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NHM-WP01.003.062    Note:    [1856]   Undated MS in ink and pencil A. R. Wallace's hand, headed "The Chinaman at Singapore" with brief notes re the typical Chinese merchant, shopkeeper, planter and coolie, and Kling (Chettiar) tradesmen.   Text   Image
Rookmaaker, Kees John van Wyhe eds. Wallace, A. R. The Chinaman at Singapore. [1856] NHM-WP01.003.062 [page 1] The Chinaman at Singapore He is either a Merchant a Shopkeeper a coolie Planter or a Coolie of each of which I shall give a short sketch. The Merchant is generally a fat round faced man, with an important business-like look. He wars the plain clothes of the meanest coolie for he has perhaps been a coolie himself but he is always clean neat, his tail tipped with red silk hangs down to
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S013a    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1854. Letters from the Eastern Archipelago. Literary Gazette and Journal of the Belles Lettres, Science, and Art No. 1961: 739.   Text   Image   PDF
proprietors are only superior in size.The Chinese (in Singapore at least) are a most amazingly industrious people. It is almost painful to see how they work, and, except when eating, they are never seen idle. Their general dress is only a short pair of breeches, reaching from the hips to half way down the thighs, and thus almost naked they carry heavy loads of Gambier leaves and pepper, or walk along the dusty road to the town of Singapore, a distance of ten or twelve miles, with a hundred-weight
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S014    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1854. [Letter dated 9 May 1854, Singapore]. Zoologist 12 (142): 4395-4397.   Text   Image   PDF
Wallace Online [page] 4395 Proceedings of Natural-History Collectors in Foreign Countries. Mr. A. R. WALLACE.— Singapore, May 9, 1854.—As I have no doubt that my entomological friends will be glad to hear that I have arrived safe, and have commenced work, I will give you a short account of my progress up to this time. I landed at Singapore on the 20th of April, after a 46 days' passage from England without any incident out of the common. For a week I was obliged to remain in the town at an
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S014    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1854. [Letter dated 9 May 1854, Singapore]. Zoologist 12 (142): 4395-4397.   Text   Image   PDF
will not attack unless he can do it unawares, yet it is better to have the mind quite free from any such apprehensions. I shall therefore most probably leave here in a month or so for Borneo, before which, however, I hope to make such a collection as to give a tolerably correct idea of the Entomology of Singapore
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S014a    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1854. [Letter dated 26 September 1854, Singapore]. Literary Gazette and Journal of the Belles Lettres, Science, and Art No. 1978: 1077-1078.   Text   Image   PDF
Wallace Online [page] 1077 FOREIGN CORRESPONDENCE . Singapore, 26th September. In July last I left this town for Malacca, and spent more than two months there.Few places have populations so varied and distinct living together as are to be found in Malacca. The ubiquitous Chinese are perhaps the most numerous, keeping up their manners, customs, and language; the indigenous Malays are next in point of numbers, and their language is the 'Lingua franca' of the place. Next come the descendants of
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S014a    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1854. [Letter dated 26 September 1854, Singapore]. Literary Gazette and Journal of the Belles Lettres, Science, and Art No. 1978: 1077-1078.   Text   Image   PDF
extensive marshy flats cultivated as paddy-fields, out of which low isolated hills rise like islands. Further on, again, these flats contract into narrow valleys, winding about amidst low undulations. It is along the sides of these that the Malay villages are situated, only distinguishable by the dense masses of palms and fruit trees in which their houses are buried. Every spot of ground which is not nor has been cultivated is covered with jungle.In Malacca, as in Singapore, the Chinese do everything
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S015    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1855. On the ornithology of Malacca. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (ser. 2) 15 (86, February): 95-99.   Text   Image   PDF
found, but I was not fortunate in procuring them, my list compromising only Dicæum cruentatum, L., Anthreptes lepida, Lath., A. hypogrammica, Müll., and four species of the interesting genus Arachnothera, which are both honey-suckers and spider-eaters. The common Starling of Malacca is the Lamprotornis Cantor, Gm.; the Gracula Javanensis, Osbeck, is also very abundant. Of Finches I obtained two species, of the genus Munia, Hodgs., and the house sparrow of Malacca and Singapore, which is found
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S015    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1855. On the ornithology of Malacca. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (ser. 2) 15 (86, February): 95-99.   Text   Image   PDF
doubt if they have any affinity to the Woodpeckers, next to which they are generally placed. In the weakness of the feet, the size and shape of the skull and neck, and in the texture of the skin and plumage, and even in their colours, they approach much more nearly to the smaller Toucans.In the Picidæ I was very fortunate, obtaining nearly a complete series of the Malacca species, as the following list will show:— 1. Meiglyptes tristis, Horsf. Singapore and Malacca. 2. M. brunneus, Eyton
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S015    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1855. On the ornithology of Malacca. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (ser. 2) 15 (86, February): 95-99.   Text   Image   PDF
has a powerful and melodious voice, and may be considered the singing thrush of Malacca; it is often seen in cages.The Copsychus Mindanensis, Gm., has also a very beautiful and varied note; it is the commonest bird in Singapore and Malacca; it feeds much on the ground, and its rich black and white plumage makes it a pleasing object. It is called the Magpie by the European inhabitants here, from its colours and long tail, which latter it throws up vertically when alarmed, at the same time
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S017    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1855. The entomology of Malacca. Zoologist 13 (149): 4636-4639.   Text   Image   PDF
of the world, I will add a summary of my collections at Singapore and Malacca, made within six months of my landing at the former place, but of which not more than four months were spent in collecting. It will also show, I hope, that I have given equal attention to every order of insects. Coleoptera . . . . . 940 species. Lepidoptera (Diurnes 237) . . . . . 353 species. Hymenoptera (Ants 35) . . . . . 173 species. Hemiptera 143; Homoptera 85 . . . . . 228 species. Neuroptera (Libellulidæ 72
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S017    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1855. The entomology of Malacca. Zoologist 13 (149): 4636-4639.   Text   Image   PDF
Wallace Online [page] 4636 The Entomology of Malacca. By ALFRED R. WALLACE, Esq. To an entomologist Malacca seems, at first sight, a much finer locality than Singapore: the former is one of the very oldest European settlements in the East, while the latter is almost the newest. In the one, patches of the primæval forests remain on the hill-tops only, and all the low grounds are covered with new plantations of gambic, pepper and nutmeg, which afford scarcely an insect worth collecting: in the
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S017    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1855. The entomology of Malacca. Zoologist 13 (149): 4636-4639.   Text   Image   PDF
group that at all compete with the Erycinidæ of America.Turning now to the Coleoptera, the most remarkable feature is the almost total absence of those hosts of elegantly varied Longicorns which so delighted me at Singapore. The beetles altogether were exceedingly small and scarce, requiring the most persevering search to find any at all: yet they were very different from those of Singapore, and (principally through the persevering efforts of Mr. G. Rappa, a gentleman of Malacca, who spent a
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S017    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1855. The entomology of Malacca. Zoologist 13 (149): 4636-4639.   Text   Image   PDF
Mount Ophir by a larger species, and the two fine Catascopi of the former place had also their Malacca representatives. I here obtained my first species of Tricondyla, and in the centre of one of the densest and darkest jungles was so fortunate as to find the strange Mormolyce phyllodes, under a huge boletus,—just where, from its resemblance to the curious Thyreoptera of Singapore, I had expected to discover it. Numerous species of Apoderus were very remarkable among the Curculionidæ, while
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S018    Periodical contribution:     [Wallace, A. R.] 1855. Sarawak, Borneo, 1854. Literary Gazette and Journal of the Belles Lettres, Science, and Art No. 2003 (9 June): 366.   Text   Image   PDF
and Singapore, on account of the number of women and children, which gives them a more domestic and natural appearance. The women are mostly native half-breeds between the Dyak and Chinese, and the mixture has much improved the race. Some of them are really pretty, which can never be said of the Dyaks, except when very young girls. Of course there is also much improvement, morally and politically. These Chinese are a permanent and most valuable part of the population, not mere foreign
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S019    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1855. Extracts of a letter From Mr. Wallace. Hooker's Journal of Botany 7 (7): 200-209.   Text   Image   PDF
Wallace Online [page] 200 Extracts of a Letter From Mr. WALLACE, dated Singapore, October 10th, 1854. On getting rid of my fever I went to a place in the interior called [page] 20
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S019    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1855. Extracts of a letter From Mr. Wallace. Hooker's Journal of Botany 7 (7): 200-209.   Text   Image   PDF
every evening, but they were so wild that it was impossible to get a sight of them. Our rice being finished, and our boxes crammed full of specimens, we returned, our men taking us by what they termed a better road, winding about through Malay villages, and making our second day's walk upwards of thirty miles. I only stayed at Ayer Panas a sufficient time to pack up all my collections, and then returned to Malacca on my way to Singapore. We were congratulated by all our friends on having lived
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S021    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1855. Letter [dated 8 April 1855, Borneo]. Zoologist 13 (154): 4803-4807.   Text   Image   PDF
safely promise abundance of novelty for Mr. Waterhouse. Carabidæ are hardly so abundant as at Singapore, but I have some beautiful new Therates, Catascopus and Colliuris, and the curious Thyreoptera also occurs sparingly under Boleti. The Cleridæ seem very similar to those of Singapore, but scarcely so numerous. The Buprestidæ I am happy to say are very fine; not that the species run very large, but they are tolerably abundant. One of the most beautiful I make out to be Belionota sumptuosa, about
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S022    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1855. Borneo. Literary Gazette and Journal of the Belles Lettres, Science, and Art No. 2023: 683-684.   Text   Image   PDF
, and giving every promise of success in an undertaking which must have a vast influence on the progress of commerce and civilization in Borneo and the surrounding countries. India, Australia, and every country with which they have communication, must also be incalculably benefited, by an abundant supply of good coal, within two days' steam of Singapore. Let us wish success, then, to the Si Munjon coal works. A.R.W
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S022    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1855. Borneo. Literary Gazette and Journal of the Belles Lettres, Science, and Art No. 2023: 683-684.   Text   Image   PDF
Munjon Coal Works, Borneo, May 25th, 1855. It is only about a year since coal was discovered in this part of Borneo. The works have been just commenced by a Singapore house, under the superintendence of an English engineer, and as the district around is an interesting one, I have made this my head quarters for some time. The Si Munjon river is not yet known to fame; I must therefore describe its whereabouts. It is an eastern branch of the Ladong River, whose mouth is about twenty miles east of
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S025    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1856. Observations on the zoology of Borneo. Zoologist 14 (164): 5113-5117.   Text   Image   PDF
not for the constant employment and ever-varying interest of a collector's life, and the pleasures of looking forward to a time when the stores now amassed will furnish inexhaustible food for study and reflection, and call back to memory the strange beautiful scenes among which they have been obtained. A. R. Wallace. Singapore, March 10, 1856
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S035    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1857. Letter [dated 10 March 1857, Arru]. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London 1856-1857: 91-93.   Text   Image   PDF
few in species to please me: in two months' hard work I can only muster fifty Longicornes, a number I reached in ten days in Singapore; but Lamellicornes are the most extraordinarily scarce; I have only nine species, and four of them single specimens; there are, however, two fine Lomaptera among them, I hope new. All other groups are the same; Geodephaga, scarcely a dozen species, and nothing remarkable; not one Cicindela; only one Tricondyla (T. aptera?) and one Theretes (T. labiata), with not
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S040    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1858. On the entomology of the Aru Islands. Zoologist 16 (185-186): 5889-5894.   Text   Image   PDF
And of the following, 563 species, viz.:— Hemiptera  . . . . . 80 Homoptera .  .  .  .  . 50 Hymenoptera  .  .  .  . 214 Diptera .  .  .  .  .  . 185 Orthoptera . . .  .  . 18 Neuroptera    . . . . . 10 Forficula, Blatta, c . . . 6 Total species of insects  .1364 In the Lepidoptera and Coleoptera it will be seen there is a striking deficiency of species. In both Singapore and Borneo I obtained, in the same time, more than twice as many beetles, while in South America either of the families of
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S059    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1860. Letters [dated 26 November 1859, Ceram; 31 December 1859, Amboyna, and 14 February 1860, Amboyna]. Ibis 2 (7): 305-306.   Text   Image   PDF
of Amboyna, Dec. 31, 1859. My letter was returned to me because I had not prepaid the postage as far as Singapore. I now add a few lines. I have just arrived here, being quite tired of the barrenness of Ceram. I shall stay about three weeks, and then go to East Ceram and Kè, if possible. Passo, Feb. 14, 1860.I send you this viâ Marseilles, in order that you may get for me, as soon as possible, three cheap small double-barrelled guns, and send them overland to Ternate, to be ready for my next
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S065    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1862. On the trade of the Eastern Archipelago with New Guinea and its islands. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 32: 127-137.   Text   Image   PDF
surrounding districts, they are a great medium of exchange over all the Papuan countries, a little being also taken to Ternate. The mats and palm-leaf boxes are in great demand all over the Moluccas. The goods with which these various products are purchased are not very diversified, the principal being bar-iron, calico, and thin red cottons from England, choppers made in Singapore or Macassar, Bugis cloths, cheap German knives and Chinese plates and basins, brass-wire, white and coloured beads
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S065    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1862. On the trade of the Eastern Archipelago with New Guinea and its islands. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 32: 127-137.   Text   Image   PDF
European luxuries of sugar, biscuit, preserved fruits, and wine, were to be obtained in small quantities, but at very moderate prices, and there was generally no advance made on the Singapore or Macassar rates, the dealers trusting to the profit obtained on the produce taken in exchange from the native buyers. Cockfighting and football-playing (in which the Bugis are very expert) took place almost every evening in the widest part of the street; and though quarrels sometimes occur and creeses are drawn
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S067    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1862. Narrative of search after Birds of Paradise. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1862 (27 May): 153-161.   Text   Image   PDF
country only to get Birds of Paradise, of which they know he can buy plenty at Ternate, Macassar, or Singapore.It thus happened that when Mr. Allen arrived at Sorong and explained his intentions of going to seek Birds of Paradise in the interior, innumerable objections were raised. He was told it was three or four days' journey over swamps and mountains; that the mountaineers were savages and cannibals, who would certainly kill him; and, lastly, that not a man in the village could be found who
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S089    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1864. Remarks on the habits, distribution, and affinities of the genus Pitta. Ibis 6 (21): 100-114.   Text   Image   PDF
was not in this direction, but through the intervention of the Malay Peninsula. The position of the Anamba and Natuna Islands, and a sea under fifty fathoms deep, show the probable line of connexion of Borneo with Malacca, while the narrow and island-choked strait west of Singapore indicates the point of junction with Sumatra. At this time Banca was already isolated; its rocky surface and mineral products show a great resemblance to the peninsula, from which it was probably separated at a
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S096    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1865. On the phenomena of variation and geographical distribution as illustrated by the Papilionidæ of the Malayan Region. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 25 (part I): 1-71, pls.1-8.   Text   Image   PDF
♀. Upper side of a browner colour; two orange-brown ocelli at the anal angle. Under side: the lunules and ocelli all larger; the two intermediate ones entirely absent, as in the male. Expanse of wings 5½–5¾ inches. Hab. Macassar, Menado (Celebes) (Wall.). 58. PAPILIO ISWARA, White.P. Iswara, White, Entom. 1842, p. 280; Doub. and Hew. Gen. of Diurn. Lep. pl. 2. f. 1 (♀). Hab. Penang, Malacca, Singapore, Borneo (♂, ♀) (Wall.). 59. PAPILIO HYSTASPES, Felder.P. Hystaspes, Feld. Lep. Nov. Philipp
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S096    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1865. On the phenomena of variation and geographical distribution as illustrated by the Papilionidæ of the Malayan Region. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 25 (part I): 1-71, pls.1-8.   Text   Image   PDF
78. PAPILIO GODARTII, Montrouzier.P. Godartii, Montr. Ann. Soc. d' Agric. de Lyon, 1856, p. 394. Hab. Woodlark Island.Remark.—Closely allied to the last; perhaps a variation only. k. Demolion group. 79. PAPILIO DEMOLION, Cramer.P. Demolion, Cr. Pap. Ex. t. 89. f. A, B; P. Cresphontes, Fabr.; Boisd. Gén. Lép. p. 220. Hab. Java, Borneo, Sumatra, Singapore (Wall.), Moulmein (Brit. Mus.). 80. PAPILIO GIGON, n. s. Tab. VII. fig. 6 (♀). P. Gigon, List of Papilionidæ in Brit. Mus. p. 27 (no
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S096    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1865. On the phenomena of variation and geographical distribution as illustrated by the Papilionidæ of the Malayan Region. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 25 (part I): 1-71, pls.1-8.   Text   Image   PDF
been applied to this species having been preoccupied, I have named it after the first describer. 95. PAPILIO LEUCOTHOË, Westwood.P. Leucothoë, Westw. Arc. Ent. pl. 79. f. 3; P. Xenocles, var., Brit. Mus. List of Pap. Hab. Singapore, Malacca (Wall.), N. India. 96. PAPILIO MACAREUS, Godart.P. Macareus, Godt. Enc. Méth. ix. pl. 76; Horsf. Desc. Cat. Lep. E. I. C. pl. 5. f. 1; Boisd. Sp. Gén. Lép. p. 374. P. striatus, Zink. Beitr. Ins. Java, t. 14. f. 5. Hab. Malaeea (Wall.), Java (Horsfield
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S096    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1865. On the phenomena of variation and geographical distribution as illustrated by the Papilionidæ of the Malayan Region. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 25 (part I): 1-71, pls.1-8.   Text   Image   PDF
insect. Fig. 1. Papilio Pammon; a male, from Malacca. Fig. 3. The first form of female, closely resembling the male, from India. Fig. 5. The second form of female (P. Polytes, L.), from Singapore. This is the most common and widely distributed form of female, occurring everywhere with the male. Fig. 6. The third form of female (P. Romulus, Cr.), from India. [page] 7
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S097    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1864. Bone-caves in Borneo. Reader 3 (64): 367.   Text   Image   PDF
them that Mr. Coulson, who is now on his way to Singapore, is willing to undertake it, if he receives instructions within the next month or two, after which time he will probably have other engagements. The necessary expenses of going to such a remote part of the country would be rather heavy, as he must engage a native boat and crew, as well as labourers, at Sarawak; but I estimate that £150 would cover expenses and his remuneration for getting a good sample of the contents of the cave he
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S102    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1864. On the parrots of the Malayan Region, with remarks on their habits, distribution, and affinities, and the descriptions of two wew species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (28 June): 272-295, 1 map.   Text   Image   PDF
probably brought from the Nicobar Islands, which I consider the western limit of the Malayan region 6. PSITTINUS. 22. PSITTINUS INCERTUS. Psittacus incertus, Shaw, Nat. Miscell. pl. 769. P. malaccensis, Lath.; Wagl. Mon. p. 630; Sw. Zool. Ill. pl. 154. Hab. Malay Peninsula, Singapore, Sumatra, and Borneo (A. R. W.). Remarks. This species is the most abundant of the Parrots of the western Malay countries. The genus has undoubted affinities to Palœornis. 7. GEOFFROYUS. 23. GEOFFROYUS PERSONATUS
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S109    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1865. List of the land shells Collected by Mr. Wallace in the Malay Archipelago, with descriptions of the new species by Mr. Henry Adams. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1865: 405-416, pl. 21.   Text   Image   PDF
.). 8. NANINA WALLACEI, Pfr. Hab. Macassar (Celebes) (Wall.). 9. NANINA LUCTUOSA, Beck. Hab. Ceram; Goram; Batchian (Wall.). Brown-black variety, Aru Islands (Wall.). Remark. On foliage. 10. NANINA IGNESCENS, Pfr. Hab. Batchian (Wall.). Pale and brown varieties. Remark. Found on foliage. 11. NANINA TUMENS, Desh. Hab. Timor (Wall.). 12. HEMIPLECTA HUMPHREYSIANA, Lea. Hab. Singapore (Wall.). 13. HEMIPLECTA SCHUMACHERIANA, Pfr. Hab. Borneo (Wall.). 14. HEMIPLECTA PEASEANA, Pfr. Hab. Bouru; Timor
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S109    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1865. List of the land shells Collected by Mr. Wallace in the Malay Archipelago, with descriptions of the new species by Mr. Henry Adams. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1865: 405-416, pl. 21.   Text   Image   PDF
. Sarawak (Borneo) (Wall.). Remark. Among fallen leaves in the mountain forests. 25. ? RYSSOTA REGALIS, Bens. Hab. Borneo (Wall.). Remark. Found in the swamps of Nipa-palm. 26. ? RYSSOTA JANUS, Chem. Hab. Malacca (Wall.). 27. ? RYSSOTA NASUTA, Met. Hab. Borneo (Wall.). HELICIDæ. HELICELLINæ. 28. TROCHOMORPHA LYCHNIA, Bens. Hab. Malacca (Wall.); Singapore (Bens.). Remark. Found on rotten trunks. 29. TROCHOMORPHA CONICOIDES, Met. Hab. Borneo (Wall.). Remark. Found on rotten trunks. 30. TROCHOMORPHA
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S114    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1865. On the pigeons of the Malay Archipelago. Ibis (n.s.) 1 (4): 365-400, pl.9.   Text   Image   PDF
TABLE showing the distribution of Malayan Pigeons. INDIAN REGION. AUSTRALIAN REGION. Asia. Indo-Malay Islands. Celebes Timor group. Moluccan group. Papuan Islands. TRERONIDÆ. Indian Asia. Chinese Asia. Malacca and Singapore. Sumatra. Java. Borneo. Philippines. Celebes. Sulla Island. Lombock. Flores. Timor. Batchian. Kaioa Island. Gilolo and Ternate. Morty Island. Bouru. Ceram and Amboyna. Goram and Matabello. Ké Islands. Aru Islands. Mysol. Waigiou. New Guinea and Salwatty Islands east of New
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S127    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1867. On the Pieridae of the Indian and Australian regions. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part III): 301-416, pls. 1-4.   Text   Image   PDF
16. Tachyris nathalia, Felder. Pieris nathalia, Feld. Wien. Ent Monats. vi. p. 285. Hab. Java, Singapore ( , ), Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes ( ), Philippine Islands ( )(Coll. Wall.). Male. Above, creamy white with a faint greenish tinge; upper wings with the costal and outer margins narrowly black-bordered, and the apex somewhat dusky. Beneath, bright ochre-yellow; all but the apex and basal part of the uppers much paler or whitish, costal and outer margins finely black-edged. Head and neck
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S127    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1867. On the Pieridae of the Indian and Australian regions. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part III): 301-416, pls. 1-4.   Text   Image   PDF
PALæARCTIC REGION. INDIAN REGION. AUSTRALIAN REGION. Asia. Indo-Malay Islands. Philippines. Celebes. Moluccan Group. Papuan Islands. Timor Group. Australia and Pacific Is. Indian Asia. Chinese Asia. Malacca and Singapore. Sumatra. Java. Borneo. Celebes. Sulla Isl. Batchian. Kaioa Isl. Gilolo and Ternate. Morty Isl. Bouru. Ceram and Amboina. Goram and Matabello. K Isl. Aru Islands. Mysol. Waigiou. N. Guinea and Salwatty. Lombock. Flores. Timor. Australia and Pacific Is. PONTIA. 1. nina .. 1
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S127    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1867. On the Pieridae of the Indian and Australian regions. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part III): 301-416, pls. 1-4.   Text   Image   PDF
23. Thyca hyparete, Linnæus. Papilio hyparete, Linn. S.N. ii. p. 763; Clerck, Icon. t. 38, f. 2, 3 (nee Fab.). Pieris hyparete, Bd. Sp. G n. p. 455; Voll. Mon. Pier. p. 9. Papilio antonoe, Cr. 187 C, D, 320 A, B. Hab. Java, Borneo, Singapore (Wall.); Sumatra (Voll.). This species presents slight but apparently permanent differences in each locality. Taking those of Java as the type, the Singapore form has a narrower black border to the hind wings, the outer red spot is wanting beneath, the
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S127    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1867. On the Pieridae of the Indian and Australian regions. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part III): 301-416, pls. 1-4.   Text   Image   PDF
. Journ. iv. p. 69, t. 4, f. 2. Hab. N. India, Singapore, Sumatra, Java, Borneo (Coll. Wall.). The specimens vary considerably in tint and in size, and slightly in form, but there are no well marked races in any of the above localities. The Borneo specimens seem to have rather acuter and more falcate wings. 41. Tachyris galba, n. sp. Male. Wings much more acute than T. nero, but less so than [page] 37
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S127    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1867. On the Pieridae of the Indian and Australian regions. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part III): 301-416, pls. 1-4.   Text   Image   PDF
row of spots less distinct. Beneath: upper wings as in T. pasithoe; lower wings with the red semicircular band of about the same size and form as in T. pasithoe, the markings of the rest of the wing arranged as in T. pyramus, except that the yellow colour is paler and extends much further up the wing, filling two-thirds of the discoidal cell. Expanse of wings 2 inches. Hab Singapore (Coll. Wall.); Borneo (B.M.). This insect combines the characters of two very distinct Indian species, but in the
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S127    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1867. On the Pieridae of the Indian and Australian regions. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part III): 301-416, pls. 1-4.   Text   Image   PDF
row of six distinct ovate white spots; lower wings bright yellow, the nervures black-bordered, and a rather broad black border round the hind margin enclosing a row of six whitish spots, the inner ones bifid, the outermost yellow-tinged. Expanse of wings 3 inches. Hab. Singapore (Coll. Wall.). [page] 35
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S127    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1867. On the Pieridae of the Indian and Australian regions. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part III): 301-416, pls. 1-4.   Text   Image   PDF
into the pure yellow of the disc. The female has been described and figured by Vollenhoven as the male. Hab. Singapore (Wall.); Sumatra (Voll.). 23. Pieris naomi, n. sp. Male. Above, as in P. amalia, but the orange anal patch is not clearly defined. Beneath: the upper wings white, nearly covered by the thickened nervures and broad dusky margin, three yellow spots at the apex and one near the costa; lower wings entirely rich orange-red, with a rather broad purple-brown border enclosing a few reddish
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S127    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1867. On the Pieridae of the Indian and Australian regions. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part III): 301-416, pls. 1-4.   Text   Image   PDF
angle, where it joins the dark band. Hab. Philippine Islands (Coll. Wall., W. W. Saunders ). The male figured by Eschscholtz has very elongated and pointed fore wings. 9. Tachyris hippo, Cramer. Papilio hippo, Cr. 195 B, C, . Pieris hippo, Bd. Sp. G n. p. 534; Voll. Mon. Pier. p. 42. Papilio phryne, Fab. Ent. Syst. III. i. p. 196, . Pieris eleonora, Bd. Sp. G n. p. 481. Hab. N. India, Ceylon, Singapore, Sumatra, Philippine Islands (Coll. Wall., B. M.). This species is distinguished from its allies
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S135    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1868. A catalogue of the Cetoniidae of the Malayan Archipelago, with descriptions of the new species. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part V): 519-601, pls. XI-XIV.   Text   Image   PDF
Distribution of Species. INDIAN REGION. AUSTRALIAN REGION. Indo-Malay Islands. Celebes. Moluccan Group. Papuan Islands. Timor Group. Malacca and Singapore. Sumatra. Java. Borneo. Philippines. Celebes. Sulla Isl. Batchian. Kaioa Isl. Ternate. Gilolo. Morty Isl. Bouru. Ceram and Amboyna. Goram and Matabello. K Isl. Aru Islands. Mysol. Waigiou. N. Guinea Salwatty. Lombock. Flores. Timor. N. Hebrides Solomon Is. Schizorhininæ. SCHIZORHINA. 1. flammula 1 2. nigerrima 1 1 3. emilia 1 4. Whitei 1 1 5
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S135    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1868. A catalogue of the Cetoniidae of the Malayan Archipelago, with descriptions of the new species. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part V): 519-601, pls. XI-XIV.   Text   Image   PDF
Tables shewing the distributon of the Malayan Cetoniidæ Distribution of Species. INDIAN REGION. AUSTRALIAN REGION. Indo-Malay Islands. Celebs. Moluccan Group. Papuan Islands. Timor Group. Malacca and Singapore. Sumatra. Java. Broneo. Philippines. Celebes. Sulla Isl. Batchian. Kaioa Isl. Ternate. Gilolo. Morty Isl. Bouru. Ceram and Amboyna. Goram and Matabello. K Isl. Aru Islands. Mysol. Waigiou. N. Guinea Salwatty. Lombock. Flores. Timor. N. Hebrides Solomon Is. CETONIIDæ Goliathinæ
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S135    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1868. A catalogue of the Cetoniidae of the Malayan Archipelago, with descriptions of the new species. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part V): 519-601, pls. XI-XIV.   Text   Image   PDF
Distribution of Species. INDIAN REGION. AUSTRALIAN REGION. Indo-Malay Islands. Celebes. Moluccan Group. Papuan Islands. Timor Group. Malacca and Singapore. Sumatra. Java. Borneo. Philippines. Celebes. Sulla Isl. Batchian. Kaioa Isl. Ternate. Gilolo. Morty Isl. Bouru. Ceram and Amboyna. Goram and Matabello. K Isl. Aru Islands. Mysol. Waigiou. N. Guinea Salwatty. Lombock. Flores. Timor. N. Hebrides Solomon Is. CETONIA. 1. spectabilis 1 2. bifenestata 1 3. ciocolatina 1 4. procera 1 5. inanis 1 6
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S135    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1868. A catalogue of the Cetoniidae of the Malayan Archipelago, with descriptions of the new species. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part V): 519-601, pls. XI-XIV.   Text   Image   PDF
. 64, f. 1. Tæniodera monacha, Burm. Handb. iii. p. 326. M. Luxerii, Buquet, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1836, p. 204.Hab. Borneo, Singapore, Penang (Coll. Wall.); Java (B. M.). This pretty species is found in the flowers of palms, but is not abundant. 25. MACRONOTA ELONGATA, Gory Percheron. Macronota elongata, Gory Perch. Mon. Cet. p. 327, pl. 64, f. 6.Hab. Borneo, Singapore, Penang (Coll. Wall.). Found in palm flowers, along with M. monacha. 26. MACRONOTA MARMORATA, n. S. (Pl. XII. fig. 5). Ochraceo
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S135    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1868. A catalogue of the Cetoniidae of the Malayan Archipelago, with descriptions of the new species. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part V): 519-601, pls. XI-XIV.   Text   Image   PDF
Number of Species. Distribution of Species. INDIAN REGION. AUSTRALIAN REGION. Indo-Malay Islands. Celebes. Moluccan Group. Papuan Islands. Timor Group. Malacca and Singapore. Sumatra. Java. Borneo. Philippines. Celebes. Sulla Isl. Batchian. Kaioa Isl. Ternate. Gilolo. Morty Isl. Bouru. Ceram and Amboyna. Goram and Matabello. K Isl. Aru Islands. Mysol. Waigiou. N. Guinea Salwatty. Lombock. Flores. Timor. N. Hebrides Solomon Is. 2 Mycteristes 1 1 15 Heterorhina 4 1 4 1 5 1 1 1 10 Clinteria 2 1 4
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S135    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1868. A catalogue of the Cetoniidae of the Malayan Archipelago, with descriptions of the new species. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part V): 519-601, pls. XI-XIV.   Text   Image   PDF
densely clothe the thighs; anterior tibiæ with two acute lateral teeth; sternal process tubercular, somewhat compressed. Length 7 lines.Hab. Penang (Coll. Wall.). Nearest to M. picta, but very distinct. 28. MACRONOTA PICTA, Gu rin. Macronota picta, Gu r. Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 81; Schaum, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1844, p. 369. M. aurantiaca, Voll. M m. Ent. i. p. 26, pl. ii. f. 5.Hab. Penang (B. M.); Singapore, Malay Peninsula, Borneo (Coll. Wall.); Java (B. M., Horsfield). [page] 55
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S141    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1868. On the raptorial birds of the Malay Archipelago. Ibis (n.s.) 4 (13): 1-27, pl. I.   Text   Image   PDF
TABLE showing the distribution of the Malayan Strigidæ. PALEARCTIC REGION. INDIAN REGION. AUSTRALIAN REGION. Asia. Indo-Malay Islands. Celebes Moluccan group. Papuan Islands. Timor group. TRIGIDÆ. Europe. Indian Asia. Chinese Asia. Malacca and Singapore. Sumatra. Java. Borneo. Philippines. Celebes. Sula Island. Batchian. Kaioa Island and Ternate. Gilolo. Morty Island. Bouru. Ceram and Amboyna. Goram and Matabello. Ké Island. Aru Islands. Mysol. Waigiou. New Guinea and Salwatty. Lombock. Flores
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S141    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1868. On the raptorial birds of the Malay Archipelago. Ibis (n.s.) 4 (13): 1-27, pl. I.   Text   Image   PDF
TABLE showing the distribution of Malayan Falconidæ. PALEARCTIC REGION. INDIAN REGION. AUSTRALIAN REGION. Asia. Indo-Malay Islands. Celebes. Moluccan group. Papuan Islands. Timor group. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 No. FALCONIDÆ. Europe. Indian Asia. Chinese Asia. Malacca and Singapore. Sumatra. Java. Borneo. Philippines. Celebes. Sula Island. Batchian. Kaioa Island and Ternate. Gilolo. Morty Island. Bouru. Ceram and Amboyna. Goram and Matabello. Ké
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S141    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1868. On the raptorial birds of the Malay Archipelago. Ibis (n.s.) 4 (13): 1-27, pl. I.   Text   Image   PDF
. strepitans, Temm., Pl. Col. 174, 229. Hab. Singapore (Wall.), Java (Mus. Lugd.) Sumatra (Castl.). Var. minor, Schleg., Mus. P.-B. Oti, p. 13. Hab. Banka (Mus. Lugd.). 2. BUBO PHILIPPINENSIS, Kaup, Trans. Zool. Soc. iv. p. 244; Schleg., Mus. P.-B. Oti, p. 14. Hab. Philippine Islands (B. M.) KETUPU, Less. KETUPU JAVANENSIS, Less., Tr. d'Orn. p. 114; Strix cey-lonensis, Temm., Pl. Col. 74; Strix ketupu, Horsf., Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. p. 141. Ferruginea, supra perfusco varia, subtus nigro lineata, remigibus
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S142    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1868. Corrections of, and additions to, the catalogue of the raptorial birds of the Malay Archipelago. Ibis (n.s.) 4 (14): 215-216.   Text   Image   PDF
P. 7. After ACCIPITER RHODOGASTER, add ACCIPITTER STEVENSONI, Gurney, Ibis, 1863, p. 447, pl. xi.Hab. China, Singapore, Java. I had overlooked this, from its being headed Description of a new Hawk from China. P. 13. SPIZAETUS CIRRHATUS, omit Nisaetus alboniger) Blyth c. from among the synonyms. P. 14. After SPIZAETUS KIENERI, add SPIZAETUS PHILIPPENSIS, Gurney, in Gould's 'Birds of Asia' pt. 15.Hab. Philippine Islands. SPIZAETUS ALBONIGER (Blyth), Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1845, vol. xiv. p. 173
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S148    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. Notes on eastern butterflies (continued). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1869 (part IV): 321-349.   Text   Image   PDF
Sumatra specimen is less deeply coloured than that from Singapore, and the lower disco-cellular meets the median vein a little beyond the origin of its second branch, while in the darker Singapore form the two meet at the same point. The two forms are, in other respects, so much alike, that I hesitate to separate them. Genus ATELLA, Doubleday. I describe one new species of this small and simply-coloured genus, which now contains nine Eastern species, as in the following list:— 1. Phalanta, Drury
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S148    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. Notes on eastern butterflies (continued). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1869 (part IV): 321-349.   Text   Image   PDF
List of Species of Cirrochroa. 1. Aoris, Doubl. Gen. Diurn. Lep. pl. xxi. f. 2. N. India. 2. Thais, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. pt. i. p. 149. Java (W.), Moulmein, Ceylon. 3. Bajadeta, Moore. Cat. Lep. E. I. C. p. 150, pl. cxi a. f. 3. Java. 4. Malaya, Feld. Wien. Ent. Monats. iv. p. 399. Singapore, Sumatra (W.), Malay Peninsula. 5. Calypso, Wall. infrà. Borneo (Sarawak). 6. Clagia, Godt. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 816. Java (W.), Singapore (B. M.). 7. Tyche, Feld. Wien. Ent. Monats. v. p. 301. Mindoro. 8
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S148    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. Notes on eastern butterflies (continued). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1869 (part IV): 321-349.   Text   Image   PDF
varying much from closely-allied species to species. Here we have them as a sexual distinction; and we also find them varying in an unusual degree from species to species. It is also very interesting to remark, that in the two species, T. Robertsia and T. Viola, the Singapore variety is more highly coloured, and has the branches of the median veins more distant from the base of the wing than in the more rufous-tinged Sumatran specimens, showing a remarkable correlation between local
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S148    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. Notes on eastern butterflies (continued). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1869 (part IV): 321-349.   Text   Image   PDF
List of the species of Terinos. 1. Clarissa, Boisd. Sp. Gen. pl. ix. f. 4. Java, Borneo, Singapore (W.). 2. Nympha, Wall. infrà, p. 342. Borneo (W.). 3. Robertsia, Butl. Ann. Nat. Hist. 3rd Ser. xx. pl. viii. f. 2-4. Malacca, Sumatra (W.). 4. Viola, Wall. infrà, p. 343. Singapore, Sumatra (W.). 5. Terpander, Hewits. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 90. Borneo. 6. Taxiles, Hewits. l. c. p. 89, pl. x. f. 3, 4. Batchian, Gilolo (W.). 7. Abisares, Feld. Nov. Voy. p. 386. Celebes (W.). 8. Teuthras, Hewits
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S148    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. Notes on eastern butterflies (continued). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1869 (part IV): 321-349.   Text   Image   PDF
1. ELYMNIAS UNDULARIS. ♂. Papilio undularis, Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. pt. i. p. 127; Cramer, 256. A. B.; Melanitis undularis, Horsf. Cat. Lep. E. I. C. pl. iii. f. 24, viii. f. 8; Biblis undularis, Godt. Enc. Méth. ix. 326. ♀. Papilio protogenia, Cramer, 189. F. G.; Fabr. Ent. Syst. iii. pt. i. p. 117; Elymnias protogenia, Hübn. Verz. b. Schmett. n. 323; Biblis protogenia, Godt. Enc. Méth. ix. 327.Hab.—Singapore, Malacca, Borneo, Java, Lombock, Flores, Timor (Wall.); N. India (B. M.). The
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S148    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. Notes on eastern butterflies (continued). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1869 (part IV): 321-349.   Text   Image   PDF
, I have thought it better to keep it distinct; while the great variation that occurs in Bornean specimens, and their close approximation to those from Sumatra and Malacca, render it difficult to separate the forms of these islands. 5. ELYMNIAS MEHIDA. Melanitis Mehida, Hewits. Ex. Butt. iii. pl. li. f. 2, 3. (♂.)Hab.—Singapore (Coll. Wall., type). 6. ELYMNIAS EGIALINA. Melanitis Egialina, Feld. Nov. Voy. Lep. p. 452, pl. lxi. f. 7, 8.Hab.—Luzon (Coll. Feld.). 7. ELYMNIAS THYCANA, n. s. Near E
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S148    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. Notes on eastern butterflies (continued). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1869 (part IV): 321-349.   Text   Image   PDF
India, a peculiarity of distribution which is analagous to that of the anthropoid apes. 1. EURYTELA CASTELNAVI. Eurytela Castelnaui, Feld. Wien. Ent. Monats. 1860, p. 401; Nov. Voy. Lep. tab. lxi. f. 5, 6.Hab.—Singapore, Borneo (Wall.); Malay Peninsula (Feld.). A remarkable species, of a deep ultramarine blue, without gloss. 2. EURYTELA HORSFIELDI. ♂. Eurytela Horsfieldi, Boisd. Faun. Ent. Madagasc. p. 54. ♀ E. Stephensi, Boisd. lib. cit. p. 55.Hab.—Java. Though so different in colour, there can be
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S148    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. Notes on eastern butterflies (continued). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1869 (part IV): 321-349.   Text   Image   PDF
markings, each enclosing an obscure reddish spot. Beneath, upper wings dusky, the disc reddish-brown, the borders pale, a dusky streak parallel to the outer margin; lower wings pale brown, the markings as above, but the lunulate ring spots smaller, the outer border ashy brown. The female is like the male, but paler, especially beneath. Size of E. Coryta.Hab.—Singapore, Sumatra (Coll. Wall., type). This species has probably been confounded with E. Coryta, from which the even outline of the wings, and
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S148    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. Notes on eastern butterflies (continued). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1869 (part IV): 321-349.   Text   Image   PDF
Although very close to C. malaya, this species is sufficiently distinct both in outline and in characteristic markings. CIRROCHROA ORISSA. ♂. Felder, Wien. Ent. Monats. 1860, p. 399.Female. Differs from the male, above, in being of a more earthy-brown colour, and in the median portion of the upper-wing forming a transverse band of pale brownish-yellow. Beneath, as in the male, but a little paler, and the transverse band on the upper-wings yellowish instead of white.Hab.—Singapore (Wallace
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S148    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. Notes on eastern butterflies (continued). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1869 (part IV): 321-349.   Text   Image   PDF
. Singapore, Sumatra (W.), Malacca. 14. Luzonica, Feld. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 107. Luzon. 15. Mindanensis, Feld. Wien. Ent. Mon. vii. p. 106. Mindanao. 16. Cydippe, Linn. Clerck, Icon. pl. xxxvi. f. 1. Amboyna, Ceram (W.). 17. Bernsteinii, Feld. Nov. Voy. p. 379. Batchian, Gilolo, Morty (W.). 18. Chrysippe, Don. Ins. N. Holl. pl. xxiv. f. 1. Australia (W.). 19. Damasippe, Feld. Nov. Voy. p. 379. N. Guinea, Aru, Mysol (W.). TRANS. ENT. SOC. 1869.—PART IV. (AUGUST). 2 C [page] 33
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S154    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. Notes on the localities given in Longicornia Malayana, with an estimate of the comparative value of the collections made at each of them. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 3 (part VII): 691-696.   Text   Image   PDF
good localities for insects, and accordingly devoted most of my time to Ornithology. Many parts of the country are covered with fine forests, and ought to be very productive if well worked under favourable conditions.Singapore. My chief collecting ground was at Bukit-tima, a Roman Catholic Mission Station in the centre of the island. Here were several patches of forest on the tops of low hills, and on one of these, about a square mile in extent, I obtained nine-tenths of my Singapore collections. A
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S154    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. Notes on the localities given in Longicornia Malayana, with an estimate of the comparative value of the collections made at each of them. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 3 (part VII): 691-696.   Text   Image   PDF
520 Coleoptera). I collected for about two months in Singapore, a week of which was spent at Pulo Ubim, on the northern side of the island, and a poor locality. That the collecting ground was not nearly exhausted is proved by the fact, that on going to the same spot again in 1856, I obtained in eighteen days eighteen new species of Longicorns. My success was due to several favourable circumstances. The patch of forest I collected in was on tolerably level ground, with a moist soil, the trees
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S154    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. Notes on the localities given in Longicornia Malayana, with an estimate of the comparative value of the collections made at each of them. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 3 (part VII): 691-696.   Text   Image   PDF
spent six months in Batchian, and worked steadily all the time, yet I did not obtain as many species as in Singapore in two months. I impute this to a real deficiency of species in the Eastern compared with the [page] 69
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S156    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1873. Introduction. In: Smith, Frederick. 1873. A catalogue of the Aculeate Hymenoptera and Ichneumonidæ of India and the Eastern Archipelago. Journal of the Linnean Society, Zoology 11: 285-302.   Text   Image   PDF
which I made my collections.I reached Singapore at the end of April 1854, and spent six months between that island and the district of Malacca. In Singapore I chiefly collected at a spot about the centre of the island, where the low hills are crowned with patches of the lofty virgin forest that a few years before extended over the whole island. I also spent a week on the small island of Pulo-ubim, in the strait to the north of Singapore. The richness of these localities may be estimated from the
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S156    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1873. Introduction. In: Smith, Frederick. 1873. A catalogue of the Aculeate Hymenoptera and Ichneumonidæ of India and the Eastern Archipelago. Journal of the Linnean Society, Zoology 11: 285-302.   Text   Image   PDF
near 300 were Longicornes, and 216 species of Aculeate Hymenoptera, will give some idea of my collections in this spot.After a considerable delay in Singapore, waiting for a vessel, I visited the island of Lombock, which, being highly cultivated and possessing little forest vegetation, produced a very scanty harvest of insects—especially as my two months' stay there was chiefly occupied in obtaining the birds of the island, which were very numerous and interesting. At length, in September 1856, I
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S156    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1873. Introduction. In: Smith, Frederick. 1873. A catalogue of the Aculeate Hymenoptera and Ichneumonidæ of India and the Eastern Archipelago. Journal of the Linnean Society, Zoology 11: 285-302.   Text   Image   PDF
observed the larvæ of a small Homopterous insect (a species of Cercopidæ?), the perfect insects being found on the same plant. F. cruda and F. coxalis were found under bark; F. pallida had its nest under stones on the mountains of Celebes. The large Formica gigas is common in the forests of Singapore and Borneo among dead leaves and rotten timber. F. dorycus, an almost equally large species, was only taken at night, visiting my sugar-basin in New Guinea. Most of the other species of Formica were
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S156    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1873. Introduction. In: Smith, Frederick. 1873. A catalogue of the Aculeate Hymenoptera and Ichneumonidæ of India and the Eastern Archipelago. Journal of the Linnean Society, Zoology 11: 285-302.   Text   Image   PDF
houses. X. latipes makes long round holes in dead trees. The beautiful X. cærulea is common about the town of Singapore.True honey-bees are found in the western half of the archipelago, and in the south-east as far as Timor, where, however, it is possible they may have been introduced. A. dorsata and A. testacea both construct large combs suspended from the underside of the branches of lofty forest-trees. They sting very severely; [page] 29
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S224    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1873. Cave-deposits of Borneo. Nature 7 (181): 461-462.   Text   Image   PDF
with a recent tooth of Rhinoceros and two collections of miscellaneous specimens, appear to have been wrongly transhipped in Singapore, and I have never been able to trace their whereabouts. After considerable observation and experience I now wish to state with all frankness my belief that my work was not carried on as it should have been, and that the non-existence of ossiferous deposits in the Bornean caverns is very far from being a proven fact. The inquiry as conducted by myself was not
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S321    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1880. Popular natural history. Nature 21 (532): 232-235.   Text   Image   PDF
of which are perfectly perceptible 2 This is the form adopted for the tiger-pits made by the Chinese in Singapore. [page] 23
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S332.1    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1880. New Guinea. Nature 23 (581): 152-155.   Text   Image   PDF
heard at Sydney, and Dr. Beccari's intention to return to the same district, induced him to turn his attention to the south, where he had obtained from the natives the skin of a new bird of paradise, and where the lofty ranges of Mount Yule and Mount Stanley offered the prospect of an equally rich and still less known exploring ground. Accordingly, in December 1874, he reached Somerset (Cape York) by way of Singapore, with the intention of settling at Yule Island, which he had before fixed upon as
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S351    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1882. Review [of Rhopalocera Malayana by Distant, 1882]. Nature 26 (653): 6-7.   Text   Image   PDF
Wallace Online [page] 6 Rhopalocera Malayana: a Description of the Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula. By W. L. Distant. (London: W. L. Distant, care of West, Newman and Co., 54, Hatton Garden, E.C.)We have received the first part of this handsome work, in which it is proposed to describe and figure all the species of butterflies which inhabit the Malay Peninsula and the islands of Penang and Singapore. Forty-four coloured figures of butterflies are given in this part, occupying four plates of
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S615.2    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1904. The birds of paradise in the Arabian Nights, II. Independent Review 2 (8): 561-571.   Text   Image
the skins of birds-of-paradise, to the port of Macassar, whence the more western Malay and Javanese traders would convey these and various articles of commerce to the chief ports of Java, Sumatra, and the Malay Peninsula. From the latter ports they were distributed, as they are now from Singapore, to India and Persia on the one side, and to Siam and China on the other. We must also remember that the whole voyage from Singapore to the Aru Islands is through, perhaps, the calmest sea in the world
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S615.2    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1904. The birds of paradise in the Arabian Nights, II. Independent Review 2 (8): 561-571.   Text   Image
the skins of birds-of-paradise, to the port of Macassar, whence the more western Malay and Javanese traders would convey these and various articles of commerce to the chief ports of Java, Sumatra, and the Malay Peninsula. From the latter ports they were distributed, as they are now from Singapore, to India and Persia on the one side, and to Siam and China on the other. We must also remember that the whole voyage from Singapore to the Aru Islands is through, perhaps, the calmest sea in the world
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S615.2    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1904. The birds of paradise in the Arabian Nights, II. Independent Review 2 (8): 561-571.   Text   Image
it. Even the idea that the whole journey could be made by land, has a foundation in the remarkable circumstance, that for more than two thousand miles, from Singapore along the coasts of Sumatra and Java to Wetter Island, near the north-east end of Timor, the [page] 56
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S615.2    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1904. The birds of paradise in the Arabian Nights, II. Independent Review 2 (8): 561-571.   Text   Image
it. Even the idea that the whole journey could be made by land, has a foundation in the remarkable circumstance, that for more than two thousand miles, from Singapore along the coasts of Sumatra and Java to Wetter Island, near the north-east end of Timor, the [page] 56
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
of Papilio demolion from Singapore and Java. Figure 2 shows the abrupt bend over the base of the wing in Papilio miletus of Celebes compared with the slight curva- ture in the common Papilio sarpedon, which has almost exactly the same form from India to New Guinea and Australia. Figure 3 shows the elongated wing of Tachyris [page] 44
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
spent two years in Borneo, Malacca and Singapore, that I made a somewhat involuntary visit to these islands on my way to Macassar. Had I been able to obtain a passage direct to that place from Singapore, I should probably never have gone near them, and should have missed some of the most important discoveries of my whole expedition to the East. It was on the 13th of June, 1856, after a twenty days' passage from Singapore in the Kembang Djepoon (Rose [page] 23
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
CONTENTS. FIRST VOLUME. CHAP. PAGE I. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1 INDO-MALAY ISLANDS. II. SINGAPORE 31 III. MALACCA AND MOUNT OPHIR 39 IV. BORNEO THE ORANG-UTAN 54 V. BORNEO JOURNEY IN THE INTERIOR 101 VI. BORNEO THE DYAKS 137 VII. JAVA 148 VIII. SUMATRA 190 IX. NATURAL HISTORY OF THE INDO-MALAY ISLANDS. 215 THE TIMOR GROUP. X. BALI AND LOMBOCK 234 XI. LOMBOCK MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 255 XII. LOMBOCK HOW THE RAJAH TOOK THE CENSUS 276 XIII. TIMOR 288 XIV. NATURAL HISTORY OF THE TIMOR GROUP 316 [page] xvii
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
CHAPTER II. SINGAPORE. (A SKETCH OF THE TOWN AND ISLAND AS SEEN DURING SEVERAL VISITS FROM 1854 TO 1862.) FEW places are more interesting to a traveller from Europe than the town and island of Singapore, furnishing, as it does, examples of a variety of Eastern races, and of many different religions and modes of life. The government, the garrison, and the chief merchants are English; but the great mass of the population is Chinese, including some of the wealthiest merchants, the agriculturists
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
CHAPTER III. MALACCA AND MOUNT OPHIR. (JULY TO SEPTEMBER, 1854.) BIRDS and most other kinds of animals being scarce at Singapore, I left it in July for Malacca, where I spent more than two months in the interior, and made an excursion to Mount Ophir. The old and picturesque town of Malacca is crowded along the banks of the small river, and consists of narrow streets of shops and dwelling-houses, occupied by the descendants of the Portuguese, and by Chinamen. In the suburbs are the houses of
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
should visit us, and two of our men declared that they did one day see a rhinoceros. When our rice was finished, and our boxes full of specimens, we returned to Ayer-Panas, and a few days afterwards went on to Malacca, and thence to Singapore. Mount Ophir has quite a reputation for fever, and all our friends were astonished at our recklessness in staying so long at its foot; but we none of us suffered in the least, and I shall ever look back with pleasure to my trip, as being my first introduction
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
returned to Singapore I took with me the Malay lad named Ali, who subsequently accompanied me all over the Archipelago. Charles Allen preferred staying, at the Mission-house, and afterwards obtained employment in Sar wak and in Singapore, till he again joined me four years later at Amboyna in the Moluccas. [page] 13
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
copper instead of gold. The natives and the Portuguese have very naturally imagined, that where these fragments come from there must be more; and they have a report or tradition, that a mountain at the head of the ravine is almost pure copper, and of course of immense value. After much difficulty a company was at length formed to work the copper mountain, a Portuguese merchant of Singapore supplying most of the capital. So confident were they of the existence of the copper, that they thought it
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
Peninsula and Singapore, Borneo, Java, and Sumatra. [page] x
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
and China bazaars, and long suburbs of Chinese and Malay cottages. By far the most conspicuous of the various kinds of people in Singapore, and those which most attract the stranger's attention, are the Chinese, whose numbers and incessant activity give the place very much the appearance of a town in China. The Chinese merchant is generally a fat round-faced man with an important and business-like look. He wears the same style of clothing (loose white smock, and blue or black trousers) as the
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
for a person unassisted to get out of one. Formerly a sharp stake was stuck erect in the bottom; but after an unfortunate traveller had been killed by falling on one, its use was forbidden. There are always a few tigers roaming about Singapore, and they kill on an average a Chinaman every day, principally those who work in the gambir plantations, which are always made in newly-cleared jungle. We heard a tiger roar once or twice in the evening, and it was rather nervous work hunting for insects
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
of the inhabitants of Singapore. Although rather subject to fevers, it is not at present considered very unhealthy. The population of Malacca consists of several races. The ubiquitous Chinese are perhaps the most numerous, keeping up their manners, customs, and language; the indigenous Malays are next in point of numbers, and their language is the Lingua-franca of the place. Next [page] 4
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
CHAPTER VIII. SUMATRA. (NOVEMBER 1861 TO JANUARY 1862.) THE mail steamer from Batavia to Singapore took me to Muntok (or as on English maps, Minto ), the chief town and port of Banca. Here I stayed a day or two, till I could obtain a boat to take me across the straits, and up the river to Palembang. A few walks into the country showed me that it was very hilly, and full of granitic and laterite rocks, with a dry and stunted forest vegetation; and I could find very few insects. A good-sized
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
recently separated from it; for the adjacent district of Palembang is new land, being a great alluvial swamp formed by torrents from the mountains a hundred miles distant. Banca, on the other hand, agrees with Malacca, Singapore, and the intervening island of Lingen, in being formed of granite and laterite; and these have all most likely once formed an extension of the Malay peninsula. As the rivers of Borneo and Sumatra have been for ages filling up the intervening sea, we may be sure that
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
custom which Mahometan Malays never adopt. Fruit, tea, cakes, and sweetmeats were brought us; many questions were asked about our business and the state of trade in Singapore, and we then took a walk to look at the village. It was a very dull and dreary place; a collection of narrow lanes bounded by high mud walls, enclosing bamboo houses, into some of which we entered and were very kindly received. [page] 23
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
. Plants of the families Apocynaceæ and Euphorbiaceæ abound; but there is nothing that can be called a forest, and the whole country has a parched and desolate appearance, contrasting strongly with the lofty forest trees and perennial verdure of the Moluccas or of Singapore. The most conspicuous feature of the vegetation was the abundance of fine fan-leaved palms (Borassus flabelliformis), from the leaves of which are constructed the strong and durable water-buckets in general use, and which are much
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
CHAPTER XVI. CELEBES. (MACASSAR. JULY TO NOVEMBER, 1857.) I REACHED Macassar again on the 11th of July, and established myself in my old quarters at Mam jam, to sort, arrange, clean, and pack up my Aru collections. This occupied me a month; and having shipped them off for Singapore, had my guns repaired, and received a new one from England, together with a stock of pins, arsenic, and other collecting requisites, I began to feel eager for work again, and had to consider where I should spend my
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
occur which under a forced and unnatural system of cultivation have ruined the nutmeg planters of Singapore and Penang. Few cultivated plants are more beautiful than nutmeg-trees. They are handsomely shaped and glossy-leaved, growing to the height of twenty or thirty feet, and bearing small yellowish flowers. The fruit is the size and colour of a peach, but rather oval. It is of a tough fleshy consistence, but when ripe splits open, and shows the dark-brown nut within, covered with the crimson
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
vince, even those farthest in the interior, has a permanent Jesuit mission establishment, constantly kept up by fresh aspirants, who are taught the languages of the countries they are going to at Penang or Singapore. In China there are said to be near a million converts; in Tonquin and Cochin China, more than half a million. One secret of the success of these missions is the rigid economy practised in the expenditure of the funds. A missionary is allowed about 30l. a year, on which he lives in
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
such and such articles. The result was that his flock trusted and loved him, for they felt sure that he was their true friend, and had no ulterior designs in living among them. The island of Singapore consists of a multitude of small hills, three or four hundred feet high, the summits of many of which are still covered with virgin forest. The mission-house at Bukit-tima was surrounded by several of these wood-topped hills, which were much frequented by woodcutters and sawyers, and offered me an
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
available station is seized upon, and becomes the means of developing new forms of life especially adapted to occupy it. On reaching Sar wak early in December I found there would not be an opportunity of returning to Singapore till the latter end of January. I therefore accepted Sir James Brooke's invitation to spend a week with him and Mr. St. John at his cottage on Peninjauh. This is a very steep pyramidal mountain of crystalline basaltic rock, about a K 2 [page] 13
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