebrated voyage of Sir James Ross in 1839–43, assisted by Dr. McCormick and Dr. Lyall. The collections made by Sir Joseph at the various islands visited were very complete (cf. my paper on the Birds of Kerguelen Island in the 168th volume (extra vol.) of the "Philosophical Transactions").

Cf. also "Who's Who," 1904, p. 751.

Hopkinson (Dr. E.).

25 skeletons of birds from the Gambia. Presented. [1904. 4. 28, 1–13; 1904. 6. 26, 1–12.]

Horn (W. A.).

19 birds from Central Australia, including a specimen of the rare Queen Alexandra's Parrakeet (Spathopterus alexandræ), new to the collection. Presented. [95. 11. 18, 1; 98. 5. 15, 1–18.]

In 1894 Mr. Horn promoted the celebrated "Horn Scientific Exploring Expedition" to Central Australia (see the "Journal," etc., published by the Government of South Australia, as a Blue Book, in 1896). The birds obtained on the expedition were described by Mr. A. J. North (Rep. Horn Exped. Centr. Austr., Part II., Zoology, Aves, pp. 53–111, pls. v.–vii.).

Horsbrugh (CHARLES B.).

26 nests from the Sundal Valley, Norway. Presented. [99. 8. 31, 1–26.]

Mr. Horsbrugh accompanied me during one of my excursions to Norway, when we made a careful study of the nesting habits of the Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla) and the Chaffinch (F. cælebs), and collected a number of nests.

The nest in situ, with the parent birds and four nestlings, of the Tawny Owl (Syrnium aluco) from Martock, Somersetshire. Presented. [1901. 5. 2, 1–6.] Exhibited in the Bird Gallery.

Horsfield (Dr. THOMAS).

3 specimens of Indian birds. Presented. [47. 9. 17, 1–3.]

Horsfield served under Sir Stamford Raffles in Java, and was well known for his work on the Zoology of the island (cf. his paper in the Linnean Transactions, xiii., pp. 133–200, 1820—"Sytematic Arrangement and Description of Birds from the Island of Java"; also "Zoological Researches in Java," 4to, 1824), and in conjunction with Vigors he wrote a valuable memoir on the "Australian Birds in the collection of the Linnean Society" (Trans. Linn. Soc., xv., pp. 170–331, 1825–26). Many new species were described, the types of which were afterwards given to the British Museum. He was appointed, in 1820, Keeper of the Museum of the Hon. E. I. Co., a post he retained till his death in 1859. He wrote several catalogues of the contents of the Museum, but, in the case of the Birds and Lepidoptera, the work was chiefly done by his assistant, Mr. Frederic Moore.

Cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., xxvii., pp. 379–380.

[page] 389

Hose (CHARLES), D.Sc.

See also GERRARD, E.

16 specimens of Esculent Swifts (Collocalia), with their nests and eggs, from Sarawak. Presented. [88. 1. 6, 1–16.]

83 birds from Mts. Kalulong and Dulit in N.W. Borneo. Presented. [93. 7. 2, 1–83.]

For the description of the Mt. Dulit collection, cf. 'Ibis,' 1892, pp. 322–324, 430–442, pls. x., xi. The collection from Kalulong is described in the 'Ibis' for 1893, pp. 546–550.

60 specimens of Bornean birds in spirits. Presented. [97. 2. 29, 1–24.]

277 specimens from various districts of Sarawak and the island of Celebes. Presented. [99. 8. 31, 1–6 (Mount Dulit and Mount Mulu); 1900. 2. 15, 1–150; 1900. 3. 20, 1–45.]

96 birds in spirits from Borneo. [1904. 5. 2, 1–96.]

Hubbard (Rev. E. H.).

8 specimens from Nassa, Speke Gulf, Victoria Nyanza. Purchased through Mr. F. C. Smith. [95. 3. 3, 1–8.]

Contained the types of a new Francolin (Francolinus hubbardi) described by Mr. Ogilvie-Grant (Bull. B.O.C., iv., p. 27, 1895).

Hudson (W. H.).

61 nests and eggs from Buenos Aires. Presented. [74. 5. 21, 5–65.]

Mr. Hudson is the well-known naturalist who has thrown so much hight upon the ornithology of the Argentine Republic (see "Argentine Ornithology," by Sclater and Hudson). His accounts of the habits of birds have always been most interesting. His collections from Conchitas were described by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin (P.Z.S., 1868, pp. 137–146).

Hudson's Bay Company.

A specimen of the Golden Eagle. Presented. [43. 11. 28, 10.]

Hügel (Baron A. VON).

4 Gannets (Sula bassana) from the Bass Rock. Presented. [73. 11. 4, 1–4.]

These were presented with the idea of forming a group of Bass Rock birds. Some of the specimens are in the great case now in the Bird Gallery.

35 specimens from various localities. Presented. [73. 12. 3, 1–33; 73. 12. 26, 13–14.]

Very interesting specimens of Palæarctic birds, including the skin of a Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus).

16 birds from Hampshire. Presented. [74. 3. 14, 28–43.]

23 birds from New Zealand. Presented. [80. 5. 3, 1–23.] The types of Phalacrocorax stewarti are included in this donation (cf. Cat. B., xxvi., p. 386).

Baron von Hügel is the son of the celebrated Baron Carl von Hügel, who wrote the well-known work of travel, "Kaschmir und das Reich der Siek," 1840–1848.

The donations to the British Museum were from his collection of British birds which the young Baron made before he went out to the Fiji Islands and New Zealand. Some of the specimens which he gave to the Museum were of great intrinsic value.

[page] 390

Hugh (Father).

94 birds from the province of Shen-si in Western China. [98. 10. 30, 1–10; 1900. 4. 28, 1–47; 1900. 9. 9, 1–17; 1902. 10. 10, 1–20.]

Father Hugh's early collections were described by me in the "Comptes Rendus" of the third International Congress of Ornithologists at Paris in 1900 (Ornis, xi., pp. 173, 185).

Humblot (Governor).

See FRANK, G. A.

Hume (ALLAN OCTAVIAN), C.B.

10 specimens of birds from the Nicobar Islands, and other parts of the Indian Empire. Presented. [74. 1. 17, 1–10.]

At this time nearly all the species were new to the collection—Æthopyga nicolarica, Halcyon saturatior, Carpophaga insularis, etc.

75,577 skins and eggs of birds from various parts of the Indian Empire.

The collection consisted of about 82,000 specimens, of which 75,577 were placed in the Museum cabinets, as follows:—

2830 Birds of Prey (Accipitriformes). [85. 8. 19, 1–2830.] (Vol. i. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

Types of eight species, Astur poliopsis, Accipiter melanoschistus, Spizaëtus sphynx, Spilornis davisoni, S. minimus, Milvus melanotis, Pernis tweeddalei, Baza sumatrensis, Falco atriceps, and Polioaëtus plumbeus.

1155 Owls (Strigiformes). [86. 2. 1, 1–1155.] (Vol. ii. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

Types of nine species, Scops brucei, S. nicobaricus, S. balli, Carine pulchra, Heteroglaux blewitti, Ninox obscurus, Asio butleri, Syrnium maingayi, and Strix de-roepstorffi.

2819 Crows, Jays, Orioles, etc. [86. 3. 1, 1–2819.] (Vol. iii. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

5 types: Corvus lawrencei, Coronc insolens, Dendrocitta assimilis, Garrulus leucotis, Dissemuroides dicruriformis.

4493 Cuckoo-shrikes and Flycatchers. (Vol. iv. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

21 types: Volvocivora intermedia, V. neglecta, V. innominata, Pericrocotus subardens, P. neglectus, P. flammifer, Pratincola albisuperciliaris, P. macrorhyncha, Leucoccrca infumata, Terpsiphone nicobarica, Philentoma intermedium, Cryptolopha jerdoni, Siphia rufigularis, Cyornis olivacea, C. albo-olivacea, C. poliogenys, C. mandellii, Siphia minuta, S.frenata, Anthipes submoniliger, Muscitrea cyanea.

4670 Thrushes and Warblers. (Vol. v. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

28 types: Sylvia althea, S. minula (or S. minuscula), Phylloscopus burmanicus, P. seebohmi, P. tytleri,* P. humei, P. flavo-olivaceus, P. neglectus, P. sindianus, P. mandellii, P. subviridis, P. davisoni, Jerdonia agricolensis, Acrocephalus macrorhynchus, Locustella subsignata, Tribura major, T. mandellii, T. intermedia, Herbivocula brooksi, Cettia cettoides, Horornis erythrogenys, H. pallidus, H. brunnescens, Turdulus davisoni, Geocichla tricolor, Turdus subpallidus, Saxicola albonigra, S. kingi.

* Canon Tristram (Cat. Coll., p. 150) mentions the type of P. tytleri of Brooks as being in his collection. Brooks' original specimens are in the Hume Collection, and the Museum has also the example mentioned by Brooks as being obtained by Col. Tytler at Simla (cf. Brooks, Ibis, 1872. p. 22).

[page] 391

3100 Bulbuls and Wrens, Dippers, etc. [86. 9, 1–3100.] (Vol. vi. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

16 types: Ægithina nigrolutea, Hypsipetes concolor, Hemixus hildebrandti, H. davisoni, Iole terricolor, Micropus fuscoflavescens, Criniger gutturalis, C. burmanicus, C. theoides, Molpastes humei, Otocompsa personata, Pycnonotus davisoni, P. xantholæmus, Ixidia weberi, Anorthura neglecta,* Sphenocichla humei.

7304 specimens of Timeliine birds. [86. 10. 1, 1–7304.] (Vol. vii. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

30 types: Myiophoneus cugenei, Lioptila davisoni, Blanfordius striatulus, Suya albigularis, Drymoipus terricolor, D. rufescens, D. insignis, Orthotomus nitidus, Trochalopterum erythrolæma, Argya eclipes, Pomatorhinus obscurus, P. austeni, P. tickelli, P. inglisi, Dryonastes subcærulatus, Pyctorhis griscigularis, Pellorneum minus, P. ignotum, Trichastoma minor, Stachyridopsis rufifrons, S. poliogaster, Minla rufigularis, Schœniparus dubius, Ixulus humilis, I. rufigenis, Alcippe brucei, A. bourdilloni, Siva castaneicauda, S. sordida, Accentor jerdoni.

2119 specimens of Tits and Shrikes. [86. 11. 1, 1–2119.] (Vol. viii. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

9 types: Lophophanes humei, Ægithaliscus manipurensis, Pterythius intermedius, Hylocharis occipitalis, Certhia mandellii, C. hodgsoni, C. manipurensis, C. stoliczkæ, Sitta kashmeriensis.

1789 specimens of Sun-birds (Nectariniidæ) and White-eyes (Zosteropidæ). [86. 12. 1, 1–1789.] (Vol. ix. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

8 types: Chalcostetha iusperata, Æthopyga nicobarica, Æ. cara, Æ. waldeni, Arachnothera intermedia, A. andamanica, Arachnothera simillima, and Zosterops aureiventer.

3724 specimens of Swallows (Hirundinidæ), Wagtails, and Pipits (Motacillidæ). [87. 2. 1, 1–3724.] (Vol. x. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

8 types: Dicæum virescens, Prionochilus modestus, Hirundo substriolata, H. pallida, H. intermedia, H. archetes, Anthus cockburniæ, A. griseorufescens. The type of Cotile obscurior was not in the collection, and the specimen did not reach the British Museum.

2375 specimens of Finches (Fringillidæ). [87. 6. 1, 1–2375.] (Vol. xii. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

8 types: Coccothraustes humei, Propasser ambiguus, P. saturatus, Procarduelis mandellii, Chrysomitris tibetana, Montifringilla blanfordi, M. mandellii, Pyrrhospiza humei.

3766 specimens of Starlings (Sturnidæ), Weaver-birds (Ploceidæ), and Larks (Alaudidæ). [87. 7. 1, 1–3766.] (Vol. xiii. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

22 types: Sturnus nitens, S. ambiguus, S. minor, S. menzbieri, S. nobilior, Sturnia incognita, Calonis irwini, C. tytleri, Ploceus megarhynchus, P. chryseus, Munia semistriata, M. non-striata, M. superstriata, M. inglisi, Estrelda burmanica, Alauda guttata, Calandrella tibetana, Alaudula adamsi, Mirafra immaculata, M. microptera, Galerita magna, and Spizalauda simillima.

807 specimens of Ant-Thrushes (Pittidæ), Broadbills (Eurylæmidæ). [87. 5. 1, 1–807.] (Vol. xiv. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

4 types: Pitta oatesi, P. davisoni, Eucichla gurneyi, and Psarisomus assimilis.

* Brooks' actual types of Troglodytes neglectus are in the Hume Collection, and are marked "type." Canon Tristram's specimen quoted as the type (Cat., p. 167) can only be considered a co-type.

[page] 392

1110 specimens of Hoopoes (Upupæ). [87. 8. 20, 1–135.] Swifts (Cypseli), Nightjars (Caprimulgi), and Frog-mouths (Podargi). [87. 8. 1, 1–975.] (Vol. xvi. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

8 types: Chætura indica, Collocalia innominata, C. inexpectata, Caprimulgus unwini, C. andamanicus, Lyncornis bourdilloni, Batrachostomus castaneus, B. punctatus.

2277 specimens of Picarian birds, Hornbills (Bucerotes), Bee-eaters (Meropes), Kingfishers (Halcyones), Rollers (Coraciæ), Trogons (Trogones). [87. 8. 20, 1–1753; 87. 9. 1, 1–277; 88. 11. 10, 1–247.] (Vol. xvii. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

11 types: Eurystomus lætior, Pelargopsis intermedia, Alcedo simillima, Carcineutes amabilis, Halcyon saturatior, H. vidali, H. armstrongi, H. humei, H. davisoni, Rhytidoceros narcondami.

2339 specimens of Woodpeckers (Pici). [87. 8. 10, 1–2339.] (Vol. xviii. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

3 types: Gecinus nigrigenys, Dendrocopus pyrrhothorax, Micropternus burmanicus.

2417 specimens of Honey-Guides (Indicatores), Barbets (Capitones), and Cuckoos (Coccyges). [87. 12. 2, 1–1658; 88. 11. 30, 1–759.] (Vol. xix. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

8 types: Hierococcyx nanus, Ololygon tenuirostris, Centropus intermedius, C. maximus, C. acheenensis, Indicator radcliffei, Cyanops davisoni, C. incognita.

813 specimens of Parrots (Psittaciformes). [89. 1. 26, 1–813.] (Vol. xx. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

3 types, Palæornis indoburmanicus, P. finschi, P. tytleri.

1615 specimens of Pigeons (Columbiformes). [89. 2. 2, 1–1615.] (Vol. xxi. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

5 types: Sphenocercus minor, Columba neglecta, C. palumboides, Turtur humilior. The type of Macropygia assimilis (Hume, "Stray Feathers," ii., p. 441, 1874), from Moulmein, was not in the collection.

2120 specimens of Sand-Grouse (Pterocletes), Game-birds and Megapodes (Galliformes). [89. 5. 10, 1–2120.] (Vol. xxii. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

8 types: Turnix albiventris, Microperdix manipurensis, M. blewitti, Arboricola mandellii, Caccabis pallidus, C. pallescens, Francolinus melanonotus, Phasianus humiæ.

The type of Caccabis arenaria, from Aden, was not in the collection.

882 specimens of Rails (Ralliformes), Cranes (Gruiformes), Bustards (Otides). [89. 11. 1, 1–588; 90. 2. 10, 1–45; 90. 2. 20, 1–249.] (Vol. xxiii. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

6 types: Hypotænidia obscurior, H. abnormis, Rallina telmatophila, Porzana elwesi, Grus lilfordi, G. sharpei.

2415 specimens of Wading Birds (Charadriiformes). [91. 10. 1, 1–2415.] (Vol. xxiv. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

4 types: Phalaropus asiaticus, Lobipes tropicus, Ægialitis tenuirostris, Totanus haughtoni.

882 specimens of Gulls and Terns (Lariformes) and Petrels (Procellariiformes). [90. 5. 20, 1–882.] (Vol. xxv. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

6 types: Sternula korustes, Sterna saundersi, S. gouldi, Larus innominatus, Stercorarius asiaticus, Puffinus persicus.

1089 specimens of Ibises (Ibididæ), Herons (Ardeidæ), Pelicans and

[page] 393

Cormorants (Steganopodes), etc., Grebes (Podicipediformes). [93. 10. 1, 1–15; 93. 10. 2, 1–689; 94. 6. 20, 1–220; 95. 2. 10, 1–165.] (Vol. xxvi. of the "Catalogue of Birds.")

7 types: Graptocephalus davisoni, Butorides spodiogaster, Ardetta pulchra, Phaëthon indicus, Pelecanus longirostris, Podicipes albipennis, P. albescens.

761 specimens of Geese and Ducks (Anseriformes). [94. 6. 1, 1–761.] Vol. xxvii. of the "Catalogue of Birds."

2 types: Cygnus unwini, Nettion albijulare.

15,965 specimens of eggs. [91. 3. 20, 1–9999; 92. 9. 1, 1–5966.]

This splendid collection has been described by Mr. Hume himself in his "Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds," 8vo, 1873, and again in Mr. Oates' edition of the above work (3 vols., 8vo, 1889–90), also in the "Catalogue of Birds' Eggs in the British Museum" (vols. i.–v., 1901–1906).

In the formation of this collection Mr. Hume received the assistance of a devoted body of Indian oologists, and the notes that they gave him are published in Mr. Hume's books quoted above. Among the best-known of the contributors were General G. F. L. Marshall and his brother, Colonel C. H. T. Marshall, Colonel C. T. Bingham, Messrs. J. Gammie, L. Mandelli, E. W. Oates, W. Davison, W. Blewitt, R. Thompson, Rhodes Morgan, and Miss Cockburn.

Mr. Allan Hume is the youngest son of the celebrated Joseph Hume, M.P., and has spent the best part of his life in India, where he was Commissioner of Customs and Secretary to the Government of India, and has held many other appointments. During the mutiny he saved the women and children from Etawah, where he was in command at the time, as well as all the archives and treasure in the city, all of which he brought in safety to Agra. Besieged by the mutineers in the latter city, he took a brave part in the defence, and received his C.B. for gallantry in the field.

He will, however, be principally remembered for the wonderful collection of Indian birds and eggs, which he made between the years 1862–1885. Not only did he collect vigorously himself, but he employed naturalists in all parts of the Indian Empire, and himself conducted expeditions to Sind and the Mekran Coast, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Laccadives, and the hill regions of Manipur, etc.

His assistant, William Ruxton Davison, was provided with a staff of taxidermists, elephants, etc., and travelled for Mr. Hume in various districts of British India, during the space of 13 years. Davison was a skilled taxidermist and collector, and his explorations in Tenasserim and the Malay Peninsula resulted in the discovery of many new and interesting species. Mr. Hume also supplemented his own endeavours by the purchase of several other well-known collections, such as the late Mr. Mandelli's series of Sikhim and Tibetan birds, the late Mr. W. E. Brooks' collections from the plains of India, and many others. For fifteen years he brought out a journal, "Stray Feathers" (1873–1888), in which he published the results of his own efforts and those of his colleagues.

The Hume Collection was one of the most splendid donations ever made to the Nation, and added to the Museum, which had previously but a poor series of Indian birds, the largest and most complete collection of birds and eggs from the British Indian Empire the world has ever seen.

The Hume Collection contained 258 types.

Hungarian National Museum, Budapest.

477 birds from Hungary. Presented. [92. 6. 10, 1–104; 92. 7. 9, 1–373.]

[page] 394

This fine series of Hungarian birds was presented by the National Museum after the Ornithological Congress at Budapest, and contained several species of great interest.

Hunstein (CARL).

See GERRARD, E.

The expedition of this young naturalist into the Horseshoe range of the Astrolabe Mountains resulted in the discovery of two magnificent new species of Birds of Paradise (Paradisornis rudolfi and Astrarchia stephaniæ), as well as a species of Diphyllodes which was called D. hunsteini (cf. Finsch and Meyer, Zeitschr. ges. Orn., II., pp. 369–391, pls. xv.–xxii.), besides other new species. Hunstein was afterwards drowned by a tidal wave in New Britain.

Hunter (H. C. V.).

186 birds from the Teita district and Kilimanjaro in East Africa. Presented. [89. 3. 21, 1–186.]

10 species were new to the collection, 7 of which were described by Capt. Shelley (P.Z.S., 1889, pp. 356–372, pls. xl., xli.). The new species were Cinnyris hunteri, Batis mixta, Xenocichla nigriceps, X. placida, Alcippe kilimensis [ = Lioptilus abyssinicus], Cisticola hunteri, Zosterops perspicillata. Mr. Hunter was in pursuit of big-game, but he found time to make an interesting collection of birds for the Museum.

18 birds from S.W. Siam. Presented. [89. 5. 23, 1–18.]

Hutton (Capt.).

23 birds and eggs from Kandahar. Presented. [56. 3. 26, 1–23.]

It appears on further examination that this donation included the types of species discovered by Capt. Hutton in Afghanistan, viz., Emberiza huttoni, Blyth, J.A.S. Beng., xviii., p. 811, 1849, Carpodocus crassirostris, Blyth, J.A.S. Beng., xvi., p. 476, 1847 (= Erythrospiza githaginea), Argya huttoni, Blyth, t.c., p. 476, Emberiza aurifrons, Blyth, t.c., p. 476 (= Serinus pusillus).

The types of the species of Palæornis described by Capt. Hutton in "Stray Feathers" (Vol. i., p. 335) as P. sivalensis, P. sacer, P. punjabi and P. vindhiana, do not appear to have come to the Museum.

Ihering (Dr. VON), Director of the San Paulo Museum, San Paulo, Brazil.

3 birds from San Paulo. Presented. [1901. 8. 10, 1–3.]

The type of Gisella iheringi, Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C., viii., p. xl., 1899.

Imperial Commission of Agriculture, West Indies.

An example of the Sanderling (Calidris arenaria). Presented. [1904. 7. 1, 1.]

Imperial Institute.

15 birds from Australia. Presented. [90. 12. 21, 1–15.]

Im Thurn (Lieut. J. K.), R.N.

9 birds from Turkey and Greece. Presented. [1904. 6. 17, 1–4; 1904. 7. 19, 1–5.]

[page] 395

Ince (Mrs.).

42 birds, principally from China. Presented. [82. 12. 10, 1–42.]

Capt. Ince saw some service in China, and was, so I have been informed, a friend of John Reeves, who gave so many specimens to the Museum. Gould also knew him, and named a Paradise Flycatcher after him—Muscipeta incci, from Shanghai. The type of this species was given by Gould to the India Museum (cf. Moore, Cat. B. Mus. E. I. Co., i., p. 392). In the "Catalogue" a reference is made to the original description as "Gould, P.Z.S., 1852," but the bird was never described in the "Proceedings." Capt. Ince seems to have been a friend of MacGillivray's, as among the birds presented by his widow was the type of Nectarinia australis, Gould, which we may presume was given to Capt. Ince by MacGillivray or by Gould.

India, Secretary of State for.

See INDIA MUSEUM.

India Museum, Calcutta.

See also ANDERSON, JOHN; BLANFORD, W. T.

200 birds from Yun-nan and Upper Burma, collected by Dr. John Anderson. Presented. [76. 4. 7, 1–200.]

418 specimens from Yarkand. Exchanged. [91. 7. 22, 1–418.]

This was a set of the duplicates of the collection obtained by the second Yarkand Mission under Sir Douglas Forsyth. The collection was fully catalogued by me in the report published by the India Office. To this publication Mr. Hume presented several beautiful plates which he had had drawn for his projected "Birds of India."

A specimen of Nyroca baeri from Bengal. [98. 4. 18, 1.]

45 birds in spirits. Presented. [99. 4. 16, 1–17; 1900. 7. 5, 1–28.]

India Museum, London.

23 birds from India. Presented by the Hon. E. I. Co. [42. 11. 8, 7–29.]

Mostly common species, but amongst the specimens was the type of Ibidorhynchus struthersi.

54 specimens from Shoa, collected by Sir W. Cornwallis Harris. Presented by the Hon. E. I. Co. [45. 6. 6, 1–54.]

A set of the birds obtained during the expedition to Shoa promoted by the Hon. E. India Co.

14 specimens from the Himalayas (mostly Hodgsonian specimens). Presented by the Hon. E. I. Co. [56. 5. 21, 7–20.]

6015 specimens from various parts of the Indian Empire. Presented by the Secretary of State for India. [60. 4. 16, 1–584; 79. 11. 28, 1–700; 80. 1. 1, 1–4731.]

The transference of part of the India Museum collection to the British Museum began in 1860, but the final incorporation of the old Company's collection took place in 1880 (vide infra).

172 birds from Shoa, collected by Sir W. Cornwallis Harris. [61. 2. 5, 1–34; 61. 5. 8, 1–138.] Presented by the Secretary of State for India.

In this collection was the type of Dienemellia dienemelli (Rüpp. ex Horsf.).

The above records chronicle the dispersal of the celebrated Museum of the old East India Company, and its incorporation in the National Collection. The history of the bird-collection is epitomised in the "Introductory Remarks" to the "Catalogue of Birds in the Museum of

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the Hon. East India Company," by Dr. Horsfield and Mr. F. Moore (2 vols., Svo, 1853–1858), the work being actually done by the latter. Many famous naturalists helped to make this Museum celebrated, and the collections of Sir Stamford Raffles, Dr. Horsfield, Dr. McClelland, Sir R. Strachey, Dr. Cantor, Colonel Sykes, and other well-known men were preserved in the India Museum, which was at first kept at the House of the East India Company in Leadenhall Street. After the Mutiny the collections were removed to Fife House in Whitehall, and there I can remember seeing them when I began my work on the Kingfishers. I can well recollect my kind reception by Mr. Frederic Moore, and with what reverence I handled the Kingfishers of that ancient collection. The Horsfieldian types have unfortunately nearly all perished, having been imperfectly preserved, and during the removal of the collections from Leadenhall Street to Fife House, although they were carefully packed, moths destroyed nearly the whole of them; they are now in the British Museum, but are nearly all devoid of feathers. The destruction of these valuable specimens has always been a source of great grief to Mr. Moore.

The preservation of birds in the older days was not much considered, and the specimens obtained by Colonel Sykes and Dr. McClelland were all preserved in a rough and ready manner, so that they have not withstood the ravages of time. Sir Stamford Raffles does not appear to have made many skins, but to have chiefly presented coloured drawings of the species he described.

Among the Javanese birds of Horsfield's collecting were the types of the following species:—Hypotriorchis severus, Spizaëtus limnaëtus, Astur soloensis, Polioaëtus ichthyaëtus, Glaucidium castanopterum, Scops lempiji, S. rufescens, Bubo orientalis, Ketupa ketupa, Phodilus badius, Syrnium seloputo, Collocalia linchi, Macropteryx klecho, Caprimulgus macrurus, C. affinis, Eurylæmus javanicus, Carcineutes pulchellus, Halcyon melanopterus (= H. cyaniventris), Alcedo meninting, A. biru (= A. beryllina), Hemipus obscurus, Buchanga cineracea, Lanius bentet, Graucalus javensis, Brachypteryx montana, Oreocichla varia, Merula javanica, Myiophoneus flavirostris, Arrenga cyanea, Turdinus sepiarius, Timelia pileata, Pomatorhinus montanus, Pycnonotus bimaculatus, Pycnonotus simplex, H. & M. (= P. plumosus), Pycnonotus analis (Horsf.), Rubigula dispar, Criniger gularis, Iole maclellandi, Chloropsis viridis, C. javensis, Zosterops flava, Z. javanica, Ægithina scapularis, Oriolus xanthonotus, Copsychus amœnus, Siphia banyumas, Stoparola indigo, Orthotomus sepium, Prinia familiaris, Cettia montana, Mirafra javanica, Corone enca, Phrenotrix temia (= Crypsorhina varians), Chotorhea javensis, Xantholæma australis, Miglyptes tristis, Thriponax javensis, Chrysocolaptes strictus, Chrysonotus tiga, Gecinus puniceus, Zanclostomus javanicus, Surniculus lugubris, Chalcococcyx xanthorhynchus, C. basalis, Phœnicophaus melanognathus (= Rhinococcyx curvirostris), Arboricola orientalis, Heteropygia acuminata, Scolopax saturata, Ardeola speciosa, Dendrocygna arcuata, and D. javanica.

The above list has been taken from Horsfield and Moore's Catalogue and my "Hand-list of Birds," but there may still be a few of Horsfield's types which have escaped my notice. A certain number came into the Museum, but many were eaten up by moth.

Of Raffles' types many were represented by actual specimens as well as by drawings, and these came with the rest of the collection from the East India Company's Museum. It is interesting to see from the introductory remarks to Horsfield and Moore's Catalogue that the early collections made by Horsfield were presented by Raffles, as Lieutenant-

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Governor of Java, in 1813 and 1817. It was not until 1819 that Dr. Horsfield presented specimens on his own account.

The following Rafflesian types were added to the Museum by the dispersion of the India Museum:—Spizaëtus caligatus, Ninox scutulata, Lanius divaricatus (? = L. tigrinus), Tephrodornis gularis, Mixornis gularis, Æthopyga siparaja, Chrysococcyx malayanus, Zanclostomus sumatranus, Rhinortha chlorophæa, Micropternus badius, Gecinus affinis, Chotorhca versicolor, Tanygnathus sumatranus, Ducula badia, Rallina fasciata, Eurylæmus ochromelas, Corydon sumatranus, Calyptomena viridis.

There were also the types of Colonel Sykes's collection from the Deccan, described by him in the "Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1832" (pp.77–99):—Columba elphinstonci, Sykcs, Accipiter dukhunensis (= Astur badius), Astur hyder (= Butastur teesa), Circus pallidus (= C. macrurus), Circus variegatus (= C. æruginosus), Milvus govinda, Muscicapa poonensis (= Alseonax latirostris), M. cærulcocephala (= Hypothymis azurea), Hemipus picatus, Petrocincla maal (= Monticola cyana), Argya malcolmi, Crateropus somervillei, Pomatorhinus horsfieldi, Hypolais rama, Burnesia socialis, Prinia inornata, Orthotomus benetti and O. lingoo (= Sutoria sutoria), Budytes beema, B. melanocephala, Motacilla melanocephalus (= M. feldeggi), Megalurus ruficeps (= Pellorneum ruficeps), Anthus agilis (= A. trivialis), Saxicola bicolor and S. erythropygia (= Pratincola caprata), S. rubeculoides (= Muscicapa albicilla), Calandrella dukhiunensis, Spizalauda dera, Emberiza subcristata (= Melophus melanicterus), Lonchura cheet (= Aidemosyne malabarica), Pastor mahrattensis, Corvus culminatus, Psittacus melanorhynchus (= Palæornis peristerodes), Cinnyris vigorsi, C. minima, C. concolor (= Æ. vigorsi, ♀).

In addition to these very important types there are also those of several species described by Mr. Frederic Moore:—Brachypteryx nipalensis, Pnoepyga longicaudata, Alcippe cantori (= Malacopterum affine, Blyth), Turdinus magnirostris, Microtarsus olivaceus (= Pycnonotus simplex), M. cantori (= Pinarocichla euptilosa), Hypsipetes nicobariensis, Ixulus castaneiceps (= Staphidia castaneiceps), Irena malayensis (= I. cyanea), Nemura hodgsoni (= Nitidula hodgsoni), Ruticilla nipalensis (= R. rufiventris), R. hodgsoni, R. vigorsi (= R. erythrogaster), R. rufogularis (R. erythronota), Orthotomus flavoviridis (= O. atrigularis), Horeites major, Suya atrogularis, Prinia nipalensis (= P. inornata), Abrornis albigularis, A. hodgsoni, A. affinis, Accentor huttoni (= A. atrigularis), A. rubeculoides, Ægithaliscus leucogenys, Otocorys longirostris, Emberiza stracheyi, E. castaneiceps, Uroloncha leucogastroides, Corvus sinensis (= C. levaillanti), C. tenuirostris, Megalæma macclellandi (= Thereiceryx lineata), Chrysococcyx hodgsoni (= C. maculatus), Upupa nigripennis, Arachnothera temmincki (= A. crassirostris).

Of McClelland's species described in the "Proceedings of the Zoological Society" for 1839 (pp. 146–167), the types of the following were acquired from the India Museum:—Spizaëtus (= Astur) rufitinctus, Tinnunculus interstinctus, Hirundo brevirostris (= Collocalia brevirostris), H. brericaudata (= Clivicola sinensis), Phœnicornis elegans (= Pericrocotus speciosus) (cf. Oates, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, I., p. 479), P. affinis (= P. brevirostris), Muscicapa (= Hemipus) capitalis, Iole macclellandi, Hypsipetes gracilis (= Lioptila gracilis), Graucalus maculosus (= Campophaga lugubris), Ianthocincla gularis, I. lunaris (= Dryonastes ruficollis), Ixus monticola (= Otocompsa jocosa), Saxicola olivea (= Oligura cyaniventer), Liothrix lepida (= Siva cyanuroptera), L. signata (= Niltava macgregoriæ), L. ornata (= Minla ignotincta, but the type was apparently

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never sent to the India Museum), Mirafra assamica, M. flavicollis (= Emberiza aureola), Lonchura melanocephala (= Munia atricapilla), Dendrocitta frontalis, Coracias affinis, Gecinulus grantia, Cinnyris assamensis (= Æthopyga saturata), C. labecula (= Æ. seheriæ), Chloropsis chrysogaster (= C. hardwicki).

Ingall (G.).

88 specimens of sterna, etc., of British birds. Presented. [44. 12. 28, 1–88.]

Ingham (Sir JAMES).

13 specimens from the Louisiade Archipelago and Cloudy Bay, S.E. New Guinea. Presented. [78. 10. 19, 1–13.]

These were obtained by his son, who was an official in British New Guinea when the colony was first founded. This collection contained an example of Goura albertisi, received by the Museum for the first time.

Inglis (J.).

See WATKINS and DONCASTER.

Mr. Inglis collected in Cachar, and a series of his skins is in the Hume Collection. He has also written several papers on birds (cf. Stray F., v., pp. 1–47; ix., pp. 241–259; Journ. Bomb. N. H. Soc., xiii., pp. 621–631; xiv., pp. 132–139, 362–371, 554–563, 764–771; xv., pp. 70–77, 337–343.

Ingram (COLLINGWOOD).

26 birds from Argentina. Presented. [1901. 9. 25, 1–18; 1901. 11. 9, 1–8.]

A variety of the Mistle Thrush (Turdus viscivorus). Presented. [1905. 7. 1, 1.]

A specimen of Turtur ferrago. Presented. [1904. 7. 3, 1.]

Mr. Collingwood Ingram is the son of Sir William Ingram, Bart., and has collected specimens for the Museum in the countries in which he travels.

Ingram (Sir WILLIAM), Bart.

135 birds from San Paulo, Brazil. Presented. [1901. 3. 28, 1–103; 1902. 2. 22, 1–32.]

This collection was made by M. Robert at Sao Paulo, S.E. Brazil, and presented by Sir William Ingram, who was one of the subscribers to the expedition.

4 specimens of Crypturus tataupa, Plegadis falcinellus and Phlogœnas crinigera. Presented. [1904. 12. 3, 1–2; 1904. 12. 20, 1; 1904. 12. 29, 1.]

2 young specimens of the Abyssinian Francolin (Pternistes leucoscepus). Presented. [1905. 6. 22, 1–2.]

A Cape Penguin. [1905. 7. 23, 1.]

A young Scarlet Ibis (Eudocimus ruber). Presented. [1905. 8. 3, 1.]

A specimen of Rhynckotus rufescens. Presented. [1905. 9. 1, 1.]

A Francolin and a Burmese Myna (Ampeliceps coronatus). Presented. [1905. 9. 13, 1; 1905. 11. 12, 1.]

Irby (Col. LEONARD HOWARD).

98 birds from Gibraltar and Southern Spain. Presented. [72. 10. 3, 22–64; 72. 10. 4, 5; 80. 12. 14, 1–44; 87. 6. 3, 1–5; 87. 6. 29, 1–5.]

9 birds from Suffolk. Presented. [88. 3. 10, 1–9.]

9 birds from the island of Tiree. Presented. [88. 12. 15, 1–9.]

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A specimen of the Hobby (Falco subbuteo) from Cuckfield, Sussex. Presented. [1904. 10. 14, 1.]

Colonel Irby is the well-known historian of the Ornithology of the Straits of Gibraltar (cf. London, 1875, 8vo, pp. 1–236; 2nd edition, London, 1895, 8vo, pp. 1–326). Among the rare species presented by him to the Museum from Southern Spain was Savi's Warbler (Locustella luscinioides), of which he gave a series of the birds with nests and eggs.

Jackson (Captain FREDERICK G.).

33 birds from Cape Flora and other places in Franz Josef Land. Presented. [98. 1. 2, 1–33.]

Nest and eggs, with parent-birds, of the Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea). Presented.

Mr. Jackson was the leader of the Jackson-Harmsworth expedition to the Arctic (cf. his work, "A Thousand Days in the Arctic," London and New York, 1899 (?), 8vo, I., pp. xxi, 551; II., pp. xv, 580). He was keenly interested in natural history, and did what he could to collect during his two winters passed in Franz Josef Land. He discovered a nesting colony of the Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea), and presented to the Museum an interesting case of these birds, with the nest and eggs in situ—one of the most interesting of the bird-groups. He also recorded, for the first time, the occurrence of the Lapland Bunting (Calcarius lapponicus) in Franz Josef Land.

Jackson (FREDERICK J.), C.B., C.M.G.

162 birds from Teita and Mt. Kilimanjaro, Manda Island and Lamu. Presented. [87. 11. 3, 1–33, 54–176; 87. 11. 29, 1–7; 88. 2. 1, 1–44.]

This collection contained no less than 18 species new to the Museum, including the type of Ploceus jacksoni and many other valuable specimens. It was described by Capt. Shelley in the "Ibis" for 1888 (pp. 287–306, pls. vi. and vii.).

Two eggs of Struthio massaicus. Presented. [91. 1. 30, 1, 2.]

47 birds from Mount Elgon and the neighbouring districts. Presented. [93. 12. 1, 1–47.]

Of these 47 specimens, no less than 44 were types of new species. The collection was described by me in the "Ibis" for 1891, pp. 117–127, 233–260, pls. iv.–vi., 587–602, pls. xii. and xiii., 1892, pp. 152–164, pl. iv., 299–322, pl. vii., 534–555, pl. xiv.

10 types of new species from Uganda. Presented. [97. 4. 1, 1; 97. 10. 31. 1–9.]

18 types of new species from the Nandi district. Presented. [99. 8. 13, 1–8; 1900. 6. 22, 1–6; 1901. 10. 9, 12; 1901. 11. 12, 1–2.]

26 types of new species from the Ruwenzori Range. Presented. [1902. 12. 8, 1–17; 1903. 9. 16, 1; 1904. 4. 25, 1; 1904. 6. 28, 1, 2; 1905. 1. 10, 1–4; 1906. 1. 5, 1.]

Described by me in the "Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club," vol. vi., p. xlviii.; vii., pp. vi., vii.; x., pp. xxvii., xxviii.; xi., pp. 28, 29, 57; xiii., pp. 7–10, 20, 21, 50; xiv., pp. 19, 94; and by Mr. Jackson in vols. viii. (pp. xxii., l.), xiv., pp. 74, 94. A few species have also been described by Mr. Ogilvie-Grant, and others by Mr. Oscar Neumann.

8 birds from British East Africa and Uganda. Presented. [1904. 10. 10, 1–8.]

Some idea of the value of Mr. Jackson's donations to the National

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Collection may be gathered from the following list of types (96 in number) presented by him:—Francolinus jacksoni, F. uluensis, F. strepphorus, F. elgonensis, F. kikuyuensis, Numida reichenowi, Haplopelia jacksoni, Turturœna sharpei, Lophoceros jacksoni, Irrisor jacksoni, Melittophagus oreobates, Cuculus jacksoni, Barbatula leucomystax, B. jacksoni, Gymnobucco cinereiceps, Trachyphonus elgonensis, Dendromus pallidus, Dendropicus nandensis, Mezopicus ruivenzori, Hirundo arcticincta, Parisoma jacksoni, Platystira jacksoni, Cryptolopha læta, C. mackenziana, Trochocercus albonotatus, Graucalus purus, Bleda pallidigula, B. kakamegæ, B. kikuyuensis, B. leucolæma, Andropadus lætissimus, Crateropus buxtoni, Turdinus atriceps, T. jacksoni, Bathmedonia jacksoni, Merula elgonensis, M. barakæ, Callene æquatorialis, Cossypha griseisticta, C.archeri, Erythropygia ukambensis, Alethe poliophrys, Myrmecocichla cryptoleuca, Cisticola ambigua, C. chubbi, Calamocichla jacksoni, Cryptillas rufescens, Apalis pulchra, A. jacksoni, A. personata, Euprinodes cinereus, Dryodromas rufidorsalis, Sylviella jacksoni, S. minima, S. leucophrys, S. barakæ, Camaroptera griseigula, Burnesiaugandx (= B. reichenowi, Hartl.), Fiscus mackinnoni, Dryoscopus albofasciatus, D. pringlei, D. nandensis, D. jacksoni, Laniarius castaneiceps (= D. lühderi, Reichenow), Parus nigricinereus, P. barakæ, Zosterops kikuyuensis, Nectarinia barakæ (= N. purpureiventris, Reichenow), N. æneigularis, N. jacksoni (= N. tacazze, Rüpp.), Cyanomitra alinæ, Cinnyris bradshawi (= C. deminuta, Cab.), C. reichenowi, Anthus latistriatus, Macronyx wintoni, M. sharpei, Serinus albifrons, Poliospiza striatipectus, Drepanoplectes jacksoni, Penthetriopsis humeralis, Urobrachya nigronotata, Pyromelana xanthochlamys (= P. ansorgei, Hartert), Cryptospiza jacksoni, C. ocularis, C. shelleyi, Heterhyphantes stephanophorus, Hyphantornis jacksoni, Sycobrotus insignis, S. nandensis, Nigrita schistacea, Sitagra aliena, Lamprotornis brcvicauda, Galeopsar salvadorii, Pœoptera greyi, Amydrus elgonensis, Pholidauges sharpei.

Jamaica Institute.

20 birds from Jamaica. Purchased. [1905. 1. 31, 1–20.]

James (HARRY BERKELEY).

1382 birds and 678 eggs from Chili. Presented. [91. 9. 9, 1–263; 92. 2. 10, 1–1042; 93. 7. 1, 1–63; 96. 12. 31, 3–16; 98. 1. 4, 1–678.]

Mr. Berkeley James made considerable collections of birds himself and purchased specimens from Ley bold and other Chilian naturalists. He also acquired the collections made by Messrs. Rahmer and A. A. Lane in Tarapacà (cf. Scl., P.Z.S., 1886, pp. 395–404, pl. xxxvi.). Mr. James wrote the "New List of Chilian Birds," which is the latest catalogue of the birds of that portion of South America. His donation of such a complete series of birds and eggs was a very valuable one. It included the type of Phœnicopterus jamesi and a Sand Plover (Ægialitis occidentalis), new to the collection.

James (Sir H. EVAN).

62 birds from South Manchuria. Presented. [86. 12. 21, 1–45; 87. 6. 2, 1–37.]

Two interesting collections of birds were presented by Sir Evan James, being the only ones which the Museum has ever obtained from this part of Northern Asia. Sir Evan James, when stationed in Sind, made some collections of birds which he sent to Mr. Hume (Str. F., i., pp. 419–421; iii., p. 418; v., pp. 61, 62; ix., p. 235).

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James (Dr.).

See HIGGINS, T.

12 birds from British New Guinea. [77. 4. 6, 1–12.]

Jameson (Mrs.).

17 specimens from Yambuya, on the Aruwhimi River, Upper Congo. [90. 3. 3, 1–17.]

These birds were presented to the Museum by Mrs. Jameson after her husband's death; 6 species were new to the Museum, and the types of 3 new species, described by Capt. Shelley in the "Ibis" for 1890 (pp. 156–170, pl. v.), and by myself in the Appendix to the "Story of the Rear-column" (1890, pp. 392–422) (Cossypha bartteloti, Pholidornis jamesoni and Diaphorophyia jamesoni), were added.

205 specimens from Mashona Land. Presented. [1900. 2. 4, 1–205.]

This was the collection made by the late J. S. Jameson during his well-known expedition to Mashona Land in the days when it was practically unexplored. He was accompanied by the veteran naturalist, Mr. Thomas Ayres, who wrote some interesting notes on the habits of the birds collected by the expedition (cf. Shelley, Ibis, 1882, pp. 236–263, 349–368, pl. vii.). A few specimens were given by Jameson to Capt. Shelley, and have passed into the Museum along with the Shelley collection of African birds, and the remainder were presented by Mrs. Jameson.

102 specimens from the Aruwhimi River. Presented. [1900. 2. 10, 1–102.]

This was the collection made during the Emin Pasha relief expedition, and was given by Mrs. Jameson after her husband's death.

A second collection, left by Jameson at the time of his death at Yambuya, never reached his wife, but was ultimately disposed of by a survivor of the expedition to the Hon. Walter Rothschild as having been collected by himself; some of the specimens, however, bore labels in the handwriting of my late friend.

59 specimens from the Lawas River, N.W. Borneo. Presented. [1901. 1. 31, 1–59.]

In 1877 Jameson visited N.W. Borneo, and made an expedition up the Lawas River, which was then very little known. He discovered Machærhamphus alcinus in Borneo, but most of his early collections were mounted in glass cases, and only a small portion of the Lawas series passed into the Museum.

Jameson was an enthusiastic collector, and made a great mistake in paying money to be allowed to join the Stanley expedition for the relief of Emin Pasha. He could easily have made an expedition on his own account, and would then have had a real opportunity for collecting; as it was he was able to do very little natural history work on the Congo, and ultimately lost his life. His aim was to have done something important in the way of scientific exploration, and his "Apologia" is to be seen in his posthumous volume on the adventures of the Rear-column (q.v., pp. 392–422).

Janson (EDWARD WESLEY).

9 birds from Chili. Purchased. [72. 5. 27, 16–24].

17 birds from Japan. Purchased. [76. 7. 25, 1–17.]

9 birds from the Fiji Islands, collected by Dr. Smith. Purchased. [78. 8. 3, 1–9.]

38 birds from Japan and the Liu-Kiu Islands, collected by the late Harry Pryer. Purchased. [80. 11. 1, 1–26; 87. 10. 2, 1–12.]

VOL. II. 2 D

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Two species of Woodpeckers (Gecinus awokera and lyngipicus kisuki) were new to the collection.

6 birds from Queensland, collected by Mr. Horace Flower. Purchased. [81. 3. 5, 1–6.]

40 birds from Japan, collected by Professor Milne. Purchased. [83. 3. 29, 1–40.]

27 specimens from the Tenimber Islands, Buru, and Amboina, collected by Dr. H. O. Forbes. Purchased. [84. 5. 14, 1–27.]

These were a few additional specimens from the Timor-laut expedition, with the type of Myzomela wakoloensis, and examples of Aprosmictus buruensis and Rhipidura lenzi, new to the collection.

11 specimens of British birds from the sale of the Vingoe collection. Purchased. [89. 5. 27, 1–11.]

Among these was the specimen of the Iceland Gull (Larus islandicus), shot in Mount's Bay in April 1873.

Janson (OLIVER E.).

41 birds from Luzon, Philippine Islands, collected by Mr. John Whitehead. Purchased. [96. 1. 17, 1–15; 96. 1. 18, 1–26.]

24 species new to the collection.

76 birds from Samar, Negros, Mindoro, Leyte, and North Luzon, also collected by Mr. John Whitehead. [98. 1. 11, 1–76.]

The Museum purchased the second set of Mr. Whitehead's collection from his Philippine expedition.

104 birds in spirits and 34 eggs from Costa Rica, collected by Mr. C. F. Underwood. Purchased. [99. 11. 30, 1–34; 1900. 6. 21, 1–104.]

Mr. Underwood is a well-known collector in Costa Rica, and has described some of his experiences in a paper published in the "Ibis" for 1896, pp. 431–451.

5 birds from Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island. Purchased. [1900. 3. 23, 1–5.]

104 birds in spirits from Costa Rica, collected by Mr. C. F. Underwood. [1900. 6. 21, 1–104.]

122 eggs from Costa Rica, collected by Mr. C. F. Underwood. [1904. 7. 15, 1–122.]

47 nests and eggs from Costa Rica, collected by Mr. C. F. Underwood. Purchased. [1905. 9. 6, 1–47.]

Mr. E. W. Janson was a very well-known entomologist, and commenced business with his son Oliver in Bloomsbury in 1867 as a natural history agent, bookseller and publisher. He was of Dutch extraction, was born March 14, 1822, and educated at the college of La Flèche in France, and afterwards in Edinburgh.

The agency is continued by Mr. Oliver Janson since his father's death on Sept. 14, 1891. The son is also a good entomologist. The library formed by Mr. E. W. Janson passed into the possession of Mr. Van de Poll of Amsterdam, and his collection of Elateridæ was purchased by the British Museum.

Jardine (Sir WILLIAM), Bart.

5 birds from Tobago. Presented. [45. 4. 17, 1–5.]

These were a few birds from the Tobago collection sent by Mr. Kirk to Sir W. Jardine, and described in the "Contributions to Ornithology" for 1852 (pp. 63–68).

See "Dict. Nat. Biogr.," xxix., pp. 251–252.

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Jayakar (Surgeon-General A. S.).

174 birds from Muscat. Presented. [88. 10. 13, 1–13; 91. 2. 1, 1–56; 98. 5. 16, 1–75; 99. 2. 6, 1–30.]

The first collection made by Dr. Jayakar was presented by Colonel Miles, the Governor of Muscat, to the Museum, which has received several subsequent consignments of valuable birds from Dr. Jayakar himself. I described the original collection in the "Ibis" for 1886 (pp. 162–168, pl. vi.), where a new Eagle-Owl (Bubo milesi) was figured. A new Beeeater (Merops muscatensis, Sharpe) was figured by Mr. H. E. Dresser in his "Monograph of the Bee-eaters" (pl. 10).

Jerdon (T. C.).

147 birds from various parts of India. Presented. [45. 1. 10, 1–57; 46. 4. 30, 1–51; 46. 11. 9, 16–49; 47. 3. 18, 11–15.]

Most of Dr. Jerdon's specimens were registered and published as from "Madras." This may be true as regards the Presidency from which they came, but it is certain that his early collections were made in the Nilghiri Hills, though he also travelled through the Carnatic, the Northern Circars, the Wynaad, etc.

Most of the types of his new species appear to have been presented to the Museum, but not all. I have discovered the following types in the collection:—Ochromela nigrorufa, Turdulus wardi, Merula simillima, Hypsipetes nilghiriensis, Prinia sylvatica, Acrocephalus agricola, Pycnonotus xantholæma, Malacocercus orientalis (= Crateropus canorus), Mcgalurus striatus (= Chætornis locustelloides), Mirafra erythroptera, M. affinis, M. hayi (= Spizalauda deva), Dendrocopus ellioti (= Chrysocolaptes festivus), Gecinus chlorigaster, Rhopodytes viridirostris, Osmotreron bicincta, Crocopus chlorigaster, Lophophorus sclateri, Tragopan blythi.

The types of Muscicapula superciliaris, Munia pectoralis, Anthus similis, Ducula cuprea, lyngipicus hardwickei, Micropternus gularis, Thriponax hodgsoni, and Macrorhamphus semipalmatus do not appear to have come to the Museum. One of the types of Hirundo tytleri was given by Jerdon to Gould, and by the latter to Seebohm [98. 10. 20, 187].

17 birds from Upper Burma. Presented. [62. 1. 17, 12–28.]

Included the types of Crypsirhina cucullata, Pericrocotus albifrons, Pycnonotus blanfordi, Pyctorhis altirostris, Orthotomus coronatus, Sturnia nemoricola, and S. burmanica. These species were described by Blyth (J.A.S. Beng., xxxi., p. 342, 1862) and by Jerdon himself (P.Z.S., 1861, p. 199, 1862, p. 19).

Jerdon was only sixty-one years of age when he died, and I knew him very well after his retirement from India. He entered the service of the Hon. East India Company in 1835, and in 1869 he was a "Retired Deputy Inspector-General of Hospitals." His early work was done in the Madras Presidency, but he afterwards visited other parts of the Empire, discovered some new species in Sikhim and again in Assam and Burma, receiving from the Government of India special facilities for travel and collecting. His "Birds of India" was an epoch-making book, and laid the foundation for the splendid work which was inaugurated by Mr. Hume and his successors (cf. "Ibis," 1872, p. 342; Dict. Nat. Biogr., xxix., p. 338).

An excellent memoir of Jerdon and his work was published by his old friend, Sir Walter Elliot, in the "Proceedings of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club."

2 D 2

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Jesse (W.).

Naturalist to the Abyssinian Expedition, 1868. He arrived too late to accompany the march to Magdala, but collected around Senafé, and afterwards accompanied Dr. W. T. Blanford in an excursion to the Anseba Valley. His collection was purchased by the Marquis of Tweeddale, and was presented to the Museum, with the rest of the Tweeddale collection, by Colonel Wardlaw Ramsay (q.v.).

Johnston (Sir HARRY H.), G.C.M.G., K.C.B.

1400 birds from Nyasa Land. Presented. [92. 9. 10, 1–267; 93. 6. 1, 1–334; 93. 7. 30, 1–168; 94. 5. 5, 1–148; 94. 8. 20, 1–35; 96. 2. 10, 1–15; 97. 11. 4, 1–389; 97. 12. 29, 1–39.]

These collections were described by Capt. Shelley in the "Ibis" for the following years:—1893 (pp. 1–29, pls. i.–iii.), 1894 (pp. 1–28, pls. i., ii.; pp. 461–478, pl. xii.), 1896 (pp. 177–184, pl. iv.), 1897 (pp. 518–554, pls. xi., xii.), 1898 (pp. 376–381).

The following species were characterised as new by the above-named author:—Francolinus johnstoni, Haplopelia johnstoni, Agapornis lilianæ, Prodotiscus zambesiæ, Lybius zombæ, Smilorhis whytei, Hirundo astigma (= H. emini), Alseonax subadusta, Pogonocichla johnstoni, Batis dimorpha, Andropadus masukuensis, Eurillas zombensis, Phyllostrophus cerviniventris, Bleda milanjensis, B. fusciceps, B. olivaceiceps (= B. striifacies), Merula milanjensis, Cossypha modesta, Callene anomala, Cryptillas nyasæ, Cisticola nigriloris, Apalis flavigularis, Sylviella whytei, Laniarius bertrandi, Parus xanthostomus, Serinus whytei, Pyrenestes minor, Cryptospiza australis, Hyphantornis bertrandi, H. nyasæ, Oriolus chloricephalus.

181 birds from Uganda and other parts of British Equatorial Africa. [1901. 10. 20, 1–158; 1901. 10. 24, 1–23.]

This collection, made during Sir Harry Johnston's travels in Uganda as H.B.M. Commissioner, when he visited Mau, Baringo, Suk, Nandi, Elgon, Basoga, Uganda, Unyoro, Toro, the Aukole districts, Ruwenzori, the Semliki Valley, and the forests on the border of the Congo Free State. In these journeys he had as taxidermist Mr. Walter G. Doggett, who was afterwards unfortunately drowned during the late Anglo-German Frontier Commission. This collection I have described in the "Ibis" for 1902 (pp. 96–121, pl. v.), where is also figured the beautiful new Touracou, Gallirex johnstoni, Sharpe.

Sir Harry Johnston, in addition to being a famous administrator of British African possessions, has always actively developed the natural resources of the countries over which he has ruled, and both in Nyasa-Land, where he was H.B.M. Commissioner for many years, and in Uganda, where his later administrative work was done, he has made valuable collections of natural history objects. Forty species new to the Museum, with 30 types of new species, were sent by him from Nyasa-Land. These birds were chiefly collected by Mr. Alexander Whyte, the Government botanist. Since Sir Harry's retirement from Nyasa-Land, the good work of zoological exploration has been continued by his successors, General Manning and Sir Alfred Sharpe.

See also antea, BRITISH ASSOCIATION.

Johnstone (Sir FREDERIC), Bart.

169 birds from the West Indies and Venezuela. Presented. [1904. 3. 25, 1–5; 1904. 5. 28, 1–164.]

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Jones (Lieut. W. A. WATTS), R.E.

8 birds from Yun-nan. Presented. [99. 8. 5, 1–8.]

These were skins of Game Birds, Peacocks (Pavo muticus), and Amherst's Pheasants (Chrysolophus amherstiæ).

Lieut. Watts Jones had all the making of a good collector in him, but he was unfortunately killed during the outbreak of the Boxers in China.

Jones (Major HENRY).

6 specimens of the Sungarian Pheasant (Phasianus alpherakyi), from Kharbin. New to the collection. Presented. [1903. 4. 5, 1–6.]

7 birds from South Paraguay. Presented. [1904. 4. 6, 1–7.]

Major Jones has made a special study of the Game-Birds (Galliformes) and Ducks (Anseriformes), and has a series of really beautiful paintings, all executed by himself, and illustrating monographically every species of the above-mentioned Orders of birds. The specimens of Phasianus alpherakyi which he gave to the Museum were purchased by him in Leadenhall Market, when a large consignment arrived from Kharbin in 1903.

Jourdain (Rev. F. C. R.).

4 eggs of the Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) from Holland. Presented. [1904. 7. 2, 1–4.]

Jukes (Dr. JOSEPH BEETE).

158 specimens of birds and eggs, mostly from the northern coast of Australia and Tasmania. Presented. [44. 7. 16, 1–107; 46. 10. 14, 1–35; 46. 10. 15, 1–16.]

Dr. Jukes was naturalist to H.M.S. Fly on the surveying expedition of that vessel to Cape York, Port Essington, and the northern coast of Australia. See his book, the "Voyage of H.M.S. Fly," vols. i., pp. 1–423, ii., pp. 1–362 (1847). The Fly River, in Southern New Guinea, was discovered during the voyage of the Fly, and was named after the ship (cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., xxx., p. 224).

Kaup (Dr. J.).

5 European birds. Presented. [46. 1. 1, 1–5.]

Dr. Kaup was a well-known figure in scientific circles during the early years of the nineteenth century, and was a devoted exponent of the quinary system. He was for many years Director of the Darmstadt Museum, and made special study of the Accipitres (cf. Jardine's "Contributions to Ornithology for 1852," pp. 103–122; Tr. Z. S., iv., pp. 201–260, pls. lvi., lvii.).

On the Falconidæ he wrote monographic articles in the "Isis" (1847, pp. 39–79, 83–121, 161–212, 241–283, 325–386). His "Skizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte u. natürl. System der europ. Thierwelt," in 1829, was one of the important books of the quinary times, and contained many descriptions of new genera, which were well characterised, and many of them are recognised at the present day.

Kelaart (Dr. E. F.).

21 specimens from Ceylon. Presented. [52. 11. 26, 9–29.]

Dr. Kelaart was the pioneer of our knowledge of the Avifauna of Ceylon, and his "Prodromus Faunæ Zeylanicæ" was for many years the standard book on the subject, until the appearance of Colonel Legge's monumental work.

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The types of his new species, described by Blyth, went to the Calcutta Museum (cf. Legge, Birds of Ceylon, Introduction, p. x.).

Kellett (Capt.) [afterwards Sir HENRY].

273 birds from the Pacific Coast of North America. [50. 1. 31, 1–230; 51. 9. 10, 1–21; 51. 10. 1, 1–22.]

When in command of the Herald, in 1850, Capt. Kellett and Lieut. Wood made considerable collections of birds, some of which were of great interest to the Museum. Apparently all were properly labelled, but the smaller birds were put into paper cones which came off in transit, and very few of the original labels were preserved. Cf. Speelman, "Voy. H.M.S. Herald," 2 vols., 8vo, 1853.

8 nests and eggs of birds from Panama. Presented. [50. 2. 12, 1–8.]

Cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., xxx., p. 342.

Kelsall (Major H. J.).

36 birds from Singapore and Pahang in the Malay Peninsula. Presented. [94. 2. 3, 1–36.]

Kemp (ROBIN).

72 birds from Sierra Leone. Presented. [1903. 8. 9, 1–24; 1903. 9. 15, 25–72.]

6 specimens of the Sierra Leone Francolin (Francolinus thornei). Presented. [1903. 11. 3, 1–6.]

473 birds from Sierra Leone. Purchased. [1904. 6. 3, 1; 1904. 6. 5, 1–242; 1905. 1. 25, 1–230.]

205 birds from Lower Nigeria. Purchased. [1906. 2. 1, 1–205.]

Mr. Robin Kemp was born in North London in 1871, and in 1902 was Assistant Accountant to the railway then being constructed at Sierra Leone. He made three collections of birds during his stay in that colony, one at Rotifunk in 1902, and two at Bo in 1903 and 1904. He discovered an interesting new Bush Babbler, which has been named by me Amaurocichla kempi (cf. Ibis, 1905, p. 231). Mr. Kemp has recently made a collection of birds on the Lower Niger, and has described a new species of Weaver-Finch as Estrilda anambrae.

Kennedy (Capt. A. W. M. CLARK-).

21 birds from his collection, sold at Stevens' auction rooms. [86. 4. 20, 1–21.]

I first remember Clark-Kennedy as a boy at Eton, when I helped him in the preparation of his "Birds of Berkshire and Buckinghamshire" (8vo, 1868). This was a capital book to have been written by a boy of sixteen, and gave promise that the author would develop into a first-rate ornithologist. For some years Clark-Kennedy kept up an interest in birds, especially in Ducks and Wild-fowl, but he never afterwards did any serious work, and died young (cf. Ibis, 1868, p. 337).

Kenrick (Major).

21 birds from the Kilimanjaro district. Presented. [98. 7. 24, 1–21.]

Among these specimens was the type of a new species of Pæoptera, which Capt. Shelley named P. kenricki.

Kensington (Lord).

2 specimens of the Carrion Crow (Corvus corone) from South Wales. Presented. [1905. 2. 20, 1–2.]

Group of Carrion Crows with nest and eggs from South Wales, May. Presented.

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Kerr (J. GRAHAM).

See PAGE, Capt. (infra, p. 437).

Kershaw (J. C.).

3 eggs and 3 nests from Macao, South China. Presented. [1905. 6. 29, 1–6.]

Kew, Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens.

43 specimens from Bogota collected by Mr. Purdie [81. 12. 8, 1–43; 97. 1. 25, 1; 99. 8. 25, 1–2.]

Specimens of the Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua); Sheldrake (Tadorna tadorna); 2 Pelecans (Pelecanus onocrotalus); 1 Cereopsis Goose (Cereopsis novæ hollandiæ); and a nestling Stork (Ciconia ciconia). Presented. [1900. 8. 17, 1; 1901. 5. 5, 1; 1903. 3. 6, 1–2; 1903. 7. 5, 1; 1904. 5. 31, 1.]

King (PHILIP PARKER).

See Hist. Coll. Brit. Mus. (N.H.), vol. i., Botany, p. 159.

King (Dr.).

Collected for Mr. A. O. Hume in Mt. Abu. His specimens are in the Hume Collection.

Kirk (Sir JOHN), K.C.B., G.C.M.G.

115 birds from the Shirè River and Lake Nyasa, and from other parts of Zambesia. [63. 12. 30, 1–39; 74. 4. 29, 20–31; 84. 2. 6, 1–64.]

These specimens were collected by Sir John Kirk when he was chief officer to the Livingstone Expedition of 1858–1864. The collection was described by Dr. Sclater in the "Ibis" for 1864 (pp. 301–307, pl. viii.), and by Sir John himself (t.c., pp. 307–339). There were also many specimens obtained by the expedition and prepared by him, which reached the Museum through the Foreign Office, by the direction of Earl Russell. [60. 12. 31, 1–193; 63. 12. 8, 1–43.]

During the preparation of their work on the Birds of East Africa, Drs. Finsch and Hartlaub visited the British Museum and described several species which had remained undetermined in our cabinets. Among these birds, described in the "Vögel Ostafrika's" by Drs. Finsch and Hartlaub, were Nicator chloris (p. 360), Hyphantornis xanthopterus (p. 399), and Erythrocercus livingstonei (p. 302).

Mr. G. R. Gray described a new Touraco as Turacus livingstonei (P.Z.S., 1864, p. 44) and I named the Zambesi Babbling Thrush Crateropus kirki (Sharpe, ed. Layard, B. S. Afr., p. 213, 1875).

While Consul-General at Zanzibar Sir John Kirk sent collectors to various parts of East Africa, Lamo, Melindi, and the Usambara Hills, and he himself visited the Comoro Islands (cf. Shelley, P.Z.S., 1879, pp. 673–679; 1881, pp. 561–602, pl. lii.). Several new species were described by Capt. Shelley, to whom the collections were sent.

Cf. "Who's Who," 1904, p. 860.

Kirtland (Professor J. P.).

22 specimens from Ohio. [44. 1. 15, 1–22.].

Professor Kirtland was a well-known zoologist of the early part of the nineteenth century. Dendrœca kirtlandi was named after him by Professor Baird.

[page] 408

Kleinschmidt.

See GODEFFROY MUSEUM.

Kleinschmidt was one of the best of the collectors employed by the celebrated brothers Godeffroy. He explored the Fiji Islands, and afterwards collected in New Britain, where he was murdered by the natives in 1881.

Knowles (H.).

29 specimens of Tits (Parus palustris and Parus ater). Purchased. [99. 8. 1, 1–29.].

Mr. Knowles is a dealer in Hammersmith, and has procured many Tits for our series of British Paridæ.

Kosslowsky (J.).

See ROSENBERG, W. [See postea, p. 456.]

A Russian naturalist who made a large collection of birds in the Chubut Valley in Patagonia. This collection was secured for the Museum through the good offices of Mr. Thursby.

Krauss (Professor).

22 birds from South Africa. Presented. [40. 6. 24, 26–47.]

Krüper (Dr. TH.).

Director of the Museum at Athens, who has collected much in Greece and in the neighbourhood of Smyrna. Mr. Seebohm made an excursion with him.

Kühn (HEINRICH).

See ROSENBERG.

Mr. Kühn has been exploring several of the Molucca Islands for the Hon. Walter Rothschild, and a few duplicates from his collection of birds have been purchased by the Museum [cf. Hartert, Nov. Zool., vii., pp. 13–14 (1900); vii., pp. 1–5, 93–101, 163–176 (1901); x., pp. 18–38, 232–254 (1903); xi., pp. 174–221 (1904)].

Lagden (Sir GODFREY).

19 birds from Kumasi in Ashanti. Presented. [84. 1. 15, 1–19.]

In this small collection was the type of a new species of Bush Shrike (Laniarius lagdeni) (cf. Sharpe, P.Z.S., 1884, p. 54, pl. v.

Cf. "Who's Who," 1904, p. 872.

Laglaize (LÉON).

See BOUCARD, A.

The Museum has purchased through M. Boucard several specimens obtained by M. Laglaize in Senegambia and in New Guinea, where he discovered some fine new species of birds.

Landbeck.

A well-known collector of Chilian birds, and author, with Dr. Filippi, of several papers on the subject.

Langworthy (E. M.).

50 birds from Kashmir, etc. Presented. [76. 10. 17, 22–71.]

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Lansdell (Rev. Dr.).

See GERRARD, E.

Dr. Lansdell brought back from Kashmir and Tibet a small collection of birds, containing some species of interest to the Museum (cf. his book on "Russian Central Asia," 1885).

Larkin (Colonel EDGAR).

9 birds from Upper Egypt. Presented. [93. 7. 12, 1–9.]

La Touche (J. D.).

85 nests of birds from N. W. Fohkien. Presented. [99. 2. 9, 1–76; 99. 2. 21, 1–9.]

57 birds and eggs from Kuatun. Presented. [99. 8. 16, 1–29; 1901. 1. 20, 1–28.]

2 birds from Formosa and Chinkiang, including one species new to the collection. Presented. [1905. 6. 13, 1–2.]

Mr. La Touche is an energetic collector of birds, and especially of eggs, in China, and has presented a very interesting series to the Museum [cf. Ibis, 1887, pp. 469, 470; 1892, pp. 400–430, 477–503; 1895, p. 305; 1896, pp. 489–495; 1897, pp. 138, 169–176, pl. iv., 600–610; 1898, pp. 328–333, 356–373; 1899, pp. 169–210, 400–431; 1900, pp. 34–51; Bull. B.O.C., vii., p. 37 (1897); viii., p. 9 (1898)].

Laugier de Chartrouse (Baron).

309 specimens from his collection. Purchased. [37. 6. 10, 372–681.]

Baron Laugier was coadjutor with Temminck in the "Planches Coloriées." The sale of his collection took place in Paris in 1837, and a copy of the Catalogue in the British Museum bears the following note: "La vente publique de cette collection se fera au mois de juin 1837. Le jour en sera fixé ultérieurement par les journaux jusqu'à cette époque. On traiterait à l'amiable de la totalité." This sale-catalogue was printed at Arles and sent to Dr. J. E. Gray, and we are further informed: "La rapidité avec laquelle a été fait ce travail, et l'absence du propriétaire, n'ont pas permis de suivre d'autre classification que celle des armoires de la galerie." Unfortunately no attempt seems to have been made at the time to identify any of the specimens described and figured in the "Planches Coloriées," and many of them have since been given away as duplicates.

Layard (EDGAR LEOPOLD), C.M.G.

See also HIGGINS, T.; TRISTRAM, Canon.

27 eggs from Ceylon. Presented. [53. 12. 6, 1–27.]

106 eggs from South Africa. Presented. [69. 10. 8, 1–106.]

Mr. Layard was an ornithologist from his youth, and when a civil servant in Ceylon, where he served from 1846 to 1855, he did excellent work, as will be seen by his papers in the second series of the "Annals and Magazine of Natural History" (vols. xii. (1853), pp. 97–107, 165–176, 262–272; xiii. (1854), pp. 123–131, 212–218, 257–264, 446–453; xiv. (1854), pp. 57–64, 105–115, 264–272).

Layard has given the following account of his Ceylonese days in Legge's "Birds of Ceylon" (Introduction, p. ix.): "I arrived in Ceylon in March 1846, and for some time, having no employment, amused my leisure in collecting for my more than friend, Dr. Templeton, who had nursed me through a dangerous illness, and in whom I found a congenial spirit. My chief attractions there were the glorious Lepidoptera of the island; but I always carried a light single-barrelled gun in a strap on my

[page] 410

back to shoot specimens for the Doctor. He himself, like Dr. Kelaart, never shot, but depended on his friends for specimens. I, of course, soon became interested in the 'Ornis'; and on Templeton's leaving, at the end of 1847 or beginning of 1848, he begged me to take up his correspondence with the late Edward Blyth, then Curator of the R. A. S. Calcutta Museum. He left me his list of the species then known to exist in the island, numbering 183, and Blyth's last letter to answer. From that day almost monthly letters passed between the latter and myself, till I left Ceylon in 1853. When I left I had brought up the list to 315; deduct from this the novelties added by Kelaart, and some which I think he has wrongly identified (but which are included in my list in the 'Annals'), 22 in number, and it leaves me the contributor of 110 species to the Ceylonese 'Ornis,' examples of most of which fell to my own gun.

"My collecting trips never extended to the hill-parts where Dr. Kelaart collected, Nuwara Elliya, &c. I was twice in Kandy, once at 'Carolina,' an estate near Ambegamoa, and once as far as Gillymally viâ Ratnapura."

The species discovered by Layard were sent by him to Blyth at Calcutta, and the latter described a good many of them. None came to the British Museum; many were presented to Calcutta, and the bulk of his collection was given by him to a relative, and is now preserved at the Poole Free Library, in Mount Street, Poole.

The following is a list of the species discovered by Layard and named either by himself or by Blyth:—Gallus lineatus, Blyth (= G. lafayettei) (cf. Legge, B. Ceylon, p. 736); Palæornis layardi, Blyth (= P. torquata) (cf. Salvadori, Cat. B., xx., p. 443); P. calthorpæ, Layard [this name has always been written calthropæ, the mistake arising originally from a printer's error, but Layard himself told me that he intended to name the species after his wife, who was a Miss Calthorp (cf. my note, p. 32 of "Handlist of Birds," vol. ii.)]; Iyngipicus gymnophthalmus, Blyth; Chrysocolaptes stricklandi, Layard; Cuculus bartletti, Layard (= C. poliocephalus, juv.) (cf. Legge, B. Ceylon, p. 231); Centropus chlororhynchus, Blyth; Tephrodornis affinis, Blyth; Dicrurus minor, Blyth; D. leucopygialis, Blyth; Leucocerca compressirostris, Blyth (= Rhipidura albofrontata) (cf. Legge, B. Ceylon, p. 412); Butalis muttui, Layard; Oreocincla spiloptera, Blyth; O. imbricata, Layard; Dumetia albigularis, Blyth; Alcippe nigrifrons, Blyth; Drymocataphus fuscicapillus, Blyth; Cisticola malura, Blyth (= C. cisticola, Temm.); Drymœca robusta, Blyth (nec Rüpp.) (= Prinia sylvatica, Jerd.); Hirundo hyperythra, Blyth; Hetærornis albofrontata, Layard (= Sturnornis senex); Eulabes ptilogenys, Blyth; Cissa puella, Blyth ex Layard N.S.

In 1855 Layard went to the Cape at the invitation of Sir George Grey and entered the Civil Service of Cape Colony. He founded the South African Museum, and in 1867 published the "Birds of South Africa," which was the means of stimulating the study of African birds in as great a degree as had been done by Jerdon's "Birds of India" in the East. He afterwards accompanied Sir George Grey on a special mission to New Zealand, and then returned to the Cape as Judge and Commissioner under the Slave Trade Treaties. In this capacity he visited the east coast of Africa as far north as Zanzibar.

He was next appointed Consul at Parà, where he made a good collection of birds for the Marquis of Tweeddale. This was described by him in the "Ibis" for 1873, Picolaptes layardi and Thamnophilus simplex being characterised as new by Dr. Sclater. After quitting South America Layard was employed by the Government in the Fiji Islands, where he acted as

[page] 411

Commissioner, and here again he did much good ornithological work (cf. Ibis, 1876, pp. 137–152, 387–394; 1881, p. 170), as also in New Caledonia when he became H.B.M. Consul at Noumea. His son Leopold C. Layard assisted him in collecting in New Caledonia, and also undertook expeditions to the New Hebrides and the Loyalty Islands (cf. Ibis, 1879, pp. 95, 221, 364, 369; 1880, pp. 336, 381; 1881, p. 542; 1884, p. 122; 1888, p. 491; 1900, p. 404.

Leach (J. H.).

69 birds from Ichang on the River Yang-tze, collected by A. E. Pratt. Purchased. [88. 9. 6, 1–69.]

One species (Yuhina diademata) new to the collection.

Mr. Pratt made a wonderful collection of Lepidoptera when travelling in China for Mr. Leach (cf. Insects). He also obtained a few birds, which were purchased by the British Museum.

Leadbeater (Messrs.).

98 birds from Mexico. Purchased. [39. 8. 2, 1–98.]

92 birds from various localities. Purchased. [42. 1. 19, 1–92.]

Many of these were duplicates from the Leyden Museum, and included species new to the British Museum, from the expeditions of S. Müller and other Dutch naturalists.

35 birds from Brazil. Purchased. [42. 12. 3, 1–35.]

These were collected by a Dr. Such.

60 birds from Jamaica. Purchased. [42. 12. 29, 1–60.]

Spindalis nigricephala was new to the collection. These specimens were probably duplicates received from Mr. P. H. Gosse.

35 specimens from Abyssinia and Shoa. Purchased. [43. 2. 8, 1–35.]

These were duplicates from Dr. Rüppell's collection, and the Museum thus secured several co-types from his celebrated expedition.

233 specimens, mostly from Central and South America. Purchased. [43. 5. 24, 1–200; 43. 6. 13, 15–33; 43. 9. 8, 1–15.]

The Guatemalan birds, some obtained at Coban, Escuintla, etc., were apparently collected by a Frenchman, as notes are made in the register, "yeux bleu, yeux roux-clair," etc.

21 birds from Mexico. Purchased. [43. 9. 18, 1–21.]

19 birds from Celebes. Purchased. [43. 9. 19, 1–19.]

These were some more duplicates from the Leyden Museum. As showing the lax notions of geographical distribution entertained by some ornithologists of that day we find in the register: "G. Colaris gularis. Côte de Guinée." The word "New" is inserted, and the specimen is catalogued in the "List of Fissirostres," 1848, p. 33, as Eurystomus gularis, from New Guinea!

101 birds from Japan. Purchased. [44. 5. 1, 1–9; 46. 1. 31, 1–60; 46. 3. 11, 1–8; 46. 10. 5, 1–24.]

Among these collections were more duplicates received from the Leyden Museum by Mr. Leadbeater, who seems to have had many dealings with Temminck.

The Leadbeaters, father and son, were for many years the leading natural history agents in London, and had a shop in Brewer Street, Golden Square, which in my early days I used to visit in search of African birds. The father, after whom Cacatua leadbeateri was named by Vigors, was a scientific man, and wrote several papers on ornithology.

After the death of the father and son the business was continued for a short time by a nephew.

[page] 412

Lefebvre.

222 specimens, mostly sterna of European birds. Purchased. [46. 5. 27, 1–222.]

Legge (Colonel W. VINCENT).

150 birds from Ceylon. Presented. [75. 12. 20, 1–6; 76. 6. 6, 1–15; 78. 10. 4, 11–88; 81 5. 24, 10–14; 82. 3. 24, 1–15; 85. 11. 12, 1–31.]

Five species were new to the collection, Spizaëtus ceylonensis, Buchanga minor, Dissemurus lophorhinus, Chrysocolaptes stricklandi, Brachypternus intermedius. These were duplicates from Colonel Legge's collection of Ceylonese birds. His memoir on the avifauna of Ceylon is one of the most excellent works ever written by an ornithologist.

Le Hunte (Sir GEORGE RUTHVEN), Governor of South Australia.

23 birds from British New Guinea. Presented. [1900. 2. 19, 1–23.]

Sir G. R. Le Hunte was Governor of British New Guinea from 1898 to 1903. Among the specimens presented were some rare Birds of Paradise, such as Loria mariæ, Astrarchia stephaniæ, Epimachus meyeri.

Cf. "Who's Who," 1904, p. 902.

Leigh (Lord).

221 birds from New South Wales. Presented. [93. 4. 4, 1–221].

Cf. "Who's Who," 1904, p. 902.

Lemprière (E.).

31 specimens from the island of Palawan. Purchased. [85. 4. 2, 1–24; 85. 4. 3, 1–7.] 7 others were presented.

Mr. Lemprière's collection was described by me in the "Ibis" for 1884 (pp. 316–322, pl. viii.), when the following new species were characterised:—Thriponax hargitti, Siphia lemprieri. In the "Proceedings" of the Zoological Society for 1885 (p. 446, pl. xxvi.) I also described a new Hornbill, now known as Gymnolæmus lemprieri.

In the "Ibis" for 1883, pp. 85–90, Mr. F. Nicholson published an account of a collection from Sandakan made by Mr. Lemprière, who discovered a new Jay-Shrike (Platylophus lemprieri). This Sandakan collection was purchased by Canon Tristram, and is now in the Liverpool Museum.

Le Soeuf (DUDLEY). Director of the Zoological Gardens, Melbourne.

11 birds, nests and eggs. Presented. [97. 11. 11, 1–8; 98. 11. 27, 1–3.]

Leyden Museum.

See also LEADBEATER.

60 birds from the Malayan Archipelago. Presented. [73. 5. 9, 1–8; 78. 11. 12, 1–34; 83. 10. 1, 9–21; 88. 4. 7, 1–5.]

These are birds presented by Professor Schlegel and Dr. Jentinck, Directors of the great Rijks-Museum at Leyden, during the progress of the "Catalogue of Birds." My first visit to Leyden was paid in 1869, when I was writing my "Monograph of the Kingfishers"; and during the preparation of the first volume of the "Catalogue," I worked there for many days, and my friend Professor Schlegel gave me several species lacking to the British Museum, for which I purchased specimens on my return to England, and sent them in exchange. On this occasion the following species of Accipitres were new to the British Museum: Cerchneis zoni-

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ventris, Baza madagascariensis, Astur hiogaster, A. muelleri, Accipiter rhodogaster, Spizaëtus gurneyi, Ninox ochracea.

When I was writing the fourth volume of the "Catalogue," I again went over to Leyden, and effected a similar exchange with Professor Schlegel, obtaining for our Museum many species of Flycatchers which we did not before possess—Pœcilodryas brachyurus, Gerygone melanothorax, G. notata, G. magnirostris, G. flaveola, Pristorhamphus versteri, Cryptolopha grammiceps, Todopsis bonapartei, T. coronata, Monarcha kordensis, Piezorhynchus diadematus, Anthipes solitaria, Erythromyias mülleri, Pachycephala obiensis, Rhipidura obiensis.

In 1883 Professor Schlegel also gave me the following desiderata for the succeeding volumes of the "Catalogue": Hirundo striolata, Dicæum maforense, D. keiense, Napothera pyrrhoptera, Zosterops rufifrons, Z. uropygialis, Stachyridopsis melanothorax, and Turdinus lepidopleurus. Some of these species are not included in the tenth volume, which appeared in July 1883, as I had not been able to visit Leyden for the purpose of checking my MSS. In October of that year, however, I was able to get away, and found that there were many omissions in the volume, which I rectified in a paper on Timeliidæ, published in the "Notes from the Leyden Museum" (vol. vi., pp. 167–178).

The last donations, in 1888, consisted of five specimens, of which Pericrocotus lansbergi, Lamprolia minor, Chloropsis venusta, and Accipiter büttikoferi were new to the collection; and a specimen of Ortholophus albocristatus from Liberia, which has since become the type of my Ortholophus finschi ("Ibis," 1904, p. 610).

Lidth de Jeude (Dr.).

See WARWICK.

Lilford (Lord).

3 specimens of the Spanish Green Woodpecker (Gecinus sharpei), from S. Spain. Presented. [72. 7. 9, 1–3.]

This species was named by Mr. Howard Saunders (P.Z.S., 1872, p. 153). In 1894 the late Prof. V. L. Seoane re-described this Woodpecker as Gecinus viridis galiciensis, in a pamphlet to which he attached the date of 1870. This was the most bare-faced attempt to secure the priority of a name given twenty-two years too late, which has ever come under the notice of the writer (cf. Zool. Rec., 1894, Aves, p. 38).

31 specimens of Herons, Spoonbills, etc., collected by Ruiz near Seville. Presented. [74. 11. 18, 3–33.]

A specimen of Sylvia melanothorax, Tristr., from Cyprus, new to the collection. Presented. [75. 7. 6, 1.]

Parent birds with nest and eggs of the Flamingo (Phænicopterus roseus) from Southern Spain. Presented. [80. 6. 8, 1–6.] These are the specimens mounted in the public gallery, and form group No. 159.

234 specimens from Cyprus and the countries of the Mediterranean. Presented. [88. 7. 26, 1–205; 88. 8. 16, 1–18; 88. 8. 26, 1–11.]

This collection of birds was formed by Lord Lilford himself, by Mr. W. Pearce, and more particularly by Dr. Guillemard, who has written an excellent essay on the birds of the island (Ibis, 1888, pp. 94–124, pl. ii.; 1889, pp. 206–219), and Lord Lilford has also published an interesting memoir on the ornithology of Cyprus (Ibis, 1889, pp. 305–350).

17 Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from Lilford. Presented. [88. 9. 2, 1–17.]

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136 eggs from Southern Spain. Presented. [90. 9. 30, 1–136.]

6 birds from S.E. Africa. Presented. [94. 6. 17, 1–6.]

For a very complete memoir of this well-known ornithologist, see the "Ibis" for 1896 (pp. 430, 593–596), "Lord Lilford on Birds," by A. Trevor-Battye (4to, 1903), and "Lord Lilford; a Memoir by his Sister, the Hon. Mrs. Drewitt" (8vo, 1900, pp. xxiv., 290).

"Linnea," Berlin.

21 birds from Salanga Island. Purchased. [82. 3. 21, 1–15.]

The collection of birds made by Capt. Weber on Salanga was described by Dr. A. Müller (J.f.O., 1882, pp. 353–448). He described a new species of Woodpecker as Gecinus weberi, of which the type-specimens were acquired by the Museum. Mr. Hargitt has united this species with G. viridanus (cf. Cat. B., xviii., p. 47). This Captain Weber is the same individual that Ixidia webberi, Hume, is named after (Str. F., 1879, pp. 40, 63). It should, therefore, be called Ixidia weberi.

From the "Linnea" the Museum also acquired some rare species of East African birds; of which Histurgops ruficauda, Parisoma boehmi, Cosmopsarus unicolor, and Muscicapa infulata were new to the collection. [87. 8. 14, 1–6.]

Linnean Society.

When the Linnean Society determined to give up its private Museum, the birds were sent to the British Museum in 1863, in two lots.

The first series consisted of the types of Parrots and Pigeons described by Temminck in 1819 (vol. xiii., pp. 107–130), in his paper entitled: "Account of some new species of Birds of the genera Psittacus and Columba, in the Museum of the Linnean Society." [63. 7. 6, 1–15.]

Psittacus cooki, n. sp. (p. 111). ♂ = Calyptorhynchus banksi (Lath.), cf. Salvad., Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xx., p. 109. ♀ = C. viridis (V.), cf. Salvad., t.c., p. 112.

Psittacus solandri, n. sp. (p. 113) is the young of C. viridis, cf. Salvad., t.c., p. 112.

Psittacus nasicus, n. sp. (p. 115), = Licmctis nasica, Salvad., t.c., p. 133.

Psittacus flavigaster, n. sp. (p. 116). This hybrid name is changed on p. 117 to P. flaviventris, but without assigning any reason. It is Platycercus flaviventris of Salvadori (p. 545).

Psittacus baucri, n. sp. (p. 118), = Barnardius zonarius (Shaw), cf. Salvad., t.c., p. 560.

Psittacus browni, n. sp. (p. 119), = Platycercus browni, Salvad., t.c., p. 549.

Psittacus multicolor, n. sp. (p. 119), = Psephotus multicolor, Salvad., t.c., p. 566.

Psittacus icterotis, n. sp. (p. 120), = Platycercus icterotis, Salvad., t.c., p. 554.

Psittacus venustus, n. sp. (p. 121), = Neophema venusta, Salvad., t.c., p. 570.

Columba dilopha, n. sp. (p. 124), = Lopholæmus antarcticus (Shaw), cf. Salvadori, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xxi., p. 235.

Columba magnifica, n. sp. (p. 125), = Megaloprepia magnifica, Salvadori, t.c., p. 167.

Columba leucomela, n. sp. (p. 126), cf. Salvad., t.c., p. 320.

Columba scripta, n. sp. (p. 127), = Geophaps scripta, Salvad., t.c., p. 531.

Columba humeralis, n. sp. (p. 128), = Geopelia humeralis, Salvad., t.c., p. 455.

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Columba phasianella, n. sp. (p. 129), = Macropygia phasianella, Salvad., t.c., p. 349.

The second donation consisted of 72 specimens of Australian birds [63. 7. 7, 1–72], collected by George Caley, and among them were the types of species described by Vigors and Horsfield in the "Transactions" of the Linnean Society (vol. xv., pp. 170–331). Their paper was called "A description of the Australian Birds in the collection of the Linnean Society," etc. The following are the types which came into the Museum:—

Astur raii, n. sp., = Astur cinereus (V.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., Brit. Mus., i., p. 117. A. fasciatus (p. 181), A. approximans (p. 181). The former is the young and the latter the old bird of the same species, Sharpe, t.c., p. 126.

Falco cenchroides, n. sp. (p. 183), = Cerchneis cenchroides (V. and H.), Sharpe, t.c., p. 431.

Falco berigora, n. sp. (p. 184), = Hieracidea berigora (V. and H.), Sharpe, t.c., p. 421. Haliaëtus calei, n. sp. (p. 186), = Urospizias radiatus (Lath.), Sharpe, t.c., p. 159. H. canorus, n. sp. (p. 187), = Haliastur sphenurus (V.), Sharpe, t.c., p. 316.

Noctua maculata, n. sp. (p. 189), = Ninox maculata (V. and H.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., ii., p. 174.

Hirundo pyrrhonota, n. sp. (p. 190), = Petrochelidon nigricans (V.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., x. (p. 190).

Caprimulgus guttatus, n. sp. (p. 192). C. albogularis, n. sp. (p. 194, note); cf. Hartert, Cat. B., xvi., p. 607, where Dr. Hartert identifies these two birds as being one and the same species, viz. Eurostopus albigularis, C. guttatus being the young bird, and C. albigularis the adult.

Ægotheles, n. gen. (p. 194), type Æ. novæ hollandiæ (Lath.); cf. Hartert, Cat. B., xvi., p. 646. Podargus stanleyanus, n. sp. (p. 197), P. humeralis, n. sp. (p. 198), P. cuvieri, n. sp. (p. 200), all = P. strigoides (Lath.); cf. Hartert, t.c., p. 631.

Dacelo leachi, n. sp. (p. 205), "Keppel Bay, 24 Oct., 1802" (Brown); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xvi., p. 206. Halcyon sanctus, n. sp. (p. 266); cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 267. Merops melanurus, n. sp. (p. 208), = M. ornatus, Lath.; cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 75. Falcunculus gutturalis, n. sp. (p. 212), = Oreoica cristata (Lewin); cf. Gadow, Cat B., viii., p. 174. Colluroicincla cinerea, n. sp. (p. 214), = C. harmonica (Lath.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., iii., p. 290. Campophaga leucomela, n. sp. (p. 215), = Lalage leucomelæna (nom. emend.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 106. Graucalus mentalis, n. sp. (p. 216); cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 37. Malurus lamberti, n. sp. (p. 221); cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 293. M. browni, n. sp. (p. 223), = M. dorsalis (Lewin); cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 296. M. exilis, n. sp. (p. 223), = Cisticola exilis (V. and H.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., vii., p. 269. Acanthiza nana, n. sp. (p. 226); cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 292. A. reguloides, n. sp. (p. 299); cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 299. A. frontalis, n. sp. (p. 226), = Sericornis frontalis (V. and H.); cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 303. A. pyrrhopygia, n. sp. (p. 227), = Hylacola pyrrhopygia (V. and H.); cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 346. A. buchanani, n. sp. (p. 227); cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 291, note. N.B.—The type of this species was in the collection of Mr. Walter Buchanan, F.L.S., and did not come to the Museum. The species is still unidentified, but I suggested in the "Catalogue" that it might be Ephthianura tricolor.

Megalurus cruralis, n. sp. (p. 228), = Cinclorhamphus cruralis (V. and H.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., vii., p. 498. Anthus australis, n. sp. (p. 229), and A. pallescens, n. sp. (p. 229) [= A. australis (V. and H.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., x., p. 615]. A. minimus, n. sp. (p. 230), = Chthoni-

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cola sagittata (Lath.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., vii., p. 290. A. fuliginosus, n. sp. (p. 230), = Calamanthus fuliginosus (V. and H.); cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 501. A. rufescens, n. sp. (p. 230), = Cinclorhamphus rufescens (V. and H.); cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 501. Dasyornis australis, n. sp (p. 232), = Sphenura brachyptera (Lath.); cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 104. Grallina bicolor, n. sp. (p. 232), = G. picata (Lath.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., iii., p. 272. Zosterops dorsalis, n. sp. (p. 235), = Z. cærulescens (Lath.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., ix., p. 152. Saxicola solitaria, n. sp. (p. 236), = Origma rubricata (Lath.), cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., vii., p. 135. Pachycephala striata, n. sp. (p. 240), = P. rufiventris (Lath.); cf. Gadow, Cat. B., viii., p. 208. P. fusca, n. sp. (p. 240), and P. fuliginosa, n. sp. (p. 241), = P. gutturalis (Lath.); cf. Gadow, t.c., p. 192. P. olivacea, n. sp. (p. 241); cf. Gadow, t.c., p. 212.

Muscicapa goodenovii, n. sp. (p. 245), = Petrœca goodenovii (V. and H.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., iv., p. 171. Rhipidura motacilloides, n. sp. (p. 248), = R. tricolor (V.); cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 339.

Myiagra rubeculoides, n. sp. (p. 253), and M. plumbea, n. sp. (p. 254), = M. rubecula (Lath.); cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 373. M. macroptera, n. sp. (p. 254), = Micrœca fascinans (Lath.).

Fringilla lathami, n. sp. (p. 256), = Steganopleura guttata (Shaw); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xiii., p. 292. Fringilla bichenovii, n. sp. (p. 258), = Stictoptera bichenowi (V. and H.); cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 313.

Ptilonorhynchus macleayi, n. sp. (p. 263), = P. violaceus (V.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., vi., p. 381. P. smithi, n. sp. (p. 264), = Ælurædus viridis (Lath.); cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 385. Corvus coronoides, n. sp. (p. 261); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., iii., p. 20.

Platycercus barnardi, n. sp. (p. 283), = Barnardius barnardi (V. and H.); cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xx., p. 558. Trichoglossus matoni, n. sp. (p. 291), = Psitteuteles chlorolepidotus (Kuhl), Salvadori, Cat. B., xx., p. 65. T. rubritorquis, n. sp. (p. 291); cf. Salvad., t.c., p. 60.

Orthonyx temmincki, n. sp. (p. 294); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., vii., p. 329 (s. n. O. spinicauda).

Cuculus inornatus, n. sp. (p. 297), and C. albostrigatus, n. sp. (p. 298), = C. pallidus (Lath.); cf. Shelley, Cat. B., xix., p. 261. C. cineraceus, n. sp. (p. 298), and C. incertus, n. sp. (p. 299), = Cacomantis flabelliformis (Lath.); cf. Shelley, t.c., p. 266. Cuculus variolosus, n. sp. (p. 300), = Cacomantis variolosus (V. and H.); cf. Shelley, t.c., p. 272. Cuculus metallicus, n. sp. (p. 302), = Chalcococcyx plagosus (Lath.); cf. Shelley, t.c., p. 297. Eudynamis flindersii, n. sp. (p. 305) = E. cyanocephala (Lath.); cf. Shelley, t.c., p. 324. Meliphaga indistincta, n. sp. (p. 315), = Glyciphila ocularis, Gould; cf. Gadow, Cat. B., ix., p. 213. M. brevirostris, n. sp. (p. 315), = Melithreptus brevirostris (V. and H.); cf. Gadow, t.c., p. 207. Myzantha flavirostris, n. sp. (p. 319), = Macrorhina melanophrys (Lath.); cf. Gadow, t.c., p. 259.

Mimeta meruloides, n. sp. (p. 327), = Oriolus viridis (Lath.); cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., iii., p. 212. Pomatorhinus temporalis, n. sp. (p. 330), and P. superciliosus, n. sp. (p. 330).

Linney (ALBERT).

9 birds from the Falkland Islands. Purchased. [1901. 4. 30, 1–9.]

Lisbon Museum (Prof. J. V. BARBOZA DU BOCAGE, Director).

48 birds from Benguela and the island of S. Thomé, collected by Anchieta and F. Newton. Presented. [82. 7. 1, 1–4; 88. 12. 1, 1–44.]

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Nearly a score of species new to the Museum were added by this donation, all of great interest—among them Fiscus souzæ, Sylviella ruficapilla, Parus rufiventris, Nilaus affinis, Salpornis salvadorii, Fringillaria major, Pternistes rubricollis, Nectarinia newtoni, Oriolus crassirostris, Turdus olivaceofuscus, Symplectes sanctithomæ, Haplopelia simplex.

32 birds from the islands of the Bight of Biafra (S. Thomé and Ilha do Principe), collected by Mr. Francesco Newton. [91. 8. 20, 1–32.]

Among these specimens were the following, new to the Museum:—Nectarinia thomensis, Cinnyris newtoni, Lanius newtoni, Prinia mölleri, Amblyospiza concolor.

For many years the Portuguese Government employed the services of naturalists to make collections for them in various parts of their African possessions. The most celebrated of these explorers was Anchieta, who travelled extensively in Angola, Benguela and Mossamedes. The results of these expeditions are mostly incorporated in the "Ornithologie d'Angola," written by Professor Barboza du Bocage, for many years the Director of the Lisbon Museum, and a staunch friend of our own Museum, to which he has made many valuable donations. Many specimens were also given in exchange to myself and Captain Shelley, and are now incorporated in the British Museum along with the rest of our private collections.

Another well-known naturalist who collected in the Portuguese islands in the Bight of Biafra is Mr. Francesco Newton, who obtained several interesting new species, duplicates of which were sent by Professor Bocage to the British Museum.

Lister (J. J.).

23 specimens from Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean. Presented. [88. 8. 12, 1–23.]

Mr. Lister was naturalist on H.M. Surveying Ship Egeria in 1887, and visited Christmas Island. He discovered on this occasion five new species on the island, the types of which he presented to the British Museum:—Zosterops natalis, Collocalia natalis, Chalcophaps natalis, Urospizias natalis, Ninox natalis (cf. P.Z.S., 1888, pp. 512–529, pls. xxvi., xxvii.).

10 specimens from the Phœnix group of islands in the Pacific Ocean. Presented. [91. 4. 24, 1–10.]

Mr. Lister was again naturalist on the Egeria in 1889.

The collection consisted of marine birds, but among them œstrelata parvirostris and Puffinus nativitatis were new to the Museum. Several other specimens, presented by Mr. Lister to the late Mr. Henry Seebohm, have passed into the British Museum with the collection bequeathed by the latter.

Littledale (ST. GEORGE).

100 specimens of birds and eggs from various parts of Central Asia. Presented. [89. 1. 10, 1–2; 89. 3. 3, 1–8 (Altai Mts.); 90. 5. 20, 1–39 (Saiar Mts.); 91. 5. 2, 1–37 (Pamir); 94. 2. 1, 1–5 (Turkestan).]

Mr. Littledale is a well-known big-game hunter, and has presented to the Museum most valuable animals. He has also found time to collect a few interesting species of birds during his travels.

Liverpool, University of.

See ROBINSON, H. C.; ROYAL SOCIETY.

VOL. II. 2 E

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Livingstone (Dr.).

See KIRK, Sir J.

During his later explorations in Africa the great missionary traveller did not collect any birds, but on the Zambesi expedition, when he was accompanied by Sir John (then Dr.) Kirk, a considerable collection was formed. This was described by the latter naturalist in a paper on the "Birds of the Zambesi Region" (Ibis, 1864, pp. 307–338). Several new species were discovered during the expedition, and a fine new Touracou was named Turacus livingstonei by G. R. Gray.

Cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., xxxiii., p. 384.

Lloyd (C. G.).

121 birds from Tasmania. Presented. [89. 6. 12, 1–121.]

Lloyd (Colonel J. HAYES).

107 birds from Kathiawar in North-western India and Matheran, Bombay. [73. 6. 6, 98–204.]

Crateropus somervillei and Luscinola indica were new to the Museum.

This collection, a most important one at the time, as coming from a district then ornithologically unexplored, was described by Colonel Hayes Lloyd in the "Ibis" for 1873 (pp. 397–421) and 1874 (pp. 97, 98). He presented specimens of Cyornis tickelliæ and C. jerdoni, proving that the former was the female and the latter the male of the same species. This difference in the colour of the sexes in the genus Cyornis had not been suspected before, and led to a similar identification with other species of the genus.

Colonel Lloyd described a new species of Green Barbet from Matheran as Megalæma sykesii (Ibis, 1873, p. 124). The type of this species is in the Tweeddale collection, and is referred by Captain Shelley to Cyanops viridis (Bodd.), i.e. Thereiceryx viridis, Blanford, Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds, iii., p. 389.

Loat (W. L. S.).

12 birds from the Pyrenees. Presented. [96. 8. 21, 1–12.]

22 birds from Egypt. Presented. [1905. 6. 4, 1–22.]

Mr. Loat is an enthusiastic ornithologist, but is best known for his important collections of the Nile fishes (see Report, Fish Collections).

Loder (Sir G.).

2 eggs of the Emeu (Dromæus novæ hollandiæ). Presented. [94. 6. 7, 1–2.]

Lodge (GEORGE E.).

9 Marsh Tits (Parus dresseri) from Surrey. Presented. [1901. 4. 8, 1–9.]

4 birds from Norway, Perthshire, and Hertfordshire. Presented. [1904. 10. 21, 1–4.]

Mr. Lodge is the well-known artist, and is an excellent observer of bird life, as may be recognised from his account of the Humming-Birds of the West Indies (Ibis, 1896, pp. 496–519) and other ornithological memoirs.

Loftus (WILLIAM KENNETT).

83 birds and eggs from the neighbourhood of Bagdad. Presented. [53. 1. 6, 1–79, 94–98.]

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Mr. Kennett Loftus was a well-known archæologist and traveller. He was geologist to the Turko-Persian Frontier Commission, 1849–1852 (cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., xxxiv., p. 80).

Londesborough (Earl of).

31 specimens of sea-birds (Herring Gulls, Guillemots, etc.) from Flamborough Head. Presented. [87. 9. 8, 1–16; 87. 9. 10, 1–15.]

Lord (JOHN KEAST).

See BOUNDARY COMMISSION, BRITISH N. AMERICAN.

137 birds and eggs from British Columbia and Vancouver Island. Presented by the Foreign Office. [60. 2. 23, 1–106; 60. 11. 22, 1–131.]

435 birds, nests, and eggs from British Columbia. Presented. [62. 12. 10, 1–37; 63. 1. 7, 1–398.]

The first collections were made by Mr. Lord during the time of his employment as naturalist to the Boundary Commission. He seems to have stayed in British Columbia after the labours of the Commission were over, and to have made further collections which he gave to the British Museum (cf. his book, "The Naturalist in Vancouver Island and British Columbia," 2 vols., 8vo, London, 1866).

Lovat (Lord).

See BLUNDELL, H. WELD.

Low (Sir HUGH).

See also HIGGINS.

5 specimens from the Sulu Archipelago. Presented. [76. 5. 30, 1–5.]

These formed the types of my Oriolus suluensis (Cat. B., iii., p. 205), a species now considered to be identical with O. chinensis, and Sarcops lowi.

Sir Hugh Low was an active collector in all branches of natural history during the many years which he spent in the Malay Archipelago as Inspector at Labuan and afterwards as British Resident at Perak, at which latter place he established the Museum. I described one of his collections from Labuan in the 'Proceedings' for 1875, but owing to some carelessness on the part of his agent, this consignment was handed over to me as being all from Labuan, whereas a considerable portion of it was from the mainland of Borneo, mostly from Lumbidan. Governor Ussher, on being appointed to Labuan, made extensive collections on the island itself and in the mainland, and in describing this series and another made by Sir W. H. Treacher, I was able to give a more exact account of the Avifauna of the island (cf. P.Z.S., 1879, pp. 317–354, pl. xxx.), and to expunge from my previous list many hypothetical species.

Governor Ussher pays the following tribute to Sir Hugh Low:—"Natural history in Borneo owes a large debt to him, and his name is well known to science. His labours in every department of zoology and botany, as well as his numerous excursions and travels in Borneo, and his intimate acquaintance with the various tribes of the great island, make him the foremost authority on all matters connected with that part of the Malay Archipelago."

Lowe (Dr. PERCY R.).

3 birds from the West Indian Islands, two of which were new to the collection (Spindalis salvini and Vireo bermudianus). Presented. [1904. 6. 6, 1–3.]

11 birds from Jamaica. Presented. [1904. 9. 13, 1–11.]

2 E 2

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Lucas (W.).

45 birds from Obi Major. Purchased. [1900. 3. 1, 1–45.]

Carpophaga obiensis and Ptilonopus granulifrons were new to the collection.

Lucas (W.).

A collector in the Eastern Transvaal, especially in the Rustenberg district, where he obtained many interesting species. Several of his skins are to be found in the Shelley and Seebohm collections.

Lundborg (H.).

9 mounted birds from Sweden. Purchased for the public gallery. [97. 10. 17, 1–9.]

Mr. Lundborg is a celebrated Swedish taxidermist.

Lyall (Dr.).

See also STOKES, Capt.

7 eggs from New Zealand. Presented. [52. 1. 16, 10–16.]

137 birds from Vancouver Island and N.W. America. Presented. [59. 1. 26, 1–91; 60. 8. 24, 9–34; 61. 8. 12, 1–20.]

He was attached as Surgeon to H.M.S. Plumper, and made quite an interesting collection on Vancouver Island, in the Straits of San Juan de Fuca, etc.

Lynes (Commander HUBERT), R.N.

11 birds from Southern Spain. Presented. [1905. 8. 5, 1–11.]

McBarnet (A. C.).

4 birds from Bahia. Presented. [1905. 8. 6, 1–4.]

McCaw (G. I.).

10 birds from the Zambesi. Presented. [1905. 8. 1, 1–10.]

McCleannan (J.).

Made large collections of birds in Panama, many specimens being described by the late G. R. Lawrence. A good series are in the Salvin-Godman collection (cf. Salvin, P.Z.S., 1867, pp. 129–161; 1870, pp. 175–219).

McClelland (Dr.).

See INDIA MUSEUM.

McConnell (FREDERIC VAVASOUR).

6 birds from British Guiana. Presented. [99. 12. 26, 1–4; 1900. 5. 4, 1; 1901. 11. 14, 1.]

Mr. McConnell discovered a new Bunting on the summit of Mt. Roraima, which I named Zonotrichia macconnelli. He presented the types of this species to the Museum, as well as that of a new species of Piculet, Picumnus macconnelli (Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C., xii., p. 4, 1901).

He also presented to the Museum a skin of a Goshawk (Urospizias jardinei, Gurney), of which no specimen was in the National Collection. [1900. 5. 4, 1] Only one other specimen was known, viz., the type in the Norwich Museum, supposed to have come from New Caledonia.

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McConnell (F. V.) and Quelch (J. J.).

546 birds from British Guiana. Presented. [95. 11. 28, 1–420; 97. 4. 6, 1–8; 98. 11. 21, 1–118.]

This fine collection was made in the neighbourhood of Georgetown, Demerara, on the Essequibo River, and in the inland Savana country. It contained several interesting forms in spirits, such as Heliornis, etc., and a good representative set of the low-country birds.

McCormick (Dr. ROBERT).

142 birds and eggs from the Falkland Islands and the Antarctic Seas. Bequeathed. [90. 12. 13, 1–77; 91. 2. 15, 1–11; 91. 6. 16, 1–54.]

One morning in the year 1884, several of the officers of the Natural History Museum were surprised at the sight of a little old man ascending with quite an elastic step the staircase of the upper floor of the Museum and disappearing into the Botanical Department. He belonged evidently to a by-gone age. A rather broad-brimmed hat covered a very evident wig, his neck was encircled by a high stock, his waistcoat was white and very low, exposing a wide front of flannel shirt of the hues of a Scotch plaid. His swallow-tail coat was of a dark blue with gilt buttons, and his trousers were of a pronounced shepherd's plaid. I was telling some of my colleagues afterwards of the wonderful appearance of the old gentleman I had seen, when a knock came at my door, and on opening it, I found myself face to face with the individual in question. On his introducing himself as Dr. McCormick, I could not repress my astonishment and told him that I thought he had been dead years ago. "Yes," he replied, "I know I ought to have been, but I am not. I am eighty-four years of age, and I thought, before I died, I should like to see some of the animals I shot when I was naturalist to the Erebus and Terror, as I am writing my memoirs." This book appeared shortly after his visit. I conducted the old veteran round the Bird-Gallery, where he recounted how he had shot the Emperor Penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) in the Antarctic Ice-Pack with a rifle. The old gentleman did not manage to visit the Museum again, but I used often to go and see him at his home, Hecla Villa, Wimbledon, and I hope that I helped to cheer his last days, when he was wonderfully interested in the tame white Duck which he has immortalised in his book. At his death, as a votive offering to me, he bequeathed his natural-history specimens to the Museum. They consisted of certain duplicates from the Antarctic expedition, which he had been permitted to retain, but they had been sadly neglected for many years and were nearly all moth-eaten. I was, however, able to keep a few for the Museum. One of the most notable facts in connection with Dr. McCormick's specimens was that they were carefully labelled with the date of capture, etc., but these particulars were seldom preserved by the Museum authorities at the time.

During the Antarctic expedition, some specimens of a Great Skua (Megalestris) were discovered, and these ultimately turned out to belong to an undescribed species, which was named Megalestris maccormicki by Mr. Howard Saunders (Cat. B., xxv., p. 321, pl. i.). Many excellent notes on the habits of Antarctic birds from Dr. McCormick's pen have been published by Gould, and it seems somewhat sad that this old hero should have been allowed to pass to his grave comparatively forgotten by his country, for which he had done such sterling work. His book, which appeared in 1884, bore the following title: "Voyages of Discovery in the Arctic and the Antarctic Seas and round the World, being personal narratives of attempts to reach the North and South Poles,

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and of an open boat expedition up the Wellington Channel in search of Sir John Franklin and Her Majesty's ships 'Erebus' and 'Terror,' in Her Majesty's boat 'Forlorn Hope,' under the command of the author to which are added an autobiography, appendix, portraits, maps, and numerous illustrations." 2 vols., 8vo, vol. i., pp. xii, 412; vol. ii., pp. xx, 432.

Cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., xxxv., p. 11.

McFarlane (Rev. S.).

26 birds from British New Guinea. Purchased. [76. 6. 16, 1–13; 80. 3. 11, 1–13.]

Mr. McFarlane was one of the early pioneer missionaries in British New Guinea, and interested himself in the natural history of the country. An account of his collection was published by me in the Linnean Society's Journal, vol. xiii., pp. 79–83. Two species, Graucalus angustifrons (= G. hypoleucus) and Zosterops albiventer, were described as new.

MacGillivray (J.).

14 birds from Cape York (Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, 1846–1850). Presented. [51. 1. 11, 1–14.]

Among these specimens were the types of three species described by Gould, viz., Tanysiptera sylvia, Syma flavirostris, Chlamydodera cerviniventris, and of Calornis purpurascens, Gray.

16 birds from the Falkland Islands (Voyage of the Rattlesnake). Presented. [51. 1. 29, 1–16.]

5 birds and 4 eggs from Moreton and Goose Islands (Voyage of the Rattlesnake). Presented. [51. 4. 2, 1–9.]

13 birds from Cape York and the Louisiade Archipelago (Voyage of the Rattlesnake). Presented. [51. 10. 11, 1–13.]

The types of Ptilopus strophium, Gould, and Piezorhynchus lucidus (Gray) are in this collection.

14 birds from New Caledonia and the Solomon Islands, also from Tristan d'Acunha (voyage of H.M.SS. Rattlesnake and Herald). Presented. [56. 10. 14, 1–14.]

In this donation were included the types of Nesocichla eremita, Gould, Ptilopus greyi, Gray, Columba hypœnochroa, Gould, Coryphænas crassirostris, Gould, Lorius chlorocercus, Gould, Centropus milo, Gould, Hirundo subfusca (= H. tahitica) (cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., x., p. 141), and Tropidorhynchus lessoni, Gray.

MacGregor (Sir WILLIAM).

3 rare birds from British New Guinea (Paramythia montium and Daphænositta miranda). [97. 4. 20, 1–4.]

McGregor (R. C. S.).

10 birds from Battle Creek, California. Presented. [98. 12. 14, 1–10.]

McIlwraith, McEacharn and Co.

7 birds from Mt. Victoria, British New Guinea. Purchased. [96. 1. 5, 1–7.]

A small selection from a New Guinea collection, offered to the Museum by the above-named gentlemen, who are merchants in the City. Since that date the collections have been acquired by the Tring Museum. They have all contained specimens of value, and a Lorikeet has been described by Mr. Rothschild as Cyclopsittacus macilwraithi.

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In the small collection acquired by the Museum were four species new to the collection, two of them being new to science (Oreopsittacus grandis, Grant, Melipotes atriceps, Grant (= M. fumigatus, Meyer). Specimens of Paramythia montium, De Vis and Amblyornis macgregoriæ, De Vis (= A. inornatus, Schl.), were also added to the Museum collection.

McIntosh (DONALD).

229 birds from Australia, mostly from Victoria. Presented. [1900. 6. 11, 1–204; 1900. 6. 24, 1–25].

A well-known Australian sportsman, who presented some interesting birds.

Mackinder (Prof. H. J.).

85 specimens from the Mackinder expedition to Mount Kenya. Purchased. [1900. 1. 19, 1–85.]

For an account of Professor Mackinder's Expedition, see the "Geographical Journal" for 1900 (vol. xv., p. 453). 56 species were obtained during the journey, which were described by me in my account of the collection (P.Z.S., 1900, pp. 596–609). Four were new to science, viz., Bubo mackinderi (pl. xliii.), Pinarochroa ernesti and Hyphantornis camburni, Campothera hausbergi; and a fifth species, Cisticola neumanni, from the Settima Range, has been described by Dr. Hartert (Bull. B.O.C., xii., p. 13, 1901). A Flycatcher which I at first identified as Chloropeta interina turned out to be new, and I described it as C. kenya (Bull. B.O.C., xii., p. 35). Laniarius abbotti was also new to the collection.

McKinlay (Dr. A.).

36 birds from the Malay Archipelago and the coast of China. Presented. [82. 12. 1, 1–36.]

Dr. McKinlay was surgeon on board H.M.S. Mosquito during the service of this battleship on the China station. He procured a specimen of the rare Scops Owl (Pisorhina stictonota).

Macmillan (W. N.).

430 birds from the Baro and Sobat Rivers and Upper White Nile, collected by Mr. Zaphiro. Presented. [1905. 12. 25, 1–430.]

Macpherson (J.).

One of Mr. Hume's correspondents who sent him eggs from Mysore.

Majastre (A.).

See GERRARD, E.

Major (Dr. FORSYTH).

See ROYAL SOCIETY.

A collection of birds and skeletons of birds from Madagascar. An account of the expedition made by Dr. Forsyth Major and Mr. A. Robert will be found in the "Proceedings" of the Zoological Society for 1896 (pp. 971–981). For a full account of his work cf. Hist. Coll., i., Geology, p. 309.

Maltzan (Baron H. VON).

29 specimens from Haiti and San Domingo. Purchased. [89. 3. 27, 1–29.]

Man (E. H.).

6 eggs of the Nicobar Megapode (Megapodius nicobariensis). Presented. [81. 7. 29, 19–24] (cf. Oates, Cat. Eggs Brit. Mus., i., p. 16).

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Mandelli (L.).

13 birds from Sikhim. Presented. [78. 3. 29, 6–18.]

When I first began to work at the Museum, I found the series of birds from our Indian Empire to be a very poor one, both as regards the number of species and the condition of specimens, and I wrote to Mandelli to beg for a few of the Flycatchers necessary for my work in the fourth volume of the "Catalogue of Birds." He promptly sent me the 13 specimens recorded above, which were most useful at the time, and added five species to the Museum, viz., Nitidula hodgsoni, Muscicapula sapphira, Erythrosterna pusilla, Cyornis magnirostris, and C. unicolor.

Mandelli employed a number of native collectors, and amassed a fine series of birds from Sikhim, Native Sikhim, the adjacent portions of Tibet, and the Bhutan Dooars. So particular was he as to the condition of his skins that he made a point of throwing away any which were not well preserved. The unfortunate man ultimately took his own life, and his collection was purchased by Mr. Allan Hume, and came to the British Museum with the rest of the Hume collection in 1885. It was one of the features of this wonderful donation.

Manning (General W. H.).

438 specimens of birds from Nyasa Land and the neighbouring countries. Presented. [99. 1. 2, 1–26; 99. 3. 1, 1–148; 1900. 11. 12, 1–222; 1901. 6. 20, 1–33; 1901. 7. 5, 1–9.]

The good work begun in Nyasa Land by Sir Harry Johnston was continued by General (then Colonel) Manning, who succeeded him as H.B.M. Commissioner for British Central Africa. The collections sent by General Manning were described by Capt. Shelley in the "Ibis" for 1899 (pp. 281–283, 369, 564–580, pls. v., vi.; 1901, pp. 161–177, 586–595. Chlorophoneus manningi is named after him (cf. Ibis, 1899, pp. 281–283, 364–380, pls. v., vi.), and other species, Lybius macclouni, Cisticola alticola, and Cypselus alfredi, were discovered by Mr. McCloun and the naturalists employed by General Manning.

Cf. Who's Who, 1905, p. 1067.

Mantell (Dr.), F.R.S.

10 specimens, including cast of the head of the Dodo, eggs and skulls of Ostrich and skeletons of other birds. Presented. [41. 1. 12, 36, 38, 39; 41. 1. 14, 26, 28; 41. 1. 14, 36, 44, 57; 41. 1. 17, 2, 3.]

Cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., xxxvi., p. 99.

Mantell (WALTER), Esq. [Son of the above.]

5 specimens from New Zealand. Purchased (through Mr. Gould). [56. 5. 28, 1–5.]

The original example of Notornis mantelli was purchased on this occasion. The history of the specimen is given by Mr. Gould in his "Handbook to the Birds of Australia" (vol. ii., pp. 576–579). The types of Nestor notabilis, Gould, were also acquired at the same time.

A second specimen of Notornis in the Museum bears no register number, but is said to have been procured by Mr. Walter Mantell, and is so chronicled by Sir Walter Buller (B. New Zealand, 1st ed., p. 192). The two specimens were mounted by the late Mr. A. D. Bartlett, and were for many years exposed in the public Bird Gallery. When the collections were transferred to South Kensington from Bloomsbury they were removed and placed in the bird-cabinets, where they are no longer exposed to the risk of bleaching.

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The type of Spatula variegata, Gould, was bought at the same time (cf. Salvadori, Cat. B., xxvii., p. 314).

Maries (C.).

46 birds from China and Japan. Purchased. [80. 2. 27, 1–46.]

This collection added a specimen of Ampelis phænicoptera to the collection.

14 mounted specimens from Gwalior. Presented. [91. 6. 20, 1–14.]

These birds were beautifully mounted by Mr. Maries, when he was Curator to the Gwalior Museum.

Markham (Admiral A. H.).

10 specimens of eggs from Novaya Zemlya. Presented. [79. 11. 15, 1–10.]

Some of these eggs were very interesting, especially those of the Glaucous Gull (Larus glaucus), etc.

Marsden (Mr. HERBERT).

20 embryos and nestlings of Fulmar Petrels and other St. Kilda birds. Purchased. [99. 7. 11, 1–20.]

Marshall (Colonel C. H. T.).

37 specimens, chiefly from the Himalayas. Presented. [78. 3. 11, 1–19; 78. 5. 4, 7–24.]

10 specimens from Chamba, N. W. Himalayas. Presented. [84. 7. 22, 1–10.]

Includes the type of the new Monaul (Lophophorus chambanus), now believed to be merely a variety of the common species, L. refulgens.

Marshall (GUY A. K.).

41 specimens of birds from Mashonaland. Presented. [96. 3. 15, 1–35; 1900. 2. 20, 5–10.]

Eldest son of Colonel C. H. T. Marshall, and a first-rate naturalist and collector. He has done some very extensive work with South African Lepidoptera, and has written a very interesting paper on the Birds of Mashonaland (Ibis, 1900, pp. 221–270). The collections presented by Mr. Guy Marshall contained several interesting species hitherto supposed to be confined to S.W. Africa.

Martin (Dr. HENRY C.).

Two curious grey varieties of the Rook (Trypanocorax frugilegus) From Wiltshire. Presented. [1902. 7. 8, 1–2.]

Meade–Waldo (E. G. B.).

60 birds from the Atlas Mountains, Marocco, including the types of Parus atlas, Motacilla subpersonata and Cotile mauritanica. Presented. [1904. 4. 12, 1–60.]

A skeleton of Bubo ignavus from Norway. Presented. [1904. 6. 24, 1.]

An egg of Syrnium uralense, laid in confinement. Presented. [1905. 6. 21, 1.]

450 specimens from the Canary Islands, etc. Presented. [1905. 12. 23, 1–450.]

Mears (Capt. A.).

116 birds from the Upper Chindwin River. Presented. [1903. 12. 4, 1–104; 1903. 12. 11, 1–12.]

340 birds from the Upper Chindwin River, Burma. Presented. [1904. 12. 6, 1–7; 1904. 12. 12, 1–333; 1905. 9. 24, 1–200.]

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Meek (A. S.).

See GERRARD.

Mr. Albert Meek has been one of the band of naturalists who have collected for the Hon. Walter Rothschild in Papuasia and North Australia. In company with his brother-in-law Mr. Eickhorn, he has carried out some surprisingly successful expeditions, which are recorded in the following papers in the "Novitates Zoologicæ" by the Hon. Walter Rothschild and Dr. Hartert: vol. ii., 1895, p. 61 (Fergusson Island); iii., 1896, pp. 233–251 (Fergusson, Trobriand, Egum, Woodlark Islands); v., 1898, pp. 521–532 (Sudest Island); vi., 1899, pp. 76–84 (Rossel Island), 206–217 (St. Aignan Island), 423–428 (Cape York); viii., pp. 179–189 (Kulambangra, Florida Islands, Solomon Archipelago); pp. 373–382 (Guadalcanar); ix., pp. 581–594, pls. vii.–ix. (Isabel Island), xiii., pp. 244–268 (Solomon Island).

Meinertzhagen (DAN).

77 skeletons and birds in spirits. Presented. [98. 5. 7, 1–77.]

Of all the young naturalists whom I have known, Dan Meinertzhagen was certainly one of the most promising, and his early death was a real misfortune for ornithological science. I have seen his MSS. written when a boy at Harrow, and they not only show an extraordinary method of observation, but are accompanied by drawings far above the usual schoolboy level. He was particularly interested in the Accipitres, of which he kept a fine collection of living examples at his father's residence at Mottis-font Abbey. He had also a very good collection of eggs, and had begun to travel in pursuit of ornithological knowledge, making a successful expedition into Lapland in company with Mr. R. P. Hornby. Had he lived he would no doubt have risen to very high rank as a scientific observer. "Bird Life in an Arctic Spring," London, 1899, 8vo (pp. xxxiv., 150, pls. 27) gives his diary of his Lapland expedition, with an interesting memoir of the author by his mother.

Menzbier (Professor M.).

168 birds from Turkestan, collected by the late Dr. Severtzow, and purchased through Professor Menzbier [90. 3. 8, 1–168.]

This collection added largely to our Palæarctic series. Chelidon lagopus and Cynchramus polaris were new to the Museum.

529 specimens of Paridæ. Purchased. [1901. 5. 4, 1–529.]

This was the private collection of Professor Menzbier, who had intended to write a monograph of the Paridæ or family of Tits. Finding that his duties at the University of Moscow had so much increased that there was little hope of his being able to write his intended monograph, he offered his collection to the Trustees of the British Museum, who thus acquired a beautiful series of the Palæarctic species, including four which were previously unrepresented in the National Collection, with Remiza macronyx, Lophobasileus elegans, etc., and types of Parus songarus, P. affinis, P. superciliosa and Acredula atronuchalis. As the eighth volume of the "Catalogue of Birds," notoriously defective and out of date, is about to be re-written, this collection of Paridæ will be found to be of immense service.

Merlin (Consul C. W. L.).

58 birds from Greece and Asia Minor. Presented. [43. 7. 8, 1–27; 45. 5. 28, 1–13; 65. 8. 18, 1–18.]

Mr. Merlin was for many years H.B.M. Consul at Athens, and was a

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personal friend of Dr. Krüper, with whom he made several expeditions. He sent many interesting birds to the Museum.

Merriam (Dr. C. HART).

9 birds from Locust Grove, New York. Presented. [84. 10. 6, 1–9.]

Dr. Hart Merriam is now the chief of the Division of Biological Survey in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and under his administration some admirable work has been done, as may be seen in the "North American Fauna," which is published under his direction. On assuming his appointment in the U.S. Agricultural Department he gave up the special study of ornithology, in order to devote his whole time to the duties of his important position. His collection of birds, mostly from Locust Grove, the Adirondack Mountains, and other districts of the State of New York, passed into the hands of his friend, Mr. H. W. Henshaw, and formed an important part of the great Henshaw collection presented to the Trustees by Dr. F. D. Godman.

Meves (W.).

131 birds from Sweden. Purchased. [74. 1. 1, 1–99; 74. 1. 25, 1–32.]

Meves was one of the best taxidermists of his age, and certainly one of the best collectors. He was a great friend of Sundevall and Wahlberg, the latter of whom named a Glossy Starling Lamprotornis mevesi,* from Damara Land. One of my first thoughts on being appointed to the Museum was to get together a good collection of Swedish birds, as being the typical species described by Linnæus. I therefore applied to my old correspondent, Meves, from whom I had had much help when compiling the "Birds of Europe," and he sent over a nice series of the common birds of Sweden, in various stages of plumage.

Meyer (Dr. A. B.).

See GERRARD.

The Museum was able to acquire a few duplicate specimens from Dr. Meyer's celebrated expedition to New Guinea and the Moluccas. A few more were received with the Gould collection.

Miles (Colonel).

66 birds from Muscat. Presented. [85. 11. 5, 1–52; 85. 11. 7, 1–14.]

This collection created a great deal of interest amongst ornithologists on its arrival at the British Museum, coming as it did from a locality on the borderland between the Indian and Palæarctic regions. This interesting fact is emphasized by the occurrence of a new Eagle Owl, Bubo milesi, allied to the African forms of Bubo, and a Bee-eater, Merops muscatensis, which finds its nearest ally in M. viridis of India and M. cyanophrys of Aden. The collection was described by me in the 'Ibis' for 1888 (pp. 162–168, pl. vi.).

Milne (Professor).

See JANSON, E. W.

When studying volcanic action in Japan, Professor Milne sent home some collections of animals which were offered to the British Museum, and we obtained some interesting birds.

* The English name for this bird must be Meves' Starling, not Meve's Starling, as given in the "Fauna of S. Africa," Birds, i., p. 32.

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Milner (Capt. W. H.).

43 birds from Central and South America. Presented. [91. 10. 9, 1–25; 95. 3. 10, 1–8; 96. 4. 3, 1–10.]

Captain Milner was in command of one of the steamers of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, and sometimes found time to shoot a few sea-birds, such as Frigate-birds, etc., which he brought home in the freezing chamber of the vessel. The Museum thus procured some interesting species of birds suitable for mounting in the Public Gallery, and for making into good skeletons.

Miramende (Mr.).

2 specimens of Uratelornis chimæra, the Long-tailed Ground-Roller of Madagascar. Purchased. [1902. 12. 10, 1–2.]

Mitchell (Sir THOMAS).

212 birds and 14 eggs from Australia. Presented. [39. 8. 2, 101–128; 42. 7. 4, 1–27; 47. 8. 14, 48–164.]

Mochler-Ferryman (Capt. A. F.).

20 specimens from Shonga, Upper Nigeria. Presented. [90. 3. 23, 1–20.]

Cf. his book, "Up the Niger," 1892, App. Birds, p. 310.

Moloney (Sir ALFRED), K.C.M.G.

23 birds from the Gold Coast. Presented. [83. 10. 22, 1–23.]

5 birds from Lagos. Presented. [90. 2. 7, 1–5.]

Sir Alfred Moloney was successively Secretary to the Gold Coast, Administrator of the Gambia, and afterwards of Lagos, and took great interest in the natural history of the dependencies over which he ruled. He also made a good collection of Senegambian birds for Captain Shelley; this has passed with the Shelley collection into the British Museum.

Cf. "Who's Who," 1904, p. 1075.

Monteiro (JOACHIM J.).

179 birds from Angola and Benguela. [73. 12. 10, 1–179.]

Monteiro was a great personal friend of my own, and he was one of the most clever and amiable men I have ever met. His wife, who was an accomplished musician, was also a born naturalist and an excellent collector, and shared with her husband all the difficulties and discomforts connected with a life in the wilds of Africa. Monteiro was one of the first of our British naturalists to visit Angola, and his collections were described by Dr. Hartlaub in the 'Proceedings' of the Zoological Society for 1860, pp. 109–112, pl. clxi.; 1865, pp. 86–96, pls. iv.–vi.; cf. also Sharpe, P.Z.S., 1870, pp. 142–150, pl. xiii.; and the 'Ibis' for 1862, pp. 333–342, pl. xi. There were many new forms, and for a long time Monteiro was unwilling to part with his collection; but in 1873 he yielded to my entreaties and offered it to the Trustees, whereby the Museum became possessed of the types of many interesting species: Ortygomctra angolensis, Hartl. (= Crecopsis egregia, Peters; cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xxiii., p. 81), Otis picturata, Hartl. (= Heterotetrax rüppelli, Wahlberg; cf. Sharpe, t.c., p. 29), Rhinoptilus bisignatus, Asturinula meridionalis, Lophoceros monteiri (Hartl.), Toccus elegans, Hartl. (= Lophoceros elegans, Grant, Cat. B., xvii., p. 415), Upupa decorata, Hartl. (= U. africana, Bechst.; cf. Salvin, Cat. B., xvi., p. 14), Caprimulgus fulviventris, Hartl., Hirundo monteiri, Hartl., Platysteira albifrons, Sharpe, Muscicapa lugens, Hartl., Pycnonotus tricolor, Hartl., Aethocichla gymnogenys, Hartl., Laniarius

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monteiri, Sharpe, Dryoscopus guttatus, Hartl., D. angolensis, Hartl., Nectarinia chalcea, Hartl. (= Cinnyris cupreus, Shaw), Vidua decora, Hartl., Hyphantornis xanthops, Hartl., Pytelia monteiri, Hartl., Certhilauda benguellensis, Sharpe.

Obituary Notice, Ibis, 1878, p. 208.

Moore (F.).

See HORSFIELD, Dr., and INDIA MUSEUM, LONDON.

Mr. Frederic Moore was born May 13th, 1830, at the house of the Zoological Society, 33, Bruton Street, his parents being the Office- and House-keeper to the Society; these duties being continued by them at the Society's House and Museum in Leicester Square, Pall Mall, and at 11, Hanover Square. His school days were spent at the Academy of Mr. W. Chambers, F.Z.S., in Castle Street, Leicester Square, which he left in 1845. He then went as Entomological Assistant to the Rev. F. W. Hope, at his Museum in Upper Seymour Street. In 1848 he was appointed Assistant to Dr. T. Horsfield, in the Museum of the East India Company in Leadenhall Street, and, after the abolition of the Company, he filled the duties of Assistant-Curator and Zoological Superintendent of the India Museum till its transference to the Crown, in 1880, when he retired on a pension from the Indian Government. From 1880 he fulfilled the Office of Entomologist in the Economic Section of the Science and Art Museum, at the branch in Bethnal Green, till the abolition of this Section in 1883. From 1881 to 1887, he compiled and published the three vols. of the "Lepidoptera of Ceylon," and from the latter year to the present (1905) has also prepared and published six vols. of the "Lepidoptera Indica." In 1893 he received the Honorary Degree of D.Sc. from the University of Pennsylvania.

Moore (SPENCER).

25 eggs of Brazilian birds. Presented. [1900. 8. 19, 1–28.]

Morcom (G. FREAN).

82 specimens of birds from California. Presented. [87. 1. 27, 1–82.]

The type of Colinus ridgwayi is included in this collection.

Moreno (Dr. F. P.).

242 birds from the Argentine Republic. Presented. [99. 1. 27, 1–242.]

Dr. Moreno was one of the Commissioners of the Chili-Argentina Boundary Settlement. The collection which he gave to the Museum was principally from the Salta district, and contained a number of interesting species, among them being a new Dove (Gymnopelia morenoi, Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C., xii., p. 54, 1902).

Morgan (Rev. CHANCELLOR A.).

3 birds from Monmouthshire. Presented. [73. 12. 6, 1–3.]

Chancellor Morgan was a friend of Dr. Günther, and sent specimens for the collection.

Morrogh (Dr. A. MCCARTHY).

21 birds from Uganda, British East Africa. Presented. [1902. 7. 30, 1–21.]

Moseley (E. L.).

73 specimens from the Philippine Islands. Purchased. [90. 9. 9, 1–25; 91. 4. 25, 1–48.]

138 specimens from the Philippine Islands. Exchanged. [90. 12. 1, 1–138.]

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Mr. Moseley was one of the band of naturalists who joined the celebrated expedition of Prof. J. B. Steere to the Philippine Archipelago, and afterwards took part in the Mearns expedition to the same group.

In the above purchases were numerous species new to the Museum: Chrysocolaptes samarensis, Centropus mindorensis, Cranorhinus waldeni, Loriculus worcesteri, L. mindorensis, L. siquijorensis, Ceyx fluminicola, C. malamaui, and the type of Ceyx bournsi, Graucalus mindorensis, Edoliisoma panayensis, Iole siquijorensis, I. mindorensis, Irena ellæ, Arachnothera philippinensis, Zeocephus cinnamomeus, Macronus mindanensis, Abrornis olivacea, Dicæum besti, Cinnyris guimarasensis, Cryptolopha nigrorum, Sarcophanops samarensis, Ptilocichla basilanica, Mixornis nigricapitatus, and Cittocincla cebuensis.

Mougel.

A correspondent of Edward Hargitt, in whose collection are many specimens from the Vosges Mountains obtained by Mougel.

Moulden (E. S.).

37 eggs of birds from Adelaide, South Australia. Presented. [1900. 5. 21, 1–9; 1900. 5. 25, 1–28.]

Munt (H.).

77 specimens of birds from Australia. Presented. [96. 4. 8, 1–77.]

Murray (A.).

See also Ross, B. R.

40 birds from Fort Simpson, W. Canada, collected by B. R. Ross. Presented. [61. 7. 9, 1–40.]

Murray (Sir JOHN), K.C.B.

152 specimens of birds' nests and eggs from Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Presented. [97. 12. 15, 1–36; 98. 9. 16, 1–88; 98. 9. 21, 1–10; 98. 9. 27, 1–18.]

Sir John Murray supplied the funds for a scientific exploration of Christmas Island, and Dr. Andrews, of the British Museum, was the naturalist selected. The results of this very successful expedition are set forth in a memoir published by the Trustees: "A Monograph of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)," London, 1900, 8vo, Aves, pp. 37–50, pls. iii.–vi.

Museums.

See AUSTRALIAN (p. 302), BRUSSELS (p. 321), CALCUTTA (p. 395), SALANGORE (p. 461), SOUTH AFRICAN (p. 487), WEST AUSTRALIAN (p. 508).

Musters (J. P. CHAWORTH).

5 specimens of birds from Spain and Norway. Presented. [1902. 3. 26, 1–5.]

Nelson (E. W.).

A very celebrated American field-naturalist, who has done most excellent collecting work in Alaska (cf. "Cruize of the Corwin"), and especially in Mexico for the U.S. Biological Survey. Many specimens from his Alaska expedition were in the Henshaw collection.

Neroutcheff (D.).

7 specimens from Baku, Caspian Sea, including specimens of Anser rhodorhynchus and Branta ruficollis. Exchanged. [1902. 8. 15, 1–7.]

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Newnes (Sir GEORGE), Bart.

186 birds and eggs from Victoria Land. Presented. [1901. 1. 5, 1–64; 1901. 1. 7, 1–104; 1901. 2. 5, 1–6; 1901. 12. 1, 1–12.]

This is the collection made by the late Nikolai Hanson and Mr. Hugh Evans on the expedition of the Southern Cross, and described in the "Report on the collections of Natural History" from that voyage (Aves, pp. 106–172, pls. vii.–x.), published by the Trustees in 1902.

Newton (Professor ALFRED), F.R.S.

21 specimens from the islands of St. Thomas and St. Croix in the West Indies. Presented. [59. 3. 25, 7–27.]

An account of the birds collected in St. Croix by Professor Newton and his brother, Sir Edward Newton, is published in the 'Ibis' for 1859 (pp. 59–69, pl. i., 138–150, 252–264, 365–379, pl. xii.).

For the scientific work of this celebrated British ornithologist, see 'Who's Who,' 1905, p. 1186, from which publication I have extracted the following notes:—

Professor Newton was a Travelling Fellow of Magdalene College, Cambridge, 1854–63, visiting Lapland, Iceland, West India Islands, and North America; re-elected Fellow, 1877; in 1864 accompanied Mr. (now Sir) Edward Birkbeck to Spitsbergen; brought the subject of Bird Protection before British Association, 1868; for several years Chairman of the Close-time Committee, during which time were passed the first three Acts of Parliament for Protection of Birds; gave especial attention to expiring faunas of Mascarene and Sandwich Islands; Chairman many years of British Association Migration of Birds Committee; has been Vice-President of the Royal and (frequently) Zoological Society; President of Cambridge Philosophical Society; awarded gold medal of Linnean Society, and one of the Royal medals adjudged by the Royal Society, 1900. Publications: "The Zoology of Ancient Europe," 1862; "The Ornithology of Iceland" (Appendix to Mr. Baring-Gould's work on that island, 1863); "Ootheca Wolleyana," 1864–1902; "Aves in the Record of Zoological Literature" (vols. i.–vi.); "Zoology," 1874 (2nd ed., 1894); "Birds of Greenland" (Arctic Manual, 1875); "A Dictionary of Birds" (1893–96); numerous contributions to scientific journals and articles in "Encyclopædia Britannica," 9th ed.; editor of the "Ibis," new series, 1865–70; "The Zoological Record," 1870–72; "Yarrell's British Birds" 4th ed., vols. i. ii., 1871–82.

Nicoll (MICHAEL J.)

An enthusiastic young observer who has accompanied the Earl of Crawford's voyages round the world, as naturalist on board the Valhalla (1902–3) (1903–4) (1905–6). He was born at Bepton in Sussex in 1880, and takes great interest in the birds of his native county.

See CRAWFORD, Earl of.

Nicholson (FRANCIS).

31 birds from Heligoland. Presented. [76. 11. 28, 1–31.]

Mr. Nicholson is a very zealous ornithologist, and formed one of our party when I accompanied Mr. Seebohm on his well-known journey to Heligoland (cf. 'Ibis,' 1877, pp. 156–165).

69 birds from Abeokuta, West Africa. Presented. [77. 11. 25, 1–69.]

These birds were collected by Mr. Robin and were described by Mr. Nicholson in the "Proceedings" of the Zoological Society in 1878 (pp. 128–131, pl. x.). Estrilda sharpei was described as new: it has

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since been found to be identical with Estrilda capistrata, and should be called Pytelia capistrata (Hartl.) (cf. Sharpe, Cat. B., xiii., p. 390, note).

18 birds from Cape Palmas, Queensland, etc. Presented. [77. 12. 6, 1–18.]

138 birds and nests from Java, collected by Dr. H. O. Forbes. Presented. [78. 10. 21, 1–121; 82. 9. 26, 1–17.] Includes the type of Zosterops buxtoni (= Z. aureiventer; cf. Cat. B., ix., p. 163).

Dr. Forbes' Javan collection was described by Mr. Nicholson in the "Ibis" for 1879 (pp. 164–171, 1882, pp. 66–71.)

11 birds from Sumatra, collected by Dr. H. O. Forbes. Presented. [83. 2. 19, 1–11.] (cf. Nicholson, Ibis, 1882, pp. 51–65). Hemixus sumatranus and Zosterops chlorates were new to the collection.

Nisbett (Capt. W. G.).

15 specimens of Silver Pheasants from the Kachin Hills in Upper Burma. Presented. [1902. 11. 9, 1–15.]

Included the type of Gennæus nisbetti, Oates, Ibis, 1903, p. 99.

Nix (CHARLES).

44 birds from China. Presented. [1904. 12. 1, 1–44.]

Nixon (Miss).

23 birds from California. Presented. [1905. 8. 11, 1–23.]

Noble (HEATLEY).

6 specimens of the rare Duck, Elasmonetta chlorotis, from New Zealand. Presented. [99. 10. 17, 1–6.]

2 specimens of White's Thrush (Oreocichla varia) with nest. Presented. [1900. 5. 7, 1–2.]

These are the specimens exhibited in the nesting series, Group No. 26.

25 embryos of birds in spirit. Presented. [1900. 8. 10, 8–32.]

4 specimens of the Steamer-Duck (Tachyeres cinereus), from the Falkland Islands. Presented. [1900. 11. 30, 1–4.]

7 birds from Southern Spain. Presented. [1901. 7. 17, 1–7.]

Nordvi.

Many specimens of eggs collected by Nordvi are in the Seebohm collection. His name frequently occurs in Pleske's "Kola Halb-Insel."

Norman (G. C.).

6 eggs of British birds, from Bristol. Presented. [86. 6. 15, 1–6.]

Mr. Norman was for some years a volunteer assistant in the Bird Room, and was a great help in registering and incorporating our accessions. He wrote a paper "On the Geographical Distribution of the Crested Cuckoos (Coccystes)," in the 'Ibis' for 1888, pp. 396–409, and described a new species, C. caroli.

North (A. J.).

98 eggs from Australia. Presented. [1905. 5. 21, 1–98.]

Born in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, of English parents, Alfred John North exhibited in his earliest years an inborn taste for ornithology. During his school-days, the nucleus was formed of his large private collection. Visits were made to the National Museum, Melbourne, where he occasionally met the Director, the late Sir Frederick McCoy, but more frequently (owing to Sir Frederick's professorial and other duties) the late Mr. William Kershaw, and the late Mr. John Leadbeater, who

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respectively had charge of the Entomological and Ornithological departments. In August 1878, he spent that month in the fern-gullies and hills of the Strzelecki Ranges in South Gippsland. The ruthless act of the selector and bush-fires had then but barely touched one of Nature's fairest domains, the home of the Giant Fern and towering Eucalyptus, the latter ranking among the tallest trees in the world. The locality was rich in bird-life, and a fair representative collection of bird-skins and eggs was made during this and many succeeding visits to the same district. Ptilotis cassidix and Pycnoptelus floccosus were amongst the most common birds there, and the nest and eggs of the latter species were discovered. In 1880 he became one of the original members of The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, and, though absent from that State for the past eighteen years, still remains an active member. Since 1878 he had been corresponding with Dr. E. P. Ramsay, Curator of the Australian Museum, Sydney, from whom he received many valuable hints as to the proper mode of collecting birds and their eggs, their correct identification and nomenclature, and the importance of making full notes relative to their habits. This information was supplemented by exchanges of specimens from Dr. Ramsay's private collection at Dobroyde. At intervals, until September 1886, collecting-trips were made, principally to the Ballarat and south-western districts of Victoria, South Gippsland, and Western Port. All the sets of eggs from Victoria and New South Wales sent to the late Mr. Phillip Crowley, and now in the British Museum, as well as others presented direct to the Trustees of the latter institution, were personally taken by him.

Mr. North then left Victoria, to arrange the Dobroyde collection for Dr. Ramsay, with the further intention of proceeding to Cairns, in Northeastern Queensland, to join a relative who had spent the two preceding years in that district, and who from time to time had forwarded him specimens of bird-skins, eggs, and insects. It was, however, decided otherwise. After a stay of five months in Sydney, arranging at his leisure the Dobroyde collection, and subsequently the collection of birds' eggs in the Australian Museum, he was asked in February 1897 by the Trustees of the latter institution to undertake the preparation of a Catalogue. This he did, and it was published in 1899 under the title of "Descriptive Catalogue of the Nests and Eggs of Birds found breeding in Australia and Tasmania." Later on he was appointed to assist the Curator, Dr. Ramsay, principally in the preparation of the "Catalogue of Australian Birds in the Australian Museum." In company with Dr. Ramsay, collecting-expeditions were made to different parts of the State. In addition to obtaining birds and eggs, in 1888 he made large collections of Silurian fossils at Lilydale, and Tertiary fossils at Muddy Creek and Schnapper Point, Victoria, and in the following year of Permo-carboniferous fossils at Gerringong and Crooked River, New South Wales. On the 4th August, 1891, he was appointed to the position he now holds, as Ornithologist, in the Australian Museum. In 1896–7 he visited the inland plains between Narrabri and Moree, and northward to the neighbourhood of the Queensland border, making a collection of birds, nests, and eggs, a short trip being made in the following year to the Upper Clarence River District.

His official duties keeping him for the most part in town, he has chosen for residence outlying suburbs, where he has made himself thoroughly acquainted with the habits and nidification of each bird, and, where possible, has studied the life history of a species. Thus five years were spent at Dobroyde and Ashfield, four more on the outskirts of

VOL. II. 2 F

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Canterbury and Croydon, and seven years at Chatswood and Roseville. The latter is beautifully timbered, with scrub and heath-lands in places, intersected with creeks and ravines leading to Middle Harbour, and is likely to remain a delightful hunting ground for the ornithologist for many years to come. The results of his labours have chiefly appeared in his many contributions to the "Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales," the "Records of the Australian Museum," and the "Sydney Town and Country Journal" (the latter anonymous); to a less extent in "The Victorian Naturalist," the "Proceedings of the Zoological Society" (London), "The Ibis," and kindred publications. Not forgetting the "Descriptive Catalogue" previously referred to, among his other more important contributions to ornithological literature are the "Aves of the Horn Scientific Expedition to Central Australia," published in 1896, and a "List of Birds collected by the Calvert Exploring Expedition in Western Australia,"* published in the "Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia" for 1898, the field notes being supplied in both instances by that indefatigable collector, Mr. G. A. Keartland.

The work on which Mr. North is now engaged, and of which four Parts and an Index forming Volume I. have been published by the Trustees of the Australian Museum, is "Special Catalogue No. I." His life-histories of Rhipidura albiscapa, Micræca fascinans, Gerygone albigularis, Malurus lamberti, and Origma rubricata, show what can be done by daily observation, under favourable auspices, and in the neighbourhood of a large city. Especial attention has also been paid to the family of Bower-birds (Ptilonorhynchidæ) in the work, which is freely illustrated with drawings of birds and photographs of nests, mostly taken in situ by the author.

Northbourne (Lord).

A specimen of Baillon's Crake (Porzana bailloni) from Deal. Presented. [1905, 10. 10, 1.]

Northcott (Colonel H. P.).

55 birds from Gambaga in the Gold Coast Hinterland, West Africa. Presented. [99. 9. 20, 1–55.]

A list of Colonel Northcott's collection was published by me in the "Bulletin" of the British Ornithologists' Club for 1899 (pp. vi., vii.). Amongst other interesting species obtained by him was Lanius gubernator, Hartl., previously only known from Equatorial Africa. In the same number of the "Bulletin" some new species from Gambaga were described by Dr. Hartert from Captain Giffard's collection (t.c., p. v.; id., Nov. Zool., VI., pp. 402–403). Colonel Northcott was at a moment's notice despatched from England to join Lord Methuen's staff on the Modder River, and was killed almost immediately on his arrival.

(Cf. Sharpe, Bull. B.O.C., x., p. xxvi.)

Nurse (Capt. C. G.).

53 birds from Aden and Somali Land. Exchanged. [96. 2. 18, 1–53.]

Captain Nurse made some interesting collections, principally of Lepidoptera, but the Museum also received some birds from him, among them being our first specimens of the Somali-Land Sparrow (Passer castanopterus).

* Proc. Roy. Soc. South Austr., vol. xxii., p. 125 (1898).

[page] 435

Oates (EUGENE W.).

67 birds from Burma. Purchased. [82. 1. 9, 1–67.] Among other interesting species, the Burmese Merlin (Poliohierax insignis) was added to the Museum collection.

62 nests and sterna of Burmese birds. Presented. [82. 1. 16, 1–31; 82. 1. 17, 1–31.]

1562 specimeus of Burmese birds. Purchased. [82. 1. 20, 1428; 85. 4. 17, 1–9; 88. 8. 18, 1–49.]

A splendid series of Pelicans, and 34 species new to the collection, were acquired on this occasion.

610 eggs of Burmese birds. Presented. [82. 3. 20, 1–393; 84. 10. 2, 1–198; 85. 7. 21, 199–218.]

99 specimens from the Shan States. Presented. [91. 3. 15, 1–13; 94. 7. 3, 1–86.]

The first scientific collections received by the Museum from Burma. Graculipica fuscogularis, Salvad., was new to the National Collection, but the specimen was afterwards referred to G. burmanica by Mr. Oates ('Faun. Brit. Ind., Birds,' i., p. 535). Pomatorhinus imberbis, Salvad., was new to the Museum, as also the type of Ixulus clarki, Oates.

Mr. Oates was an officer in the Public Works Department in Burma, and rose to the highest positions in this branch of the Service. In his leisure moments he devoted himself to the study of natural history, and it is as a naturalist that he will always be known to fame. No more conscientious worker has ever lived, and his "Birds of British Burma," and the first two volumes of the "Aves" in the "Fauna of British India," are models of what such books should be. His influence on the history of zoology has been great, and his work is held in high esteem by all ornithologists. His recent illness, which has compelled him to fore go the completion of the "Catalogue of Birds' Eggs in the British Museum," of which he wrote the first two volumes, has been much regretted by all his colleagues in the British Museum.

Oates (FRANK).

See OATES, W. E. and C. G.

Oates (W. E. and C. G.).

350 birds from Matabele Land. Presented [79. 9. 7, 1–350.]

This collection was made by Mr. Frank Oates, the brother of the donors, and was described by me in the Appendix to "Matabele Land and the Victoria Falls" (8vo, London, 1881), App., pp. 294–328, pls. A, B. Bradyornis oatesi and Saxicola shelleyi were described as new, but the latter species of Chat is now considered to be a Thamnolæa (cf. Sharpe, Handl., iv., p. 170). Frank Oates was a most enthusiastic sportsman and naturalist, and would have done much good ornithological work, had his life been prolonged. He died during his journey back from the Zambesi.

Ogilvie (F. MENTEITH).

28 specimens of Game-birds from Argyllshire. Presented. [91. 12. 24, 1–28.]

Ogilvie-Grant (W. R.).

See also BARING, Hon. CECIL; and FORBES, Dr. H. O.; REID, Capt. G. SAVILE; ROTHSCHILD, Hon. WALTER.

59 birds and eggs from Crieff, Perthshire. Presented. [84. 5. 16, 1–10; 84. 6. 3, 1–6; 97. 11. 6, 1–43.]

2 F 2

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8 birds from Bournemouth. Presented. [89. 2. 27, 1–87.]

27 birds from Banffshire. Presented. [89. 10. 1, 1–27.]

82 birds from Madeira and the Desertas. Presented. [90. 5. 7, 1–82.]

Among many other interesting species, a new Sparrow Hawk, Accipiter granti, was described by me.

10 specimens of Shags and Cormorants from Cromarty. Presented. [97. 5. 14, 1–10.]

16 specimens of Geese and Pigeons from Cromarty and Sutherlandshire. Presented by W. R. Ogilvie-Grant, Capt. Savile Reid, and G. A. St. Quintin. [97. 5. 16, 1–16.]

The groups of the Grey Lag-Goose (Anser anser) and Rock Dove (Columba livia), with their nests, eggs, and natural surroundings, were obtained on this occasion. [Nos. 147 and 82 of the nesting-groups.]

9 British Marsh Tits, and other birds from Kent, Hertfordshire, Berkshire, Surrey, Sussex, etc. Presented. [1902. 1. 21, 1–4; 1902. 1. 24, 1–3; 1902. 1. 27, 1–2; 1902. 3. 27, 3–15.]

52 birds from Clandeboye, Ireland, and Chislehurst. Presented. [1905. 6. 5, 1–52.]

8 birds from South Wales. Presented. [1905. 7. 19, 1–8.]

Mr. Ogilvie-Grant has been my colleague in the British Museum since June 1882, and has worked with great enthusiasm. He has procured 27 of the nesting-groups of British Birds, many taken by himself, others in company with Capt. Savile Reid and Mr. G. A. St. Quintin. He has also made expeditions to Madeira and the neighbouring islands (with the Hon. Cecil Baring), Canaries, Salvage Islands, Azores, S. Arabia, and Sokotra (with Dr. H. O. Forbes), adding, in every instance, valuable series of specimens to the collections. He is a great authority on the game-birds, and described the Order Galliformes in vol. xxii. of the 'Catalogue of Birds.' He has also written a large portion of vols. xvii. and xxvi. of the 'Catalogue.'

Among the nesting-groups of British Birds, the Museum owes the following to Mr. Ogilvie-Grant:—Rook, Jackdaw, Hooded Crow, Tree-Pipit, Robin, Chiffchaff, Swallow, House-Martin, Partridge, Black Grouse, Capercaillie, Lesser Spotted Woodpecker, Rock Dove, Stock Dove, Red-throated Diver, Corn-Crake, Dottrell, Herring Gull, Sandwich Tern, Roseate Tern, Heron, Sheld-Duck, Peregrine Falcon, Buzzard, Golden Eagle.

Olcese (M.).

See BOUCARD, A.

Olcese was the successor of the celebrated naturalist Favier, in Tangier. He made considerable collections in the neighbourhood of that town, and the Museum has secured some interesting specimens through Mr. Boucard.

Oldham (Professor THOMAS).

35 birds from India. Presented. [56. 6. 10, 1–35.]

Cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., xiii., p. 111, for Prof. Oldham's interesting career.

Oliver (Lieut. GERALD).

11 eggs of birds from Troughton Island, N.W. Australia. Presented. 90. 12. 25, 1–11.

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Olph-Galliard (M. VICTOR AIMÉ LÉON).

5 birds from S. France. Presented. [76. 7. 27, 1–5.]

I met M. Olph-Galliard in Paris, and arranged an exchange of British for French birds with him. He died soon after, before he had obtained any series beyond a few Long-tailed Tits. He was a very sound ornithologist, and wrote one of the few existing books on the French Avifauna, "Contributions à la Faune Ornithologique de l'Europe occidentale" (Bayonne, 8vo, 1884–1892). He was also the describer of Moussier's Redstart (Ruticilla moussieri) in 1846, and wrote in 1891 a "Catalogue des Oiseaux des environs de Lyon" (cf. Ibis, 1893, p. 478).

Osmaston (B. B.).

85 birds' nests and eggs from Darjeeling. Presented. [1904. 12. 7, 1–85.]

Otago Museum, New Zealand.

42 birds from Antipodes Island, the Chatham and Auckland Groups, Kermadec Islands, and Snares Islands. Received in exchange. [97. 12. 6, 1–42.]

Owston (ALAN).

A specimen of Oceanodroma tristrami. Purchased. [1900. 2. 5, 1.]

Packman (J. C. D.).

139 birds from Tenasserim. Presented. [44. 3. 25, 1–139.]

This was probably the first collection of Tenasserim birds ever made, but it was so badly preserved that most of the specimens have perished, or have been given away, since the acquisition of Mr. Hume's splendid series of birds from this part of the British Empire.

Page (Capt. JUAN).

178 birds from the Pilcomayo River. Presented. [95. 9. 8, 1–178.]

An expedition for the exploration of the Gran Chaco and the Pilcomayo River was started in 1890 under the leadership of Capt. Page of the Argentine Navy, who died at Fortin Page. Dr. Graham Kerr was the naturalist to the expedition, which suffered great hardships, and the collection of birds was only saved with much difficulty. He has written an interesting paper on the "Avifauna of the Lower Pilcomay" in the "Ibis" for 1892 (pp. 120–152, pl. iii.). Two new species of Woodpecker, Celeus kerri and Picumnus pilcomayensis, were described by Mr. Edward Hargitt (Ibis, 1891, pp. 605, 606).

Palmer (A. J. V.).

84 specimens from Bushire. Presented. [86. 7. 1, 1–59; 86. 7. 6, 1–25.]

This interesting collection was described by me in the "Ibis" for 1886 (pp. 493–499).

Paris. Musée d'Histoire Naturelle.

8 birds from the Comoro Islands. Presented. [88. 4. 8, 1–8.]

The duplicates from the collection made by M. Humblot were presented to the British Museum by Prof. Alphonse Milne-Edwards, by whom, and his successor Prof. Oustalet, the most friendly feeling has always been exhibited for the British Museum. Four species were

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new to the national collection, Turdus comorensis, Humblotia flavirostris, Cinnyris humbloti, and Terpsiphone comorensis, described by Milne-Edwards and Oustalet in the "Comptes Rendus," ci., 1885.

Parker (Prof. T. JEFFREY).

4 specimens of Kiwis, Apteryx australis, A. mantelli, A. oweni. Presented. [96. 3. 13, 1–4.]

Parry-Evans (Rev. J. D. S.).

12 eggs from the Transvaal. Presented. [1904. 2. 3, 1–12.]

Parzudaki (M. ÉMILE).

33 sterna of birds from Algeria. Purchased. [51. 8. 25, 32–64.]

69 birds and eggs from various localities. Purchased. [51. 9. 11, 6–8; 52. 3. 8, 1–20; 52. 5. 27, 1–18; 53. 6. 23, 1–28.]

Many of the specimens are from South America; but a number of birds from different parts of Europe were also purchased.

36 birds and eggs, mostly from South America. [53. 9. 28, 1–25; 53. 12. 6, 34–44.]

One of the types of Ortalis wagleri, Gray, was included in this series, and Acroptornis orthonyx, Lafr., and Psaltriparus minimus were added to the Museum collection.

145 birds and eggs from various localities. [54. 6. 24, 1–14; 54. 6. 28, 1–3; 58. 6. 2, 1–128.]

Included the type of Turturœna malherbei.

A specimen of Balæniceps rex. Purchased. [58. 11. 20, 34.]

The Whale-headed Stork was described by Gould in 1851 from a specimen brought from the Upper White Nile by Mansfield. The bird purchased from Parzudaki was the first one obtained by the British Museum, and the present resting-place of the type-specimen is, I believe, unknown. There is no information as to the origin of the Parzudaki specimen.

223 specimens of Parrots from various localities, several being from the Massena collection. Purchased. [59. 11. 22, 1–88; 60. 11. 7, 1–5; 60. 11. 8, 1–130.]

Types of Conurus chloropterus, Souancè; C. rubrolarvatus, Massena and Souancè; Conurus astec, Souancè; Pyrrhura hæmatotis, Souancè; Chrysotis chloronota, Souancè; P. molinæ, Massena and Souancè; Chrysostis coccineifrons, Souancè ((= C. viridigena, Cass.; cf. Salvad., Cat., xx., p. 297); Loriculus apicalis, Souancè; L. regulus, Souancè; Psittacula cyanopygia, Souancè; P. chrysogaster, Parzud. (nom. nudum) ((= P. passerina, L.; cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xx., p. 245); Gnathositta ieterotis, Massena and Sonancè; Pionus seniloides, Massena and Souancè.

The following species were new to the collection: Conurus petzi (Leibl.) = C. canicularis (cf. Salvad., Cat. B., xx., p. 201), Anodorhynchus glaucus (V.), Cyanopsittacus spixi (Wagl.), Pæocephalus fuscicollis, Neophema splendidæ, Cyanorhamphus erythrotis, Loriculus stigmatus, Palæornis eques, Lorius lory, L. garrulus.

Payne (W. A.).

8 eggs from the Transvaal. [1902. 11. 18, 1–8.]

Pearce (W.)

Sent many birds from the neighbourhood of Constantinople, and was apparently a pupil of Mr. T. Robson's, as he prepared his specimens in the same way. He afterwards collected in Cyprus for Lord Lilford.

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Pearson (HENRY J.).

13 specimens from Waigats, Novaya Zemlya, etc. Presented. [98. 8. 2, 1–13.]

Included skins, spirit-specimens and nestlings of several rare Arctic species, Limonites minuta, Anthus cervinus, etc.

18 eggs of the Little Stint (Limonites minuta) from Waigats Island, and Dolgoi Island, N. Russia. Presented. [1900. 11. 10, 1–18] (cf. Oates, Cat. Eggs Brit. Mus., iii., p. 53, 1902).

3 specimens of Totanus fuscus, imm. from Russian Lapland. Presented. [1904. 5. 12, 1–3.]

Mr. Henry Pearson was born in 1850 at Chilwell, Notts (the adjoining village to Beeston, where John Wolley resided, when in England). He was prevented until 1891 from devoting much time to ornithology, by the more urgent pressure of business. In that year he and his brother, Charles Pearson, went to Norway; and, having chartered a small steamer, explored many of the Lofoden Islands, from Andö in the north to Röst, the most southern one. In 1892 he spent some time during the nesting-season on the Dovrefjeld and the district round the Nordfjord; and again visited these parts in 1902. An interesting excursion, on which Messrs. Edward Bidwell and Charles Pearson accompanied him, was made to the Lofoden Islands, Porsanger Fjord and other parts of Northern Norway in 1893, and recorded in the 'Ibis' for April 1894. The following year was devoted to an exploration of the Southern Fiskevötra of Iceland; the results were published in the 'Ibis' for April 1895. In 1895 a more extended voyage was attempted, viz., to Novaya Zemlya. Mr. Pearson was accompanied by Colonel H. W. Feilden, the Rev. H. H. Slater and Mr. C. Pearson; but the unsuitability of the yacht chartered for the expedition prevented his plans from being carried out in full. A short excursion was made to the north of Norway in 1896, when Mr. Pearson ascertained that most of the red gulls' eggs so prized by collectors were laid by Larus argentatus. Warned by the failure of 1895, a larger vessel was chartered in 1897 and a more successful voyage was made to Novaya Zemlya, his companions being Colonel Feilden and Dr. Frederick Curtis. The results obtained in 1895 and 1897 were published in "Beyond Petsora Eastward," a book which has valuable appendices by Colonel Feilden on the botany and geology of the countries visited. Mr. Pearson's visit to Russian Lapland, with Mr. C. Pearson, in 1899, was recorded in the 'Ibis' for October of that year. In 1901 he again went to that country and made a short stay on the Kanin Peninsula on the opposite side of the White Sea; while 1903 was spent in the interior to the south of Kola, the old capital of Russian Lapland. Mr. Pearson's last book, "Three Summers among the Birds of Russian Lapland," contains a detailed account of these expeditions.

Pease (Sir ALFRED E.).

386 birds from Somali Land and Southern Abyssinia. Presented. [1902. 1. 20, 1–386.]

14 birds from the Transvaal. Presented. [1905. 8. 13, 1–14.]

This collection represents the result of Mr. Pease's expedition to Abyssinia. Besides many rare and interesting species new to the Museum collection, were further added the types of three new species, Cisticola lavendulæ, Upupa intermedia, and Prodotiscus peasei. The collection was described by Mr. W. R. Ogilvie-Grant and Mr. R. J. Reid in the 'Ibis' for 1901 (pp. 607–699, pl. xiii.), where some good field-notes by Sir Alfred Pease will be found.

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Peek (Sir HENRY), Bart.

60 specimens of birds and eggs from Labrador. Presented. [98. 4. 16, 1–60.]

Sir Henry Peek was a collector of British Birds, and having received an offer of this collection from Labrador, purchased it at my request, and presented it to the British Museum. At his country seat at Rousdon, in Devonshire, is a collection of mounted birds, perhaps the most complete representation of the species in the "British List" in the Kingdom.

Peel (ALAN).

39 birds from Uruguay. Purchased. [73. 6. 28, 2–10; 76. 3. 18, 1–30.]

108 birds from Buenos Aires. Purchased. [78. 1. 25, 1–108.]

Mr. Alan Peel was a personal friend of Dr. Günther's, and his collections were of considerable value to the British Museum.

Peel (C. V. A.).

19 birds from Somali Land. Presented. [98. 4. 13, 1–19.]

From Mr. Peel the Museum received its first specimen of the rare Somali Bustard, Heterotetrax humilis. He has written a book, "Somaliland, being an account of two expeditions into the far interior, with a complete list of every Animal and Bird known to inhabit that country, and a list of Reptiles collected by the author" (London, 1900, 8vo, pp. xviii., 340), Appendix (Birds), pp. 305–333.

Penard (Messrs. F. P. and A. P.).

43 birds from Paramaribo, Surinam. Presented. [1902. 10. 31, 1–43.]

241 eggs from Surinam. Presented. [1904. 11. 22, 1–241.]

Penguin (Voyage H.M.S.).

Cf. Smith, Dr. F. W. Bassett (p. 487).

Penrose (Dr. FRANK).

40 skins of Sea-birds from Ascension Island. Presented. [99. 1. 4, 1–40.]

Penton (Surgeon-Major), R.N.

54 birds from Suakin. Presented. [93. 9. 20, 1–54.]

10 birds from Wady Haifa. Presented. [95. 7. 15, 6–15.]

The last collection contained two specimens of the African Wood-Ibis (Pseudotantalus ibis).

Percival (A. BLAYNEY).

71 birds and eggs from the Ruo and Shiré Rivers, Zambesia. Purchased. [99. 6. 8, 1; 1900. 2. 27, 1–33; 1900. 3. 21, 1–37.]

This collection was described by Mr. Percival in the 'Ibis' for 1902 (pp. 581–599). It contained several rare species, such as Andersson's Pern (Machærhamphus anderssoni, Dissodectes dickinsoni, etc.), besides the type of a new Rough-winged Swallow, Psalidoprocne percivali, Grant (= P. orientalis, Reichenow; cf. Reichenow, Vög. Africas, ii., p. 428, 1902).

260 birds and nests from Mombasa, Melindi, etc., Lake Naiwasha, Kikuyu, and other districts in British East Africa. Presented. [1903. 8. 1, 1–191; 1903. 9. 2, 1–69.]

Mr. Percival was the first to procure Machærhamphus anderssoni in British East Africa, and he also discovered a new species of Oriole (Oriolus percivali) named after him by Mr. Ogilvie-Grant.

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Percival (A. BLAYNEY) and Dodson (W.).

251 specimens from South Arabia. Purchased. [1900. 8. 5, 1–243; 1901. 11. 8, 1–8.]

3 birds from Southern Arabia, including the type of Rhyncostruthus percivali. Presented. [1901. 12. 16, 1–3.]

The collection made by the Percival-Dodson expedition was of very great interest, and contained the types of three new species, Telephonus percevali, Ammomanes saturatus, and œdicnemus dodsoni (cf. Grant, Nov. Zool., vii., pp. 243–273, 591, p. x., 1900).

Perkins (R. C. L.).

See ROYAL SOCIETY and BRITISH ASSOCIATION.

Persian Boundary Commission.

See BLANFORD, W. T.

Perks (Dr. R. H.).

197 birds from South Australia. Purchased. [98. 5. 17, 1–197.]

Perth (W. A.).

See WEST AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM.

Petherick (Consul J.).

10 specimens from Khartum. Purchased. [62. 6. 21, 5–14.]

A specimen of Balæniceps rex from the Upper White Nile. Purchased. [63. 12. 17, 1.]

Consul Petherick was Resident at Khartum for some years, and created quite a sensation in England by sending living specimens of the Balæniceps to the Zoological Gardens.

Petit (LOUIS).

56 birds from Landana, Lower Congo. Purchased. [89. 3. 26, 1–59.]

M. Petit père was a dealer in Paris, and his son Louis collected first in Senegambia and afterwards on the Lower Congo with Dr. Lucan. Their collections were sent to M. A. Bouvier, who asked me to write an account of them ["Études d'Ornithologie Africaine, par R. Bowdler Sharpe et A. Bouvier. Catalogue d'une Collection recueillie à Landana et Chiuchonxo (Congo) par M. Louis Petit, pendant les mois de janvier, février, mars et avril, 1876," Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1876, pp. 36–53, 301–314, pl. ii.; 1877, pp. 470–481; 1878, pp. 73–80]. Psalidoprocne petiti was described as new and figured in the first paper, and the second paper, appearing in the same volume of the "Bulletin" (pp. 300–314), was entitled "Sur les Collections recueillies dans la Région du Congo par MM. le Dr. A. Lucan et L. Petit depuis le mois de mai jusqu'en septembre." Bradypterus rufescens was described as new (p. 307) and Nigrita lucani (= N. luteifrons, ♀).

The Congo collections were brought over to London by M. Bouvier and named by me, on the understanding that the British Museum should be allowed to purchase all specimens required. Unfortunately M. Bouvier did not keep to his part of the bargain, and on returning to Paris he published my descriptions of some of the new species under his own name (Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1876, pp. 228, 229).

[page] 442

This publication was a matter of small concern to me, but he failed to send back all the types, as he had promised, and consequently I do not know to this day what became of the original specimens of Cisticola landanæ, etc.

Petrie (Professor W. M. FLINDERS).

Bones of a Crane from Egypt. Presented.

Professor Flinders Petrie has also collected a large series of mummies of Mammals and Birds in Egypt.

Philbrick (His Honour Judge F. A.), K.C.

109 eggs from Gippsland. Presented. [93. 2. 2, 1–109.]

These eggs were collected by Judge Philbrick's son, and were a valuable addition to our Museum.

Cf. "Who's Who," 1904, p. 1207.

Phillips (E. LORT).

6 specimens of birds from Somali Land. Presented. [89. 3. 20, 1–6.]

Included a specimen of Saxicola phillipsi, new to the collection.

79 birds from Somaliland. Purchased. [95. 7. 12, 1–79.]

Thirteen species were new to the collection, and the following 9 types of new species: Trachyphonus shelleyi, Upupa somaliensis, Coracias lorti, Dryoscopus ruficeps, Telephonus jamesi, Argya aylmeri, Parus thruppi, Saxicola phillipsi, Spreo shelleyi.

Most of these species were described by Captain Shelley in his paper "On Mr. E. Lort Phillips's Collection of Birds from Somali-Land," 'Ibis, 1885, pp. 389–418, pls. x.–xii.

257 birds and eggs from Somaliland. Purchased. [98. 7. 27, 1–257.]

Included many rare birds, and types of the following new species: Corvus edithæ, Poliospiza pallidior, Rhyncostruthus louisæ, Pseudalœmon freemantlei, Merula ludoviciæ, Tricholæma blandi, Francolinus lorti. The eggs of the new Ouzel (M. ludoviciæ) were also in the collection.

20 birds in spirits, from Somali Land. [1900. 10. 5, 1–20.]

Mr. Lort Phillips was one of the earlier explorers in Somali Land, having accompanied the late Mr. F. L. James in his celebrated expedition (see James, "Horn of Africa.") The party consisted of Messrs. James Aylmer, Thrupp, and E. Lort Phillips (Cf. "A Journey through the Somali Country to the Webbe Shebeyli," P. R. Geogr. Soc., 1885, pp. 625–646), and the names of all of these explorers were associated by Captain Shelley with the new species obtained on the expedition. Mr. Lort Phillips has since made three visits to Somali Land, the results of which have been published by himself in the 'Ibis' (1896, pp. 62–87, pl. ii.; 1897, pp. 448–449; 1898, pp. 382–425, pls. viii.–x.; 1899, pp. 303–5; 1900, p. 369).

A hybrid Pintail and Wigeon from Loch Swilley, Donegal. Presented. [1905. 1. 11, 1.]

Pickard-Cambridge (F. O.) and Austen (E.).

20 specimens from the River Amazon. Presented. [96. 5. 12, 1–20.]

Pierre (A.).

308 birds from Cochin China. Presented. [78. 6. 19, 1–308].

[page] 443

Mons. A. Pierre, who was a high Government official in the French colony in Cochin China, presented a large collection of birds to the Paris Museum. The duplicates he very generously gave to the British Museum, where they have proved of great service. Among them were such rare species as Polyplectrum germaini, and Porphyrio edwardsi, previously unrepresented in the British Museum.

Pike (A.).

29 birds from Eastern Turkestan. Presented. [98. 7. 23, 1–29.]

Pike (H. J.), and Pike (T. M.) and Popham (H. L.).

69 specimens of Geese, Ducks and Wading Birds from Walcheren, Holland. [95. 2. 6, 1–14; 96. 2. 20, 1–12; 97. 2. 24, 1–21; 1900. 1. 15, 1–5; 1902. 12. 14, 1–4; 1902. 12. 27, 1–4; 1903. 1. 15, 1–7.]

The Museum is exceedingly indebted to the above-named gentlemen for a fine series of European Anseres, of which we previously possessed but a scanty collection.

Pinwill (Captain STACKHOUSE).

1532 specimeus from the N.W. Himalayas, the Indian Peninsula, and Malacca. Presented. [76. 1. 15, 1–26; 76. 2. 12, 1–980; 76. 2. 28, 1–54; 76. 3. 7, 1–137; 76. 10. 20, 1–75; 81. 7. 30, 1–260.]

The Museum is under a debt of gratitude to Capt. Stackhouse Pinwill, who gave a fine collection of Indian birds for the furtherance of the "Catalogue of Birds," at a time when the series of specimens in the Museum, before the presentation of the great Hume Collection, was poor indeed. The first specimen of the rare Bat-hunting Pern (Machærhamphus alcinus) we owe to Capt. Pinwill, as also the types of Pomatorhinus pinwilli, in addition to many other rare species of Indian birds, such as Acanthoptila nipalensis, from the North-West frontier of Nepal, and others.

"Plumper," H.M.S.

See LYALL, DR.

Ponta Delgada Museum, Azores (Major CHAVES, Director).

43 birds from the Azores. Presented. [1904. 6. 21, 1–3; 1905. 1. 26, 1–39; 1905. 6. 6, 1.]

Popham (H. LEYBOURNE).

See PIKE, T. M.

Pratt (A. E.).

See LEACH; OLDFIELD THOMAS; SEEBOHM.

Mr. Pratt is chiefly known as an entomologist, but he has collected many interesting species of birds and their eggs. In the "Catalogue of Eggs" are recorded those of rare Thibetan species, mostly from Ta-tsien-lu, obtained by Mr. Pratt, and bequeathed to the Trustees by the late Mr. Henry Seebohm.

Pretyman (Capt. E. J.).

A Grey Phalarope (Crymophilus fulicarius) from Ipswich. [1900. 9. 3, 1.]

Cf. "Who's Who," 1904, p. 1238.

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Pretyman (W.).

8 birds from the Lawas River, N.W. Borneo. [83. 10. 1, 1–8.]

Specimens of Lobiophasis bulweri and the Bornean Peregrine Falcon (Falco ernesti) were included in this donation.

Prichard (HESKETH).

15 birds from Santa Cruz, Patagonia. Presented. [1903. 4. 6, 1–13.

Princeton University, New Jersey, U.S.A.

975 nests and eggs of North American birds. Received in exchange. [1900. 6. 25, 1–568; 1903. 1. 30, 1–407.]

A most valuable collection, chiefly made by Mr. W. E. D. Scott [q.v.].

Pryer (HARRY).

See SEEBOHM, H.

Mr. Pryer spent some years in Japan, and also visited the Bonin and Liu Kiu groups of islands. His collection was afterwards purchased by Mr. Henry Seebohm, and formed the basis of the latter's work, "Birds of the Japanese Empire" (roy. 8vo, London, 1890, pp. i.-xxiv., 386). Amongst other interesting discoveries made by Pryer was a new species of Megalurus from the neighbourhood of Yokohama, which Seebohm named Megalurus pryeri ('Ibis,' 1884, p. 40).

Pryer (W. B.).

See JANSON, E. W.

Brother of the above. A collection made by him in the province of Sandakan in N. E. Borneo was described by me in the "Proceedings" of the Zoological Society for 1881, pp. 790–800.

Purdie (J.).

See KEW, Director of Royal Botanic Gardeus.

Queensland Museum (C. W. DE VIS, Director).

2 rare birds (Macgregoria pulchra and Daphænositta miranda) from British New Guinea. Presented. [97. 8. 16, 1; 98. 10. 10, 3.]

Quelch (J. J.).

See McCONNELL, F. V.

Mr. Quelch was for some time an assistant in the Zoological Department of the Museum, and afterwards Director of the Museum at George Town, Demerara. He has made some excellent collections in British Guiana, and done much to increase our knowledge of the Avifauna. He accompanied Mr. McConnell on his celebrated expedition to Roraima.

Radcliffe (Capt. C. C.).

28 birds from Alaska. Presented. [1904. 9. 12, 1–28.]

Radcliffe.

See Col. DELMÉ-RADCLIFFE.

Rae (Dr. JOHN).

139 birds and eggs from Hudson's Bay Territory, chiefly from Repulse Bay. Presented. [48. 3. 13, 26–137; 48. 4. 14, 1–23; 53. 1. 6, 100–104.]

For Dr. Rae's record as a traveller and collector cf. Dict. Nat. Biogr., xlvii., p. 151.

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Ramage (G. A.).

See ROYAL SOCIETY.

Ramsay (Dr. E. P.).

A skin and skull of the Tooth-billed Bower-bird (Scenopæus dentirostris), new to the collection. Presented. [83. 11. 16, 1, 2.]

19 specimens from the Solomon Islands. Presented. [95. 12. 24, 1–19.]

In exchange for specimens from the British Museum, Dr. Ramsay presented several rare birds from the Solomon Islands, amongst them the types (or co-types) of Rhipidura rubrofrontata, Pachycephala collaris and Aplonis feadensis.

While Director of the Australian Museum at Sydney, Dr. Ramsay raised the status of that Museum to the first rank among the natural history institutions in the Southern Hemisphere. He assisted me always, but especially when I was writing my first book, the "Monograph of the Kingfishers," when I exchanged my collection of British birds' eggs with him for specimens of Australian Kingfishers, which were of great service to me at the time.

Ramsay (Colonel R. G. WARDLAW).

103 birds from Sumatra (C. Bock), Karen Hills, Burma, and other parts of the Indian Empire. Presented. [80. 4. 21, 1–12; 80. 10. 19, 1–54; 81. 7. 29, 1–17; 83. 2. 6, 1–13; 83. 11. 6, 1–7.]

These were duplicates from his collection, and among them were a number of species unrepresented in the British Museum. Colonel Wardlaw Ramsay presented many rare specimens of birds which were much wanted for description in the "Catalogue of Birds," and he lent me specimens on all occasions.

20,186 specimens of Asiatic Birds. The Tweeddale Collection.

On the death of his uncle, the 9th Marquess of Tweeddale, he received, as a bequest, the magnificent collection of Asiatic birds formed by the Marquess, together with the unique Tweeddale library of scientific books. In the year 1887, Colonel Wardlaw Ramsay presented the whole of this great collection and library to the nation.

806 Accipitres [Tweeddale collection]. Presented. [87. 11. 1, 1–806.]

Contained types of Spilornis pallidus and Poliohierax insignis. Spizaëtus philippensis new to the collection.

350 Striges [Tweeddale collection]. Presented. [87. 11. 11, 1–350.]

Types of Scops everetti, Ninox spilocephala, N. odiosa, and Pseudoptynx gurneyi.

1355 Corvidæ, Dicruridæ, Oriolidæ, etc. [Tweeddale collection]. Presented. [87. 11. 20, 1–1355.]

Types of Corone pusilla, Manucodia comrii, Oriolus celebensis, O. palawanensis, O. assimilis, O. consobrinus, O. consanguineus, Dicrurus mirabilis, Chibia palawanensis, C. læmosticta, C. sunatrana, Buchanga chapmani, B. mouhoti, B. wallacei.

207 Eurylæmidæ and Pittidæ [Tweeddale collection], including the type of Hydrornis soror. Presented. [87. 12. 1, 1–207.]

1404 Campophagidæ and Muscicapidæ [Tweeddale collection]. Presented. [87. 12. 30, 1–1404.]

Types of Edoliisoma alteruma, E. mindanense, Terpsiphone nicobarica, Cyanomyias cœlestis, Abrornis chrysæa, Piezorhynchus verticalis, Stoparola sordida, Siphia herioti, Niltara cucopraeta, Myiagra tannensis, and Gerygone simplex.

[page] 446

971 Turdidæ and Sylviidæ [Tweeddale collection]. Presented. [88. 2. 20, 1–971.]

Types of Geocichla layardi, G. andamanensis, and Merula maxima. Merula tempesti new to the collection.

877 Pycnonotidæ [Tweeddale collection]. Presented. [88. 4. 1, 1–877.]

Types of Chloropsis chlorocephalus, Hemixus brunneiceps, H. sumatranus, Iole everetti, Criniger palawanensis, C. sumatranus, C. aureus, Ixus annectens, and Pycnonotus cinereifrons. Chloropsis lazulina was new to the collection.

1290 Timeliidæ [Tweeddale collection]. Presented. [88. 4. 20, 1–1290.]

Types of Myiophoneus castaneus, Copsychus niger, Lioptila saturata, Cittocincla stricklandi, Suya erythropleura, Prinia inornata, P. rafflesi, Orthotomus nigriceps, Cisticola ruficapilla, C. grayi, C. albigularis, C. beavani, Laticilla cinerascens, Pomatorhinus ochraceiceps, P. mariæ, Garrulax leucogaster, Actinodura ramsayi, Timelia jerdoni, Turdinus marmoratus, T. rufifrons, Drymocataphus fulvus, D. rubiginosus, Dasycrotopha speciosa, Mixornis bornensis, Anuropsis cinereiceps, Corythocichla striata, Stachyridopsis assimilis, Alcippe magnirostris, and Brachypteryx buxtoni.

The following species were not previously represented in the collection: Myiophoneus melanurus, Rhopophilus pekinensis, Orthotomus cinereiceps, Cisticola marginalis, Megalurus amboynensis, Babax lanceolatus, Trochalopterum austeni, T. formosum, Ianthocincla maxima, I. artemisiæ, I. lunulata, Mixornis capitalis, Corythocichla brevicaudatus, Herpornis tyrannulus, and Mesia laurinæ.

769 specimens of Laniidæ [Tweeddale collection]. Presented. [88. 5. 30, 1–