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S135    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1868. A catalogue of the Cetoniidae of the Malayan Archipelago, with descriptions of the new species. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part V): 519-601, pls. XI-XIV.   Text   Image   PDF
testaceous spot extending from the lateral margin to the sutural stria. Beneath immaculate; the sternal process long, incurved at the apex; anterior tibiæ with a flat tooth just below the apical spine. Length 9 lines.Hab. Malay Peninsula (Coll. Parry), Siam (Coll. Wall.). 9. HETERORHINA CONFUSA, Westwood. Heterorhina confusa, Westw. Arc. Ent. i. p. 139, pl. 36, f. 2. Gnathocera bimaculata, Gory Perch. Mon. Cet. p. 142, pl. 22, f. 3, (nec Cet. bimacula, Wied.)Hab. Java (Gory Perch.), India (Westw
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
just below the summit, where an overhanging rock forms a convenient shelter, and a little basin collects the trickling water. Here we put down our loads, and in a few minutes more stood on the summit of Mount Ophir, 4,000 feet above the sea. The top is a small rocky platform covered with rhododendrons and other shrubs. The afternoon was clear, and the view fine in its way ranges of hill and valley everywhere covered with interminable forest, with glistening rivers winding among them. In a distant
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
under an overhanging rock just below the cottage furnished us with refreshing baths and delicious drinking water, and the Dyaks brought us daily heaped-up baskets of Mangusteens and Lansats, two of the most delicious of the subacid tropical fruits. We returned to Sar wak for Christmas (the second I had spent with Sir James Brooke), when all the Europeans both in the town and from the out-stations enjoyed the hospitality of the Rajah, who possessed in a pre-eminent degree the art of making every
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S728    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1903. Man's place in the universe; a study of the results of scientific research in relation to the unity or plurality of worlds. London: Chapman & Hall.   Text   Image   PDF
sun would be sometimes too great and sometimes too little. In some parts of Africa, Australia, and India, the sandy soil becomes so hot that an egg can be cooked by placing it just below the surface. On the other hand, at an elevation of about 12,000 feet in lat. 40 it freezes every night, and throughout the day in all places sheltered from the sun. Now, both these temperatures are adverse to life, and if either of them persisted over a considerable portion of the earth, the development of life
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S730    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1907. Is Mars habitable? A critical examination of Professor Percival Lowell's Book "Mars and its canals," with an alternative explanation. London: Macmillan & Co., Ltd. And New York: The Macmillan Co.   Text   Image   PDF
radiation measured by the Bolometer, and to get the temperature of the radiating surface we must apply Stefan's law of the 4th power. Hence the temperature of the moon's dark surface will be 1 1/100 = 1/3 2 of the highest temperature (which we may take at the freezing-point, 491 F. abs.), or 154 F. abs., just below the liquefaction point of air. This is about 50 lower than the amount found by calculation from our most rapid radiation; and as this amount is produced in a few hours, it is not too
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S127    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1867. On the Pieridae of the Indian and Australian regions. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part III): 301-416, pls. 1-4.   Text   Image   PDF
dusky black above. This (with several other species) has been described by both Vollenhoven and Felder, in works dated the same year, but as that of Vollenhoven was first published and sold, I have been obliged to adopt his names. 32. Terias celebensis, n. sp. (Pl. VI. fig. 1, .) Male. Above, black, with a suborbicular yellow patch extending from near the costa of the upper wings to just below the cell of the lower wings, twice sinuated towards the apex of the uppers, elsewhere regularly curved
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S135    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1868. A catalogue of the Cetoniidae of the Malayan Archipelago, with descriptions of the new species. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part V): 519-601, pls. XI-XIV.   Text   Image   PDF
; epimera ochre-yellow; pygidium ochre-margined, leaving a central black spot; beneath, black, the sides of the body and abdomen with patches of rich golden-ochre, and more or less dotted with rufous pubescence; sternal process dilated, somewhat triangular in front; anterior tarsi with one strong lateral tooth just below the terminal spine. Length 8 9 lines.Hab. Batchian, Gilolo, Kaioa, Morty Island and Celebes (Coll. Wall.). This species varies in colour; a specimen from Batchian is rich brown, and
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S714    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1853. Narrative of travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro, with an account of the native tribes, and observations on the climate, geology, and natural history of the Amazon valley. London: Reeve & Co.   Text   Image   PDF
return with him. Senhor L. lent me a small canoe; and my two hunters, one of whom lived there, accompanied me. I took with me plenty of ammunition, a great box for my birds, some salt, hooks, mirrors, knives, etc., for the Indians, and left Gu a early one morning. Just below the village we turned into the river Isanna, a fine stream, about half a mile wide, and in the afternoon reached the mouth of the small river Cob ti (fish), on the south side, which we entered. We had hitherto seen the banks
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S714    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1853. Narrative of travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro, with an account of the native tribes, and observations on the climate, geology, and natural history of the Amazon valley. London: Reeve & Co.   Text   Image   PDF
, and cleaning our canoe and arranging our cargo, ready to start the next morning. In two days more we reached another village, called Juke ra Pic ma, or Salt Point, where we staid a day. I was well satisfied to find myself here considerably better, owing, I believe, to my having tried fasting as a last resource: for two days I had only taken a little farinha gruel once in the twenty-four hours. In a day and a half from Juke ra we reached Jauarit , a village situated just below the caxoeira of the
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S714    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1853. Narrative of travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro, with an account of the native tribes, and observations on the climate, geology, and natural history of the Amazon valley. London: Reeve & Co.   Text   Image   PDF
considerable quantities, the articles most coveted in return being fishhooks and red beads, of both of which I had a large stock. Just below the fall, the river is not more than two or three hundred yards wide; while above, it is half a mile, and contains several large islands. The large black pacu was abundant here, and, with other small fish, was generally brought us in sufficient quantity to prevent our recurring to fowls, which are considered by the traders to be the most ordinary fare a man can
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S714    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1853. Narrative of travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro, with an account of the native tribes, and observations on the climate, geology, and natural history of the Amazon valley. London: Reeve & Co.   Text   Image   PDF
at about 600 feet. My observations up the Rio Negro gave consistent results. At Castanheiro, about five hundred miles up, the temperature of boiling water was 212.4 , at the mouth of the Uaup s 212.2 , and at a point just below S o Carlos, 212.0 . This would not give more than 250 feet for the height of S o Carlos above Barra; and, as we have estimated this at 200 feet above the sea, the height of S o Carlos will become 450 feet, which I think will not be found far from the truth. The velocity
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S714    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1853. Narrative of travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro, with an account of the native tribes, and observations on the climate, geology, and natural history of the Amazon valley. London: Reeve & Co.   Text   Image   PDF
Rio Negro in general contain very little mica; in some places however that mineral is abundant, and exists in large plates. Veins of pure quartz are common, some of very great size; and numerous veins or dykes of granite, of a different colour or texture. The direction of these is generally nearer east and west, than north and south. Just below the falls of the Rio Negro are some coarse sandstone rocks, apparently protruding through the granite, dipping at an angle of 60 or 70 south-southwest
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
progression. About a fortnight afterwards I heard that one was feeding in a tree in the swamp just below the house, and, taking my gun, was fortunate enough to find it in the same place. As soon as I approached, it tried to conceal itself among the foliage; but I got a shot at it, and the second barrel caused it to fall down almost dead, the two balls having entered the body. This was a male, about half-grown, being scarcely three feet high. On April 26th, I [page] 6
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
than anything else, and it was impossible to free myself without assistance. When restless, it would struggle about with its hands up in the air trying to find something to take hold of, and, when it had got a bit of stick or rag in two or three of its hands, seemed quite happy. For want of something else, it would often seize its own feet, and after a time it would constantly cross its arms and grasp with each hand the long hair that grew just below the opposite shoulder. The great tenacity
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S715.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
the kind called by the Dyaks Mias Chappan, or Mias Pappan, which has the skin of the face broadened out to a ridge or fold at each side. His outstretched arms measured seven feet three inches across, and his height, measuring fairly from the top of the head to the heel, was four feet two inches. The body just below the arms was three feet two inches round, and was quite as long as a man's, the legs being exceedingly short in proportion. On examination we found he had been dreadfully wounded
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S715.2    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 2.   Text   Image   PDF
batu-angas (burnt rock). Just below my house is the fort, built by the Portuguese, below which is an open space to the beach, and beyond this the native town extends for about a mile to the north-east. About the centre of it is the palace of the Sultan, now a large untidy, half-ruinous building of stone. This chief is pensioned by the Dutch Government, but retains the sovereignty over the native population of the island, and of the northern part of Gilolo. The sultans [page]
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S715.2    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago: The land of the orang-utan, and the bird of paradise. A narrative of travel, with studies of man and nature. London: Macmillan and Co. Volume 2.   Text   Image   PDF
delight in a band of plaited grass tight round the arm just below the shoulder, to which they attach a bunch of hair or bright coloured feathers by way of ornament. The teeth of small animals, either alone, or alternately with black or white beads, form their necklaces, and sometimes bracelets also. For these latter, however, they prefer brass wire, or the black, horny, wing-spines of the cassowary, which they consider a charm. Anklets of brass or shell, and tight [page] 25
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S731.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. ed. 1908. Richard Spruce. Notes of a botanist on the Amazon and Andes. London: Macmillan & Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
great request for masts. When the bark of an Icica is wounded, a white milk flows slowly out and coagulates just below the wound, which does not heal up quickly as in most milky trees, but continues to distil for several months or even years. The Indians, therefore, when they come across these trees in the forest, gash them with their ter ados, in order that, when they revisit them some time afterwards, they may find a good lump of resin accumulated. Breo branco is brought to market, either in
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S731.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. ed. 1908. Richard Spruce. Notes of a botanist on the Amazon and Andes. London: Macmillan & Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
mother had only just left his side when (as it would seem) the snake sallied out of a thicket near by and bit him in the back of the leg just below the calf. He was taken home with all speed and gunpowder was applied to the wound and given him to drink. The grated skin of the buta (tonnina) was also given him, great faith being put by the Indians (apparently without any reason) in this remedy. Notwithstanding these applications, the wound speedily proved fatal. He was bitten at 1 P.M., and by three
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S731.2    Book:     Wallace, A. R. ed. 1908. Richard Spruce. Notes of a botanist on the Amazon and Andes. London: Macmillan & Co. Volume 2.   Text   Image   PDF
June 18. We slept in a chacra (shed) just below the worst fall, called Yurac-yacu (white water), because the water here bursts into foam over rocks strewed in the river at a narrow curve. An hour farther there is another similar mal paso (called Curi-yacu), where a stream comes in on the left bank, said to contain gold. Some way below Chasuta we passed, on the left bank, a considerable ravine with still black water called Yanac na-y cu (Ladder River), from its running over steps in its upper
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S127    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1867. On the Pieridae of the Indian and Australian regions. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part III): 301-416, pls. 1-4.   Text   Image   PDF
with a group of dusky atoms just below the discoidal cell, and another barely visible near the outer angle. Expanse of wings 2 9/10 in. Hab. Tondano, mountains of N. Celebes (Coll. Wall.). This fine species has the hind wings broad and elongated almost as in T. paulina, but it is most nearly allied to T. Jacquinotii. 23. Tachyris Jacquinotii, Lucas. Pieris Jacquinotii, Luc. Rev. et Mag. de Zool. 1852, p. 326, ; Voll. Mon. Pier. p. 43. P. zoe, Voll. Mon. Pier. p. 37, pl. 4, f. 5, . P. agave
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S135    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1868. A catalogue of the Cetoniidae of the Malayan Archipelago, with descriptions of the new species. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (ser. 3) 4 (part V): 519-601, pls. XI-XIV.   Text   Image   PDF
small dots; scutellum elongate, deeply punctured; elytra flat, very coarsely and deeply rugose-striate, a spot on the suture just below the scutellum, one on the humeral angle, and one just above the apical angle with a smaller spot within it, black; beneath, the sternum squamulated with black, and a black spot on each side; abdomen coarsely punctured, with a lateral row of spots, and a median double row, that in the last two segments confluent, black; antennæ, tarsi, and tips of the tibiæ black
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S714    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1853. Narrative of travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro, with an account of the native tribes, and observations on the climate, geology, and natural history of the Amazon valley. London: Reeve & Co.   Text   Image   PDF
. The next I fell in with were on the banks of the Amazon, on rocks covered at high water just below the little village of Serpa. These figures were principally of the human face, and are roughly cut into the hard rock, blackened by the deposit which takes place in the waters of the Amazon, as in those of the Orinooko. Again, at the mouth of the Rio Branco, on a little rocky island in the river, are numerous figures of men and animals of a large size scraped into the hard granitic rock. Near St
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S718.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1876. The geographical distribution of animals; with a study of the relations of living and extinct faunas as elucidating the past changes of the Earth's surface. London: Macmillan & Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
temperate China and Manchuria, except in the extreme west towards Cashmere, where the Mediterranean fauna will in like manner intervene. On a map of sufficiently large scale, therefore, it would be necessary to extend our present sub-region westward along the Himalayas, in a narrow strip just below the upper limits of forests. It is evident that the large number of Fringillidæ, Corvidæ, Troglodytidæ, and Paridæ, often of south Palæarctic forms, that abound in the higher Himalayas, are somewhat out of
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S721    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1880. Island life: or, the phenomena and causes of insular faunas and floras, including a revision and attempted solution of the problem of geological climates. London: Macmillan & Co.   Text   Image   PDF
the Himalayas there are numbers of birds which have very restricted ranges, but those of the Neilgherries are perhaps better known, several species of laughing thrushes and some other birds being found only on the summits of these mountains. The most wonderfully restricted ranges are, however, to be found among the humming-birds of tropical America. The great volcanic peaks of Chimborazo and Pichincha have each a peculiar species of humming-bird confined to a belt just below the limits of
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S721[2d]    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1892. Island life: or, the phenomena and causes of insular faunas and floras, including a revision and attempted solution of the problem of geological climates. Second and revised edition. London and New York: Macmillan and Co.   Text   PDF
. The most wonderfully restricted ranges are, however, to be found among the humming-birds of tropical America. The great volcanic peaks of Chimborazo and Pichincha have each a peculiar species of humming-bird confined to a belt just below the limits of perpetual snow, while the extinct volcano of Chiriqui in Veragua has a species confined to its wooded crater. One of the most strange and beautiful of the humming-birds (Loddigesia mirabilis) was obtained once only, more than forty years ago
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S727.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1900. Studies scientific and social. London: Macmillan & Co., Ltd. And New York: The Macmillan Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
nemo-philas of our gardens belong to the same family. In boggy places the handsome Greenland lousewort, an Arctic species, was plentiful, and in rocky crevices we found the moss campion (Silene acaulis), which is abundant on the Scotch and Welsh mountains. The next morning we fortunately determined to explore a lateral valley called Grizzly Gulch, which diverged to the north a mile above the hotel and led into a fine upland valley on the north side of Gray's Peak. Here, just below the timber-line
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S727.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1900. Studies scientific and social. London: Macmillan & Co., Ltd. And New York: The Macmillan Co. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
represented by one handsome and two small and rather scarce species; campanulas are scarce, and pinks are entirely absent; while buttercups and meadow-rues are by no means abundant. Instead of these flowers so familiar to the Alpine tourists, the most showy and widespread plants are the fine and long-spurred blue-and-white columbine, and the scarlet or crimson-bracted castilleias, which form sheets of beautifully contrasted colours, often covering wide mountain slopes either above or just below the
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S729.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1905. My life: A record of events and opinions. London: Chapman & Hall. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
these, at a height of perhaps ten or twelve feet, a long cylindrical beam was continually revolving with fixed beams on each side of it, both higher up and lower down. At regular intervals along the counter were great upright wooden stampers shod with iron at the bottom. When not in action these were supported so that they were about two feet above the counter, and just below them was a square hole. As we looked on a man would take a small canvas sack about two feet long, fill it quite full of
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S729.1    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1905. My life: A record of events and opinions. London: Chapman & Hall. Volume 1.   Text   Image   PDF
, and being thus heaped up and obliged to flow away at right angles to its former course. But the most remarkable and interesting of the natural phenomena of the upper valley is Porth-yr-Ogof (the gateway of the cavern), where the river Mellte runs for a quarter of a mile underground. The entrance is under a fine arch of limestone rock overhung with trees, as shown in the accompanying photograph. The outlet is more irregular and less lofty, and is also less easily accessible; but the valley just
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S023    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1856. Some account of an infant "Orang-utan." Annals and Magazine of Natural History (ser. 2) 17 (101): 386-390.   Text   Image   PDF
it would take hold of its own feet, and latterly its constant practice was to cross its arms like a little Napoleon, and with each hand seize hold of the long hair just below its opposite shoulder. The excessive tenacity of its grasp however soon diminished. The constant and powerful exercise of the limbs in the young Mias, remaining as it does for many hours each day with the whole weight of its body supported by its four extremities from the body of its mother, must induce a development of the
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S037    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1857. On the Great Bird of Paradise, Paradisea apoda, Linn.; 'Burong mati' (Dead Bird) of the Malays; 'Fanéhan' of the natives of Aru. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (ser. 2) 20 (120): 411-416.   Text   Image   PDF
did not observation of the living bird prove it) that this is the natural position of the long plumes. They all spring from an oval fold of the skin, about an inch in length, situated just below the elbow or first joint of the wing. On this point they turn as on a hinge, and admit only of being laid down closed beneath the wing, or erected and expanded in the manner described, which position they take of their own accord, if the bird is held up by the legs, with the head inclining a little
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S316    Book contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1880. Islands, as illustrating the laws of the geographical distribution of animals. In: Science Lectures for the People. Eleventh Series (Manchester and London), No.1: 1-18.   Text   Image
at a depth of 90 fathoms. These are arctic shells, now inhabiting cold regions, and they always live either between the tide marks or just below the lowest tides, so that these shells found in 90 fathoms of water were once living on the sea-shore. These facts render it perfectly certain—even if we had no land animals to tell us so—that our country was once connected with the Continent. Therefore we are not surprised to find that our animals are practically identical with those of the Continent
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S441.2    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1891. English and American flowers, II. Flowers and forests of the Far West. Fortnightly Review (n.s.) 50 (300): 796-810.   Text   Image
we found the moss campion (Silene acaulis), which is abundant on the Scotch and Welsh mountains. The next morning we fortunately determined to explore a lateral valley called Grizzly Gulch, which diverged to the north a mile above the hotel and led into a fine upland valley on the north side of Gray's Peak. Here, just below the timber-line, we found a [page] 80
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S441.2    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1891. English and American flowers, II. Flowers and forests of the Far West. Fortnightly Review (n.s.) 50 (300): 796-810.   Text   Image
buttercups and meadow-rues are by no means abundant. Instead of these flowers so familiar to the Alpine tourist, the most showy and widespread plants are the fine long-spurred blue and white columbine, and the scarlet or crimson-bracted castilleias, which form sheets of beautifully contrasted colours, often covering wide mountain slopes either above or just below the timber-line; numerous purple or blue penstemons; fine blue polemoniums and [page] 80
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S720    Book:     Wallace, A. R. ed. 1879. Australasia. Stanford’s compendium of geography and travel: based on Hellwald’s ‘Die Erde und ihre Völker’. Edited and extended by Alfred R. Wallace, F.R.G.S., Author of the ‘Malay Archipelago,’ ‘Geographical distribution of animals,’ etc. With Ethnological appendix by A.H. Keane, M.A.I. London: Edward Stanford (Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel).   Text   Image   PDF
boundary, at the junction of the Dumaresq and Macintyre rivers. 99. STURT. South-west. Joins Nicholson and Waradgery counties. Lies north of the Murrumbidgee, about 100 miles from its mouth. 100. TAILA. South-west, on Victoria boundary, just below the confluence of the Lachlan and Murray rivers. 101. TARA. South-west corner of the colony, on the Murray river, below the confluence of the Darling. 102. TOWNSEND. South, on Victoria boundary, midway between the coast and the western boundary of the
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S479    Periodical contribution:     Wallace, A. R. 1894. On malformation from pre-natal influence on the mother. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 63: 798-799.   Text   Image
a photograph and attested by a perfectly competent observer, will, I think, interest all biologists. The account was sent me by Dr. Richard Budd, M.D., F.R.C.P., Physician to the North Devon Infirmary. The following is a copy of his statement:—'In the year 1801 a gamekeeper named Croucher was admitted to the North Devon Infirmary in consequence of a gunshot wound of the right forearm. The arm was amputated just below the elbow. Croucher left the infirmary before the wound was quite healed, in
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S729[2d]    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1908. My life: A record of events and opinions. New edition, condensed and revised. London: Chapman & Hall.   Text   PDF
. Immediately above these, at a height of perhaps ten or twelve feet, a long cylindrical beam was continually revolving with fixed beams on each side of it, both higher up and lower down. At regular intervals along the counter were great upright wooden stampers shod with iron at the bottom. When not in action these were supported so that they were about two feet above the counter, and just below them was a square hole. As we looked on a man would take a small canvas sack about two feet long, fill
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S729[2d]    Book:     Wallace, A. R. 1908. My life: A record of events and opinions. New edition, condensed and revised. London: Chapman & Hall.   Text   PDF
outlet is more irregular and less lofty, and is also less easily accessible; but the valley just below has wooded banks, open glades, and fantastic rocks near the cave, forming one of the most charmingly picturesque spots imaginable. I have already described one of the curious standing stones near the source of the Llia river, but there is a still more interesting example about a mile and a half north-west of Ystrad-fellte, where the old Roman road the Sarn Helen crosses over the ridge between
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John van Wyhe, ed. 2012-. Wallace Online (http://wallace-online.org/) National University of Singapore